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546 May 1728 by  Pope
Pope
Benedict XIII

Attributes

Papal vestments Papal tiara

Patronage Diocese
Diocese
of Sovana

Other popes named Gregory

Gregory VII (Latin: Gregorius VII; c. 1015 – 25 May 1085), born Hildebrand of Sovana
Sovana
(Italian: Ildebrando da Soana), was Pope
Pope
from 22 April 1073 to his death in 1085. One of the great reforming popes, he is perhaps best known for the part he played in the Investiture Controversy, his dispute with Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
that affirmed the primacy of papal authority and the new canon law governing the election of the pope by the College of Cardinals. He was also at the forefront of developments in the relationship between the emperor and the papacy during the years before he became pope. He was the first pope in several centuries to rigorously enforce the Western Church's ancient policy of celibacy for the clergy and also attacked the practice of simony. Gregory VII excommunicated Henry IV three times. Consequently, Henry IV would appoint Antipope Clement III
Antipope Clement III
to oppose him in the political power struggles between the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and his empire. Hailed as one of the greatest of the Roman pontiffs after his reforms proved successful, Gregory VII was, during his own reign, despised by some for his expansive use of papal powers.[2] Because this Pope
Pope
was such a prominent champion of papal supremacy, his memory was evoked on many occasions in later generations, both positively and negatively, often reflecting later writers' attitude to the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and the papacy. Beno of Santi Martino e Silvestro, who opposed Gregory VII in the Investiture Controversy, leveled against him charges such as necromancy, torture of a former friend upon a bed of nails, commissioning an attempted assassination, executions without trials, unjust excommunication, doubting the Real Presence of the Eucharist, and even burning the Eucharist. This was eagerly repeated by later opponents of the Catholic Church, such as the English Protestant John Foxe.[3] Twentieth century British writer Joseph McCabe describes Gregory as a "rough and violent peasant, enlisting his brute strength in the service of the monastic ideal which he embraced."[4] In contrast, the modern historian of the 11th century H. E. J. Cowdrey
H. E. J. Cowdrey
writes, "[Gregory VII] was surprisingly flexible, feeling his way and therefore perplexing both rigorous collaborators ... and cautious and steady-minded ones ... His zeal, moral force, and religious conviction, however, ensured that he should retain to a remarkable degree the loyalty and service of a wide variety of men and women."[5]

Contents

1 Biography

1.1 Early life

2 Pontificate

2.1 Election to the papacy 2.2 Vestments

3 Start of conflict with the Emperor

3.1 Pope
Pope
and Emperor depose each other 3.2 Walk to Canossa 3.3 Second excommunication of Henry IV 3.4 Exile from Rome

4 Papal policy to the rest of Europe

4.1 England 4.2 Normans in the Kingdom of Sicily 4.3 Claims of Papal sovereignty 4.4 France 4.5 Distant Christian countries 4.6 Byzantine Empire

5 Internal policy and reforms 6 Doctrine of the Eucharist 7 Death 8 Legacy 9 See also 10 References

10.1 Sources

11 Further reading 12 External links

Biography[edit] Early life[edit] Gregory was born as Ildebrando di Soana in Sovana, in the county of Grosseto, now southern Tuscany, central Italy. He was said to be of humble origins. One finds in Johann Georg Estor
Johann Georg Estor
the claim that he was the son of a blacksmith.[6] As a youth he was sent to study in Rome
Rome
at the monastery of St. Mary on the Aventine,[7] where, according to some unconfirmed sources, his uncle was abbot of a monastery on the Aventine Hill.[8] Among his masters were the erudite Lawrence, archbishop of Amalfi, and Johannes Gratianus, the future Pope
Pope
Gregory VI.[9] When the latter was deposed by Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
Henry III and exiled to Germany, Hildebrand followed him to Cologne. According to some chroniclers, Hildebrand moved to Cluny
Cluny
after Gregory's death, which occurred in 1048;[8] his declaration to have become a monk at Cluny
Cluny
must not be taken literally. He then accompanied Abbot
Abbot
Bruno of Toul to Rome; there, Bruno was elected Pope, choosing the name Leo IX, and named Hildebrand as deacon and papal administrator. Leo sent Hildebrand as his legate to Tours
Tours
in France
France
in the wake of the controversy created by Berengar of Tours. At Leo's death, the new Pope, Victor II, confirmed him as legate, while Victor's successor Stephen IX
Stephen IX
sent him and Anselm of Lucca to Germany to obtain recognition from the Empress Agnes de Poitou. Stephen died before being able to return to Rome, but Hildebrand was successful; he was then instrumental in overcoming the crisis caused by the Roman aristocracy's election of an antipope, Benedict X,[10] who, thanks also to Agnes's support, was replaced by the Bishop of Florence, Nicholas II. With the help of 300 Norman knights sent by Richard of Aversa, Hildebrand personally led the conquest of the castle of Galeria Antica[11] where Benedict had taken refuge. Between 1058 and 1059, he was created archdeacon of the Roman church, becoming the most important figure in the papal administration.[12] He was again the most powerful figure behind the election of Anselm of Lucca the Elder as Pope Alexander II
Pope Alexander II
in the papal election of October 1061.[8] The new pope put forward the reform program devised by Hildebrand and his followers. In his years as papal advisor, Hildebrand had an important role in the reconciliation with the Norman kingdom of southern Italy, in the anti-German alliance with the Pataria
Pataria
movement in northern Italy
Italy
and, above all, in the introduction of a law which gave the cardinals exclusive rights concerning the election of a new pope. Pontificate[edit] Election to the papacy[edit]

Papal styles of Pope
Pope
Gregory VII

Reference style His Holiness

Spoken style Your Holiness

Religious style Holy Father

Posthumous style Saint

Pope
Pope
Gregory VII was one of the few popes elected by acclamation. On the death of Alexander II on 21 April 1073, as the obsequies were being performed in the Lateran Basilica, there arose a loud outcry from the clergy and people: "Let Hildebrand be pope!", "Blessed Peter has chosen Hildebrand the Archdeacon!" Hildebrand immediately fled, and hid himself for some time, thereby making it clear that he had refused the uncanonical election in the Liberian Basilica.[13] He was finally found at the Church of San Pietro in Vincoli, to which a famous monastery was attached, and elected Pope
Pope
there in legal form by the assembled cardinals, with the due consent of the Roman clergy, amid the repeated acclamations of the people.[14] It was debated at the time—and remains debated by historians—whether this extraordinary outburst in favour of Hildebrand by clergy and people was wholly spontaneous or could have been the result of some pre-concerted arrangements.[15] According to Benizo, Bishop of Sutri, a supporter of Hildebrand, the outcry was begun by the actions of Cardinal Ugo Candidus, Cardinal Priest of S. Clemente, who rushed into a pulpit and began to declaim to the people.[16] Certainly, the mode of his election was highly criticized by his opponents. Many of the charges brought may have been expressions of personal dislike, liable to suspicion from the very fact that they were not raised to attack his promotion until several years later. But it is clear from Gregory's own account of the circumstances of his election,[17] in his Epistle 1 and Epistle 2, that it was conducted in a very irregular fashion. First of all, it was contrary to the Constitution of Pope
Pope
promulgated and approved in the Roman Synod of 607, which forbade a papal election to begin until the third day after a pope's burial.[18] Cardinal Ugo's intervention was contrary to the Constitution of Nicholas II, which affirmed the exclusive right to name candidates to the Cardinal Bishops; finally, the requirement of Pope Nicholas II that the Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
be consulted in the matter was ignored.[19] However, what ultimately turned the tide in favor of validity of Gregory VII's election was the second election at S. Pietro in Vincoli and the acceptance by the Roman people. Gregory VII's earliest pontifical letters clearly acknowledge this fact, and thus helped defuse any doubt about his election as immensely popular. On 22 May 1073, the Feast of Pentecost, he received ordination as a priest, and he was consecrated a bishop and enthroned as pope on 29 June (the Feast of St. Peter's Chair).[20] In the decree of election, those who had chosen him as Bishop of Rome proclaimed Gregory VII “a devout man, a man mighty in human and divine knowledge, a distinguished lover of equity and justice, a man firm in adversity and temperate in prosperity, a man, according to the saying of the Apostle, of good behavior, blameless, modest, sober, chaste, given to hospitality, and one that ruleth well his own house; a man from his childhood generously brought up in the bosom of this Mother Church, and for the merit of his life already raised to the archidiaconal dignity”. “We choose then”, they said to the people, “our Archdeacon
Archdeacon
Hildebrand to be pope and successor to the Apostle, and to bear henceforward and forever the name of Gregory” (22 April 1073).[21] Gregory VII's first attempts in foreign policy were towards a reconciliation with the Normans of Robert Guiscard; in the end the two parties did not meet. After a failed call for a crusade to the princes of northern Europe,[22] and after obtaining the support of other Norman princes such as Landulf VI of Benevento and Richard I of Capua, Gregory VII was able to excommunicate Robert in 1074. In the same year Gregory VII summoned a council in the Lateran palace, which condemned simony and confirmed celibacy for the Church's clergy. These decrees were further stressed, under menace of excommunication, the next year (24–28 February).[22] In particular, Gregory decreed in this second council that only the Pope
Pope
could appoint or depose bishops or move them from see to see, an act which was later to cause the Investiture Controversy. Vestments[edit] Writing in L’Osservatore Romano, Agostino Paravicini Bagliani says that the popular belief that St. Pius V (1566–72) was the first Pope to wear the white cassock is inaccurate. Instead, writes Bagliani, the first document that mentions the Pope’s white cassock dates from Gregory X in 1274. “The first pope to be solemnly invested with the red mantle immediately after his election was Gregory VII (1076),” the scholar added, noting that traditionally “from the moment of his election the Pope
Pope
put on vestments of two colors: red (cope, mozzetta, shoes); and white (cassock, socks).”[23][24] Start of conflict with the Emperor[edit] See also: Investiture Controversy The main focus of the ecclesiastico-political projects of Gregory VII is to be found in his relationship with Germany. Since the death of Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
Henry III, the strength of the German monarchy had been seriously weakened, and his son Henry IV had to contend with great internal difficulties. This state of affairs was of material assistance to Gregory VII. His advantage was further enhanced by the fact that in 1073 Henry IV was only twenty-three years of age. In the two years following the election of Gregory VII, Henry was forced by the Saxon Rebellion
Saxon Rebellion
to come to amicable terms with him at any cost. Consequently, in May 1074 he did penance at Nuremberg—in the presence of the papal legates—to atone for his continued friendship with the members of his council who had been banned by Gregory, took an oath of obedience, and promised his support in the work of reforming the Church. This attitude, however, which at first won him the confidence of the pope, was abandoned as soon as he defeated the Saxons
Saxons
at the First Battle of Langensalza on 9 June 1075 (also called the Battle of Homburg or Battle of Hohenburg). Henry then tried to reassert his rights as the sovereign of northern Italy without delay. He sent Count Eberhard to Lombardy
Lombardy
to combat the Patarenes; nominated the cleric Tedaldo to the archbishopric of Milan, thus settling a prolonged and contentious question; and finally tried to establish relations with the Norman duke Robert Guiscard. Gregory VII replied with a rough letter, dated 8 December 1075, in which, among other charges, he accused the German king of breaching his word and with his continued support of excommunicated councilors. At the same time, he sent a verbal message suggesting that the enormous crimes which would be laid to his account rendered him liable, not only to the ban of the Church, but to the deprivation of his crown. Gregory did this at a time when he himself was confronted by a reckless opponent in the person of Cencio I Frangipane, who on Christmas
Christmas
night surprised him in church and carried him off as a prisoner, though on the following day Gregory was released.[20] Pope
Pope
and Emperor depose each other[edit] The reprimands of the Pope, couched as they were in such an unprecedented form, infuriated Henry and his court, and their answer was the hastily convened national council in Worms, Germany
Germany
(the synod of Worms), which met on 24 January 1076. In the higher ranks of the German clergy Gregory had many enemies, and a Roman cardinal, Hugo Candidus, once on intimate terms with him but now his opponent, had hurried to Germany
Germany
for the occasion. All the accusations with regard to Gregory that Candidus could come up with were well received by the assembly, which committed itself to the resolution that Gregory had forfeited the papacy. In one document full of accusations, the bishops renounced their allegiance to Gregory. In another, Henry pronounced him deposed, and the Romans were required to choose a new pope.[25] The council sent two bishops to Italy, and they procured a similar act of deposition from the Lombard bishops at the synod of Piacenza. Roland of Parma informed the pope of these decisions, and he was fortunate enough to gain an opportunity for speech in the synod, which had just assembled in the Lateran Basilica, to deliver his message there announcing the dethronement. For the moment the members were frightened, but soon such a storm of indignation was aroused that it was only due to the moderation of Gregory himself that the envoy was not murdered.

Pope
Pope
Saint Gregory VII

An engraving of Pope
Pope
Gregory VII saying Mass, from Little Pictorial Lives of the Saints (1878)

Pope

Born c. 1020 Sovana, Tuscany, Holy Roman Empire

Died 25 May 1085 Salerno, Duchy of Apulia

Venerated in Catholic Church

Beatified 1584, Rome, Papal States
Papal States
by Pope
Pope
Gregory XIII

Canonized 24 May 1728, Rome, Papal States
Papal States
by Pope
Pope
Benedict XIII

Feast 25 May

Attributes

Papal vestments Papal tiara

Patronage Diocese
Diocese
of Sovana

On the following day, 22 February 1076, Pope
Pope
Gregory VII pronounced a sentence of excommunication against Henry IV with all due solemnity, divested him of his royal dignity and absolved his subjects from the oaths they had sworn to him. The act of excommunicating a king was incredibly bold, but not without precedent. Pope
Pope
Zachary had brought significant challenges to rulers of his era a full 200 years earlier, in a move Thomas Hobbes
Thomas Hobbes
would famously call "one of the greatest abuses of the papacy in the history of the Church".[citation needed] This sentence purported to eject a ruler from the Church and to strip him of his crown. Whether it would produce this effect, or would be an idle threat, depended not so much on Gregory VII as on Henry's subjects, and, above all, on the German princes. Contemporary evidence suggests that the excommunication of Henry made a profound impression both in Germany
Germany
and Italy. Thirty years before, Henry III had deposed three claimants to the papacy, and thereby rendered an acknowledged service to the Church. When Henry IV tried to copy this procedure he was less successful, as he lacked the support of the people. In Germany
Germany
there was a rapid and general feeling in favor of Gregory, and the princes took the opportunity to carry out their anti-regal policy under the cloak of respect for the papal decision. When at Whitsun
Whitsun
the king proposed to discuss the measures to be taken against Gregory VII in a council of his nobles, only a few made their appearance; the Saxons
Saxons
snatched at the golden opportunity for renewing their rebellion, and the anti-royalist party grew in strength from month to month.[20] Walk to Canossa[edit] Main article: Walk to Canossa The situation now became extremely critical for Henry. As a result of the agitation, which was zealously fostered by the papal legate Bishop Altmann of Passau, the princes met in October at Trebur
Trebur
to elect a new German ruler. Henry, who was stationed at Oppenheim
Oppenheim
on the left bank of the Rhine, was only saved from the loss of his throne by the failure of the assembled princes to agree on the question of his successor. Their dissension, however, merely induced them to postpone the verdict. Henry, they declared, must make reparation to Gregory VII and pledge himself to obedience; and they decided that, if, on the anniversary of his excommunication, he still lay under the ban, the throne should be considered vacant. At the same time they decided to invite Gregory VII to Augsburg
Augsburg
to decide the conflict. These arrangements showed Henry the course to be pursued. It was imperative under any circumstances and at any price to secure his absolution from Gregory before the period named, otherwise he could scarcely foil his opponents in their intention to pursue their attack against him and justify their measures by an appeal to his excommunication. At first he attempted to attain his ends by an embassy, but when Gregory rejected his overtures he took the celebrated step of going to Italy
Italy
in person. Gregory VII had already left Rome
Rome
and had intimated to the German princes that he would expect their escort for his journey on 8 January 1077 to Mantua. But this escort had not appeared when he received the news of Henry's arrival. Henry, who had travelled through Burgundy, had been greeted with enthusiasm by the Lombards, but resisted the temptation to employ force against Gregory. He chose the unexpected course of forcing Gregory to grant him absolution by doing penance before him at Canossa, where he had taken refuge. The Walk to Canossa soon became legendary. The reconciliation was only effected after prolonged negotiations and definite pledges on the part of Henry, and it was with reluctance that Gregory VII at length gave way, considering the political implications. If Gregory VII granted absolution, the diet of princes in Augsburg
Augsburg
in which he might reasonably hope to act as arbitrator would either become useless, or, if it met at all, would change completely in character. It was impossible, however, to deny the penitent re-entrance into the Church, and Gregory VII's religious obligations overrode his political interests. The removal of the ban did not imply a genuine reconciliation, and no basis was gained for a settlement of the main question that divided Henry and Gregory: that of investiture. A new conflict was inevitable from the very fact that Henry considered the sentence of deposition repealed along with that of excommunication. Gregory, on the other hand, was intent on reserving his freedom of action and gave no hint on the subject at Canossa.[20] Second excommunication of Henry IV[edit] That the excommunication of Henry IV was simply a pretext for the opposition of the rebellious German nobles is transparent. Not only did they persist in their policy after his absolution, but they took the more decided step of setting up a rival ruler in the person of Duke Rudolf of Swabia at Forchheim
Forchheim
in March 1077. At the election, the papal legates present observed the appearance of neutrality, and Gregory VII himself sought to maintain this attitude during the following years. His task was made easier in that the two parties were of fairly equal strength, each trying to gain the upper hand by getting the pope on their side. But the result of his non-committal policy was that he largely lost the confidence of both parties. Finally he decided for Rudolf of Swabia after his victory at the Battle of Flarchheim on 27 January 1080. Under pressure from the Saxons, and misinformed as to the significance of this battle, Gregory abandoned his waiting policy and again pronounced the excommunication and deposition of King Henry on 7 March 1080.[26] But the papal censure now proved a very different thing from the one four years before. It was widely felt to be an injustice, and people began to ask whether an excommunication pronounced on frivolous grounds was entitled to respect. The king, now more experienced, took up the struggle with great vigour. He refused to acknowledge the ban on the ground of its illegality. He then summoned a Council, which met at Brixen, and on 16 June, pronounced Gregory deposed. It nominated the archbishop Guibert (Wibert) of Ravenna
Ravenna
as his successor. On 25 June 1080, Guibert was elected Pope
Pope
by the thirty bishops who were present at the King's command.[27] On 15 October 1080, Pope
Pope
Gregory advised the clergy and laity to elect a new archbishop in place of the "mad" and "tyrannical" schismatic Wibert.[28] In 1081, Henry opened the conflict against Gregory in Italy. Gregory's support had by that time weakened,[29] and thirteen cardinals had deserted him.[20] To make matters worse, Rudolf of Swabia died on 16 October of the same year. Henry was now in a stronger position and Gregory a weaker one. A new claimant, Hermann of Luxembourg, was put forward in August 1081, but his personality was not suitable for a leader of the Gregorian party in Germany, and the power of Henry IV was at its peak. The pope's chief military supporter, Matilda of Tuscany,[30] blocked Henry's armies from the western passages over the Apennines, so he had to approach Rome
Rome
from Ravenna. Rome
Rome
surrendered to the German king in 1084, and Gregory thereupon retired into the exile of the Castel Sant'Angelo.[31] Gregory refused to entertain Henry's overtures, although the latter promised to hand over Guibert as a prisoner, if the sovereign pontiff would only consent to crown him emperor. Gregory, however, insisted as a necessary preliminary that Henry should appear before a Council and do penance. The emperor, while pretending to submit to these terms, tried hard to prevent the meeting of the bishops. A small number assembled nonetheless, and, in accordance with their wishes, Gregory again excommunicated Henry. Henry, upon receipt of this news, again entered Rome
Rome
on 21 March to see that his supporter, Archbishop Guibert of Ravenna, was enthroned as Pope
Pope
Clement III on 24 March 1084. Henry was crowned emperor by his creature, but Robert Guiscard, with whom in the meantime Gregory had formed an alliance, was already marching on the city. Henry was compelled to flee towards Civita Castellana. Exile from Rome[edit] The pope was liberated, but after the Roman people became incensed by the excesses of his Norman allies, he was compelled to withdraw to Monte Cassino,[32] and later to the castle of Salerno
Salerno
by the sea, where he died on 25 May 1085.[31] Three days before his death, he withdrew all the censures of excommunication that he had pronounced, except those against the two chief offenders – Henry and Guibert. Papal policy to the rest of Europe[edit] England[edit] In 1076, Gregory appointed a bishop to the see of Dol, who was neither the candidate of William the Conqueror, who had recently been conducting military operations in north-eastern Brittany, nor the bishop elect of the chapter of the church of St. Samson of Dol, who was supported by the nobles in Dol opposing William.[33] The candidate chosen was Gilduin, who was below the canonical minimum age for consecration as a bishop, and therefore Gregory pleaded that he could not sanction his appointment. Instead Gregory consecrated Abbot
Abbot
Yvo (Evêne) of S. Melanii, one of the procurators sent to Rome, and he also bestowed on him the pallium of a metropolitan archbishop, on the condition that he would submit to the judgment of the Holy See when the long-standing case of the right of Dol to be a metropolitan and use the pallium was finally decided.[34] King William felt himself so safe that he interfered autocratically with the management of the church, forbade the bishops to visit Rome, made appointments to bishoprics and abbeys, and showed little anxiety when the pope lectured him on the different principles which he had as to the relationship of spiritual and temporal powers, or when he prohibited him from commerce or commanded him to acknowledge himself a vassal of the apostolic chair. William was particularly annoyed at Gregory's insistence on dividing ecclesiastical England into two provinces, in opposition to William's need to emphasize the unity of his newly acquired kingdom. Gregory's increasing insistence on church independence from secular authority in the matter of clerical appointments became a more and more contentious issue.[35] He sought as well to compel the episcopacy to look to Rome
Rome
for validation and direction, demanding the regular attendance of prelates in Rome.[36] Gregory had no power to compel the English king to an alteration in his ecclesiastical policy, so he was compelled to ignore what he could not approve, and even considered it advisable to assure King William of his particular affection.[37] On the whole, William's policy was of great benefit to the Church.[38] Normans in the Kingdom of Sicily[edit] The relationship of Gregory VII to other European states was strongly influenced by his German policy, since the Holy Roman Empire, by taking up most of his energies, often forced him to show to other rulers the very moderation which he withheld from the German king. The attitude of the Normans brought him a rude awakening. The great concessions made to them under Nicholas II were not only powerless to stem their advance into central Italy, but failed to secure even the expected protection for the papacy. When Gregory VII was hard pressed by Henry IV, Robert Guiscard
Robert Guiscard
left him to his fate, and only intervened when he himself was threatened with German arms. Then, on the capture of Rome, he abandoned the city to his troops, and the popular indignation evoked by his act brought about Gregory's exile. Claims of Papal sovereignty[edit] In the case of several countries, Gregory VII tried to establish a claim of sovereignty on the part of the Papacy, and to secure the recognition of its self-asserted rights of possession. On the ground of "immemorial usage", Corsica and Sardinia were assumed to belong to the Roman Church. Spain, Hungary and Croatia were also claimed as her property, and an attempt was made to induce the king of Denmark to hold his realm as a fief from the pope. In his treatment of ecclesiastical policy and ecclesiastical reform, Gregory did not stand alone, but found powerful support: in England Archbishop Lanfranc
Lanfranc
of Canterbury
Canterbury
stood closest to him; in France
France
his champion was Bishop Hugh de Dié, who afterwards became Archbishop of Lyon.[20][39] France[edit] Philip I of France, by his practice of simony and the violence of his proceedings against the Church, provoked a threat of summary measures. Excommunication, deposition and the interdict appeared to be imminent in 1074. Gregory, however, refrained from translating his threats into actions, although the attitude of the king showed no change, for he wished to avoid a dispersion of his strength in the conflict soon to break out in Germany. Pope
Pope
Gregory attempted to organize a crusade into Spain, led by Count Ebles II of Roucy.[40] Distant Christian countries[edit] Gregory, in fact, established some sort of relations with every country in Christendom; though these relations did not invariably realize the ecclesiastico-political hopes connected with them. His correspondence extended to Poland, Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
and Bohemia. He unsuccessfully tried to bring Armenia into closer contact with Rome.[41][citation needed] Byzantine Empire[edit] Gregory was particularly concerned with the East. The schism between Rome
Rome
and the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
was a severe blow to him, and he worked hard to restore the former amicable relationship. Gregory successfully tried to get in touch with the emperor Michael VII. When the news of the Muslim attacks on the Christians in the East filtered through to Rome, and the political embarrassments of the Byzantine emperor increased, he conceived the project of a great military expedition and exhorted the faithful to participate in recovering the Church of the Holy Sepulchre – foreshadowing the First Crusade.[31] In his efforts to recruit for the expedition, he emphasized the suffering of eastern Christians, arguing western Christians had a moral obligation to go to their aid.[42] Internal policy and reforms[edit] Main article: Gregorian Reform His lifework was based on his conviction that the Church was founded by God and entrusted with the task of embracing all mankind in a single society in which divine will is the only law; that, in her capacity as a divine institution, she is supreme over all human structures, especially the secular state; and that the pope, in his role as head of the Church, is the vice-regent of God on earth, so that disobedience to him implies disobedience to God: or, in other words, a defection from Christianity. But any attempt to interpret this in terms of action would have bound the Church to annihilate not merely a single state, but all states. Thus Gregory VII, as a politician wanting to achieve some result, was driven in practice to adopt a different standpoint. He acknowledged the existence of the state as a dispensation of Providence, described the coexistence of church and state as a divine ordinance, and emphasized the necessity of union between the sacerdotium and the imperium. But at no period would he have dreamed of putting the two powers on an equal footing; the superiority of church to state was to him a fact which admitted of no discussion and which he had never doubted. He wished to see all important matters of dispute referred to Rome; appeals were to be addressed to himself; the centralization of ecclesiastical government in Rome
Rome
naturally involved a curtailment of the powers of bishops. Since these refused to submit voluntarily and tried to assert their traditional independence, his papacy is full of struggles against the higher ranks of the clergy. Pope
Pope
Gregory VII was critical in promoting and regulating the concept of modern university as his 1079 Papal Decree ordered the regulated establishment of cathedral schools that transformed themselves into the first European universities.[43] This battle for the foundation of papal supremacy is connected with his championship of compulsory celibacy among the clergy and his attack on simony. Gregory VII did not introduce the celibacy of the priesthood into the Church, but he took up the struggle with greater energy than his predecessors. In 1074, he published an encyclical, absolving the people from their obedience to bishops who allowed married priests. The next year he enjoined them to take action against married priests, and deprived these clerics of their revenues. Both the campaign against priestly marriage and that against simony provoked widespread resistance.[20]

Wax funeral effigy of Gregory VII under glass, Salerno
Salerno
cathedral

His writings treat mainly of the principles and practice of Church government. They may be found in Mansi's collection under the title "Gregorii VII registri sive epistolarum libri".[44] Doctrine of the Eucharist[edit] Gregory VII was seen by Pope
Pope
Paul VI
Paul VI
as instrumental in affirming the tenet that Christ
Christ
is present in the Blessed Sacrament. Gregory's demand that Berengarius
Berengarius
perform a confession of this belief[45] was quoted in Pope
Pope
Paul VI's historic 1965 encyclical Mysterium fidei:[46]

I believe in my heart and openly profess that the bread and wine that are placed on the altar are, through the mystery of the sacred prayer and the words of the Redeemer, substantially changed into the true and proper and lifegiving flesh and blood of Jesus Christ
Christ
our Lord, and that after the consecration they are the true body of Christ.[47]

This profession of faith began a "Eucharistic Renaissance" in the churches of Europe as of the 12th century.[46] Death[edit] Pope
Pope
Gregory VII died in exile in Salerno; the epitaph on Gregory VII's sarcophagus in the city's Cathedral says: "I have loved justice and hated iniquity; therefore, I die in exile."[7][48] Legacy[edit] Gregory VII was beatified by Pope Gregory XIII
Pope Gregory XIII
in 1584 and canonized on 24 May 1728 by Pope
Pope
Benedict XIII.[15] See also[edit]

Biography portal Christianity portal History portal

Concordat of Worms Dictatus papae
Dictatus papae
(1075–87) First Council of the Lateran Libertas ecclesiae
Libertas ecclesiae
(1079) List of Catholic saints List of popes

References[edit]

^ Cowdrey, p. 28. ^ Beno, Cardinal Priest of Santi Martino e Silvestro. Gesta Romanae ecclesiae contra Hildebrandum. c. 1084. In K. Francke, MGH Libelli de Lite II (Hannover, 1892), pp. 369–373. ^ "The acts and monuments of John Foxe", Volume 2 ^ McCabe, Joseph. The Popes and their Church (1918). London: Watts & Co. Section I, Chapter V: The Papacy at its Height. ^ Cowdrey, H.E.J., Pope
Pope
Gregory VII 1073–1085, (Clarendon, Oxford, 1998) 495–496. ^ Johann Georg Estor, Probe einer verbesserten Heraldic (Giessen 1728), "vorrede": Das Pabst Hildebrand ein Zimmermanns Sohn gewesen, we noch der Pater Daniel in der netten Historie von Franckreich geglaubet, rechnete der Pater Maimburg und Pater Pagi nicht unbillig zu eben dieser Ordnung. Francesco Pagi, Breviarium historico-chronologico criticum Tomus II (Antwerp 1717), p. 417, attributes to Cardinal Baronius the notion that the father was a faber, but that Papebroch considered him to be of noble stock. ^ a b Fr. Paolo O. Pirlo, SHMI (1997). "St. Gregory VII". My First Book
Book
of Saints. Sons of Holy Mary Immaculate - Quality Catholic Publications. p. 105. ISBN 971-91595-4-5.  ^ a b c Butler, Alban. "St. Gregory VII., Pope
Pope
and Confessor", The Lives of the Saints, Vol. V, 1866. The monastery would have been that of S. Gregorio Magno. ^ Cowdrey, p. 29. ^ According to the sources, feeling he was nearing his end, Stephen had his cardinals swear that they would wait for Hildebrand's return to Rome
Rome
before electing his successor.Paravicini Bagliani, Agostino (December 2008). "Una carriera dietro le quinte". Medioevo (143): 70.  ^ "La città perduta di Galeria" ^ G. B. Borino, "L' arcidiaconato di Ildebrando," Studi Gregoriani 3 (1948), 463–516. ^ The Annales of Berthold, the follower of Hermannus Augiensis, in Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Scriptorum Volume 5 (Hannover 1844), p. 276: Quo audito sese imparem tanto honori immo oneri reputans, inducias respondendi vix imploravit; et sic fuga elapsus aliquot dies ad Vincula sancti Petri occultatus latuit. Tandem vix inventus et ad apostolicam sedem vi perductus.... ^ Philippus Jaffé (editor), Regesta pontificum Romanorum editio secunda Tomus I (Leipzig 1885), p. 198. Sede Vacante 1073 (Dr. J. P. Adams). ^ a b  Thomas Oestreich (1913). " Pope
Pope
St. Gregory VII". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  ^ Bonizo of Sutri, in Monumenta Germaniae Historica, 6, Libelli 1, Libelli de Lite I (Hannover, 1891), p. 601 (ed. E. Dummler). Carl Mirbt, Die Publizistik im Zeitalter Gregors VII (Leipzig 1894), pp. 42–43. ^ J. P. Migne (editor), Patrologia Latina Volume 148, columns 235–237. ^ Liber Pontificalis, in Monumenta Germaniae Historica Scriptores, Volume 5 (Hannover 1844), p. 164 (ed. Mommsen), p. 164: Hic fecit constitutum in ecclesia beati Petri, in quo sederunt episcopi LXXII, presbiteri Romani XXXIII, diaconi et clerus omnis, sub anathemate, ut nullus pontificem viventem aut episcopum civitatis suae praesumat loqui aut partes sibi facere nisi tertio die depositionis eius adunato clero et filiis ecclesiae, tunc electio fiat, et quis quem voluerit habebit licentiam eligendi sibi sacerdotem. ^ The Annales of Lambertus of Hersfeld, in Monumenta Germaniae Historica Scriptorum 5 (1844), p. 194, states that Gregory did wait for a reply from the Emperor: cogi tamen nullo modo potuisse, ut ordinari se permitteret, donec in electionem suam tam regem quam principes Teutonici regni consensisse certa legatione cognosceret. Whether he got it, or whether the response was positive, is another matter. ^ a b c d e f g  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Gregory (Popes)/Gregory VII". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University
University
Press.  ^ Mansi, "Conciliorum Collectio", XX, 60. ^ a b Paravicini Bagliani, Agostino (December 2008). "Sia fatta la mia volontà". Medioevo (143): 76.  ^ "Vatican newspaper examines history of red, white papal garb : News Headlines". Catholic Culture. 2013-09-02. Retrieved 2014-01-28.  ^ "L'Osservatore Romano". Osservatoreromano.va. Retrieved 2014-01-28.  ^ Letter to Gregory VII (24 January 1076) ^ Emerton, pp. 149–154. ^ Philippus Jaffe, Regesta pontificum Romanorum I, editio altera (Leipzig 1885), p. 649. Guibert continued to maintain his pretensions as pope until his death in September, 1100. Otto Köhncke, Wibert von Ravenna
Ravenna
(Papst Clemens III) (Leipzig 1888). ^ Philippus Jaffé (editor) Bibliotheca rerum Germanicarum Tomus II: Monumenta Gregoriana (Berolini 1865), pp. 443–444 (Regestum, Book VIII, 13). ^ He complained in a letter to King Alfonso of Leon and Castile in 1081 that he had a large number of detractors, whose complaints were widely spread, and whom he names as "liars": Jaffe Bibliotheca, pp. 470–473. ^ Robinson (1978), p. 100. ^ a b c Peters 1971, p. 33. ^ Ferdinand Gregorovius, History of the City of Rome
Rome
in the Middle Ages (tr. A. Hamilton) Volume IV (London 1896), pp. 245–255. Horace K. Mann, The Lives of the Popes in the Middle Ages Volume VII (London 1910), pp. 162–165. ^ De Fougerolles, Paula. " Pope
Pope
Gregory VII, the Archbishopric of Dol, and the Normans", Anglo-Norman Studies XXI, (Christopher Harper-Bill, ed.), Boydell & Brewer, 1999 ISBN 9780851157450 ^ Philippus Jaffe (editor) Bibliotheca rerum Germanicarum Tomus II: Monumenta Gregoriana (Berolini 1865), pp. 247-249 (Registrum IV.4 and 5, 27 September 1076). B. Hauréau (editor), Gallia christiana XIV (Paris 1856), 1046-1047. ^ H. R. Loyn, "William's Bishops: Some further thoughts," Anglo-Norman Studies 10 (1988), 222-235. ^ Philippus Jaffe (editor) Bibliotheca rerum Germanicarum Tomus II: Monumenta Gregoriana (Berolini 1865), pp. 318-320; and Gregory's complaint to William, Archbishop of Rouen in 1080, who paid no attention to demands that he come to Rome: pp. 469-470. Likewise, in Regestum IV. 9, Gregory informed the Archbishop of Sens that he would excommunicate the Bishop of Orleans unless he turned up in Rome: pp. 253-254 (2 November 1076) ^ Emerton, pp. 154-156 (24 April 1080). Migne, Patrologia Latina Vol. 148, pp. 565-567. ^ David
David
C. Douglas, William the Conqueror
William the Conqueror
(Berkeley-Los Angeles 1964), pp. 317-345, especially 323, 336-339. ^ Benedictines of S. Maur (editors), Gallia christiana IV (Paris 1728), pp. 97-109. ^ Bernard F. Reilly, The Contest of Christian and Muslim Spain 1031–1157, (Blackwell Publishing Inc., 1995), 69. ^ Jacob
Jacob
G. Ghazarian, The Armenian Kingdom in Cilicia During the Crusades: The Integration of Cilician Armenians with the Latins, 1080-1393 (Psychology Press, 2000), pp. 81-82; 188-193. ^ https://apholt.com/2016/11/14/pope-gregory-vii-on-the-plight-of-eastern-christians-prior-to-the-first-crusade/ ^ Thomas Oestreich (1913). " Pope
Pope
St. Gregory VII". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. ^ Mansi, "Gregorii VII registri sive epistolarum libri." Sacrorum Conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio. Florence, 1759 ^ J. De Montclos, Lanfranc
Lanfranc
et Bérenger. La controverse eucharistique du XIe siècle (Leuven 1971). ^ a b The History of Eucharistic Adoration by John A Hardon 2003 ISBN 0-9648448-9-3 pp. 4–10 ^ Vatican website: Mysterium fidei ^ Latin epitaph: Dilexi iustitiam et odivi iniquitatem propterea morior in exilio. This is a reworking of the well-known Ps. 44.8 Dilexísti justítiam, et odísti iniquitátem : proptérea unxit te Deus, Deus tuus, óleo lætítiæ præ consórtibus tuis. Together with Ps 44. 2, Eructávit cor meum verbum bonum : dico ego ópers mea Regi, it forms the Introit of the former of the two Masses of the Common of a virgin not a martyr. The grammatical variation on 'Thou didst love justice and hate iniquity', the original of which was said in apostrophe to the canonised virgin not a martyr, whose feast is being celebrated. Gregory (or his eulogizers), therefore, was likely quoting from a familiar liturgical text. See also: Paul Egon Hübinger, Die letzten Worte Papst Gregors VII: 164. Sitzung am 20. Januar 1971 in Düsseldorf (Rheinish-Westfälisch Akademie der Wissenschaften, Geisteswissenschaften. Vorträge, G 185, 1973. Springer-Verlag, 2013).

Sources[edit]

Cowdrey, H.E.J., Pope
Pope
Gregory VII 1073–1085, (Clarendon, Oxford, 1998) Peters, Edward, ed. (1971). The First Crusade. Philadelphia: University
University
of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0812210174.   This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Gregory (Popes)/Gregory VII". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University
University
Press.   This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Oestreich, Thomas (1913). " Pope
Pope
St. Gregory VII". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.  Villegas-Ariristizabal, Thomas (2018).  Unknown parameter wstitle= ignored (help); Unknown parameter Vol= ignored (volume= suggested) (help); Unknown parameter Journal= ignored (journal= suggested) (help); Missing or empty title= (help) [DOI: 10.1177/0971945817750508]

Further reading[edit]

Paul von Bernried, Canon of Regensburg, "S. Gregorii VII Vita," J.P. Migne (ed.), Patrologiae Cursus Completus Series Latina Tomus CXLVIII: Sancti Gregorii VII Epistolae et Diplomata Pontificia (Paris 1878), 39–104. Bonizo of Sutri, "Liber ad amicum", in Philippus Jaffé (editor) Bibliotheca rerum Germanicarum Tomus II: Monumenta Gregoriana (Berolini 1865), pp. 577–689. Watterich, Johann M. (editor) (1862). Pontificum Romanorum Vitae ab aequalibus conscriptae Tomus I. Leipzig: Wilhelm Engelmann. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Macdonald, Allan John (1932). Hildebrand: A Life of Gregory VII. London: Methuen.  Mathew, Arnold Harris (2013) [1910]. The Life and Times of Hildebrand, Pope
Pope
Gregory VII. St. Gabriel
Gabriel
Theological Press.  Emerton, Ephraim (1932). The correspondence of Pope
Pope
Gregory VII: Selected letters from the Registrum. New York: Columbia University Press. OCLC 1471578.  Kuttner, S. (1947). 'Liber Canonicus: a note on the Dictatus Papae', Studi Gregoriani 2 (1947), 387–401. Capitani, O. "Esiste un' «età gregoriana» ? Considerazioni sulle tendenze di una storiografia medievistica," Rivista di storia e letteratura religiosa 1 (1965), pp. 454–481. Capitani, O. (1966). Immunità vescovili ed ecclesiologia in età "pregregoriana" e "gregoriana". L'avvio alla "Restaurazione, Spoleto. Robinson, Ian Stuart. (1978). Authority and Resistance in the Investiture Contest: the Polemical Literature of the Late Eleventh Century. Manchester University
University
Press.  Gatto, L. (1968). Bonizo di Sutri ed il suo Liber ad Amicum Pescara. Knox, Ronald (1972). "Finding the Law: Developments in Canon Law during the Gregorian Reform," Studi Gregoriani 9 (1972) 419–466. Gilchrist, J. T. (1972). "The Reception of Pope
Pope
Gregory VII into the Canon Law (1073–1141)." Zeitschrift für Rechtsgeschichte: Kanonistische Abteilung, 59 (1973), 35–82. Capitani, O. (1984). L'Italia medievale nei secoli di trapasso: la riforma della Chiesa (1012–1122). Bologna. Fuhrmann, H. (1989). "Papst Gregor VII. und das Kirchenrecht. Zum Problem des Dictatus papae," Studi Gregoriani XIII, pp. 123–149, 281–320. Cowdrey, H. E. J. (1998). Pope
Pope
Gregory VII, 1073-1085. Oxford: Clarendon Press.  Golinelli, Paolo (1991). Matilde e i Canossa
Canossa
nel cuore del Medioevo. Milano: Mursia. Leyser, Karl (1994). Communications and Power in Medieval Europe: The Gregorian Revolution and Beyond. London: The Hambledon Press. ISBN 0826430287.  Capitani, Ovidio (2000), "Gregorio VII, santo," in Enciclopedia dei Papi. Roma: Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana. Robinson, I. S. (2003). Henry IV of Germany
Germany
1056-1106 (revised ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University
University
Press. ISBN 0521545900.  Förster, Thomas (2011). Bonizo von Sutri als gregorianischer Geschichtsschreiber. Hannover: Hahnsche Buchhandlung. . Monumenta Germaniae Historica. Studien und Texte, 53. Capitani, Ovidio; (ed. Pio Berardo) (2015). Gregorio VII : il papa epitome della chiesa di Roma. Spoleto : Centro Italiano di Studi sull'Alto Medioevo. Wickham, Chris (2015). Medieval Rome. Stability and Crisis of a City, 900–1150. Oxford: Oxford University
University
Press. ISBN 9780199684960.  Villegas-Aristizábal, Lucas, " Pope
Pope
Gregory VII and Count Eblous II of Roucy’s Proto-Crusade in Iberia c. 1073", Medieval History Journal 21.1 (2018), 1–24. doi:10.1177/0971945817750508

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gregorius VII.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Pope
Pope
Gregory VII

Women's Biography: Matilda of Tuscany, countess of Tuscany, duchess of Lorraine, contains several of his letters to his supporter, Matilda of Tuscany. Database of the Letters of Pope
Pope
Gregory VII: Which letter is in which collection? Literature by and about Pope
Pope
Gregory VII in the German National Library catalogue Works by and about Pope
Pope
Gregory VII in the Deutsche Digitale Bibliothek (German Digital Library) "Gregorius VII papa". Repertorium "Historical Sources of the German Middle Ages" (Geschichtsquellen des deutschen Mittelalters). 

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