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Pope
Pope
Damasus I (/ˈdæməsəs/; c. 305 – 11 December 384) was Pope of the Catholic Church, from October 366 to his death in 384. He presided over the Council of Rome
Rome
of 382 that determined the canon or official list of Sacred Scripture.[1] He spoke out against major heresies in the church (including Apollinarianism
Apollinarianism
and Macedonianism) and encouraged production of the Vulgate
Vulgate
Bible
Bible
with his support for St. Jerome. He helped reconcile the relations between the Church of Rome
Rome
and the Church of Antioch, and encouraged the veneration of martyrs. As well as various prose letters and other pieces Damasus was the author of Latin
Latin
verse which modern scholars find "lame and frigid". Alan Cameron describes his epitaph for a young girl called Projecta (of great interest to scholars as the Projecta Casket
Projecta Casket
in the British Museum may have been made for her) as "a tissue of tags and clichés shakily strung together and barely squeezed into the meter". [2] Damasus has been described as "the first society Pope",[3] and was apparently a member of a group of Iberian Christians, largely related to each other, who were close to the Iberian Theodosius I.[4] A number of images of "DAMAS" in gold glass cups probably represent him and seem to be the first contemporary images of a pope to survive, though there is no real attempt at a likeness. "Damas" appears with other figures, including a Florus who may be Projecta's father. It has been suggested that Damasus or another of the group commissioned and distributed these to friends or supporters, as part of a programme "insistently inserting his episcopal presence in the Christian (and barely Christian!) landscape".[5] He is recognized as a saint by the Catholic Church; his feast day is December 11.[6]

Contents

1 Background 2 Early life 3 Succession crisis 4 Papacy

4.1 Council of Rome
Rome
of 382 and the Biblical canon 4.2 St. Jerome, the Vulgate
Vulgate
and the Canon

4.2.1 Letter of Jerome
Jerome
to Damasus

4.3 Relations with the Eastern Church 4.4 Devotion to the martyrs

5 See also 6 References 7 Literature 8 External links

Background[edit] His life coincided with the rise of Emperor Constantine I and the reunion and re-division of the Western and Eastern Roman Empires, which is associated with the legitimization of Christianity and its later adoption as the official religion of the Roman state in 380. The reign of Gratian, which coincided with Damasus' papacy, forms an important epoch in ecclesiastical history, since during that period (359–383), Catholic Christianity for the first time became dominant throughout the empire. Under the influence of Ambrose, Gratian prohibited pagan worship at Rome, refused to wear the insignia of the pontifex maximus as unbefitting a Christian, removed the Altar of Victory from the Senate at Rome
Rome
and confiscated its revenues, despite protests from the pagan members of the Senate. Emperor Gratian
Gratian
also forbade legacies of real property to the Vestals
Vestals
and abolished other privileges belonging to them and to the pontiffs. Early life[edit] Pope
Pope
Damasus I was born at Rome
Rome
around 305.[7][8] Damasus' parents were Antonius, who became a priest at the Church of St. Lawrence (San Lorenzo) in Rome, and his wife Laurentia. Both parents originally come from the region of Lusitania. Damasus began his ecclesiastical career as a deacon in his father’s church, where he went on to serve as a priest. This later became the basilica of Saint
Saint
Lawrence outside the Walls in Rome.[9] During Damasus' early years, Constantine I rose to rule the Western Roman Empire. As emperor, he issued the Edict of Milan
Edict of Milan
(313), which granted religious freedom to Christians in all parts of the Roman Empire. A crisis precipitated by the rejection of religious freedom by Licinius, Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire, in favor of paganism resulted in a civil war in 324 that placed Constantine firmly in control of a reunited Empire. This led to the establishment of Christian religious supremacy in Constantinople
Constantinople
and gradually led to a See in that city which sought to rival the authority of the Roman See. Damasus was most likely in his twenties at the time. When Pope Liberius
Pope Liberius
was banished by Emperor Constantius II
Constantius II
to Berea in 354, Damasus was archdeacon of the Roman church and followed Liberius into exile, though he immediately returned to Rome. During the period before Liberius' return, Damasus had a great share in the government of the church.[10] Succession crisis[edit] In the early Church, bishops were customarily elected by the clergy and the people of the diocese. While this simple method worked well in a small community of Christians unified by persecution, as the congregation grew in size, the acclamation of a new bishop was fraught with division, and rival claimants and a certain class hostility between patrician and plebeian candidates unsettled some episcopal elections. At the same time, 4th-century emperors expected each new pope-elect to be presented to them for approval, which sometimes led to state domination of the Church's internal affairs. Following the death of Pope Liberius
Pope Liberius
on 24 September 366, Damasus succeeded to the Papacy amidst factional violence. The deacons and laity, supported Liberius' deacon Ursinus. The upper-class former partisans of Felix, who had ruled during Liberius' exile, supported the election of Damasus. The two were elected simultaneously (Damasus' election was held in San Lorenzo in Lucina). J. N. D. Kelly
J. N. D. Kelly
states that Damasus hired a gang of thugs that stormed the Julian Basilica, carrying out a three-day massacre of the Ursinians.[11] Thomas Shahan
Thomas Shahan
says details of this scandalous conflict are related in the highly prejudiced "Libellus Precum" (P.L., XIII, 83-107), a petition to the civil authority on the part of Faustinus and Marcellinus, two anti-Damasan presbyters.[12] Such was the violence and bloodshed that the two prefects of the city were called in to restore order, and after a first setback, when they were driven to the suburbs and a massacre of 137 was perpetrated in the basilica of Sicininus (the modern Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore), the prefects banished Ursinus to Gaul.[13] There was further violence when he returned, which continued after Ursinus was exiled again. Church historians such as St. Jerome
Jerome
and Rufinus, championed Damasus. At a synod in 378, Ursinus was condemned and Damasus exonerated and declared the true pope. The former antipope continued to intrigue against Damasus for the next few years and unsuccessfully attempted to revive his claim on Damasus's death. Ursinus was among the Arian party in Milan, according to Ambrose.[14] Papacy[edit] Damasus faced accusations of murder and adultery with a married woman[15] in his early years as Pope. Edward Gibbon
Edward Gibbon
writes, "The enemies of Damasus styled him Auriscalpius Matronarum, the ladies' ear-scratcher."[16] The neutrality of these claims has come into question with some suggesting that the accusations were motivated by the schismatic conflict with the supporters of Arianism. Damasus I was active in defending the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
against the threat of schisms. In two Roman synods (368 and 369) he condemned Apollinarianism
Apollinarianism
and Macedonianism, and sent legates to the First Council of Constantinople
Constantinople
that was convoked in 381 to address these heresies.[17] Council of Rome
Rome
of 382 and the Biblical canon[edit] One of the important works of Pope
Pope
Damasus was to preside in the Council of Rome
Rome
of 382 that determined the canon or official list of Sacred Scripture. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, states: A council probably held at Rome
Rome
in 382 under St. Damasus gave a complete list of the canonical books of both the Old Testament and the New Testament
New Testament
(also known as the 'Gelasian Decree' because it was reproduced by Gelasius in 495), which is identical with the list given at Trent. American Catholic priest and historian William Jurgens stated: "The first part of this decree has long been known as the Decree of Damasus, and concerns the Holy Spirit and the seven-fold gifts. The second part of the decree is more familiarly known as the opening part of the Gelasian Decree, in regard to the canon of Scripture: De libris recipiendis vel non recipiendis. It is now commonly held that the part of the Gelasian Decree dealing with the accepted canon of Scripture is an authentic work of the Council of Rome
Rome
of 382 A.D. and that Gelasius edited it again at the end of the fifth century, adding to it the catalog of the rejected books, the apocrypha. It is now almost universally accepted that these parts one and two of the Decree of Damasus are authentic parts of the Acts of the Council of Rome
Rome
of 382 A.D. (Jurgens, Faith of the Early Fathers) St. Jerome, the Vulgate
Vulgate
and the Canon[edit] Pope
Pope
Damasus appointed St Jerome
Jerome
as his confidential secretary. Invited to Rome
Rome
originally to a synod of 382 convened to end the schism of Antioch, he made himself indispensable to the pope, and took a prominent place in his councils. Jerome
Jerome
spent three years (382–385) in Rome
Rome
in close intercourse with Pope
Pope
Damasus and the leading Christians. Writing in 409, Jerome
Jerome
remarked, "A great many years ago when I was helping Damasus, bishop of Rome
Rome
with his ecclesiastical correspondence, and writing his answers to the questions referred to him by the councils of the east and west..."[18] In order to put an end to the marked divergences in the western texts of that period, Damasus encouraged the highly respected scholar Jerome to revise the available Old Latin
Latin
versions of the Bible
Bible
into a more accurate Latin
Latin
on the basis of the Greek New Testament
New Testament
and the Septuagint, resulting in the Vulgate. According to Protestant biblical scholar, F.F. Bruce, the commissioning of the Vulgate
Vulgate
was a key moment in fixing the biblical canon in the West.[19] Jerome
Jerome
devoted a very brief notice to Damasus in his De Viris Illustribus, written after Damasus' death: "he had a fine talent for making verses and published many brief works in heroic metre. He died in the reign of the emperor Theodosius at the age of almost eighty".[20] Letter of Jerome
Jerome
to Damasus[edit] Further information: Letter of Jerome
Jerome
to Pope
Pope
Damasus The letters from Jerome
Jerome
to Damasus are examples of the primacy of the See of Peter:

Yet, though your greatness terrifies me, your kindness attracts me. From the priest I demand the safe-keeping of the victim, from the shepherd the protection due to the sheep. Away with all that is overweening; let the state of Roman majesty withdraw. My words are spoken to the successor of the fisherman, to the disciple of the cross. As I follow no leader save Christ, so I communicate with none but your blessedness, that is with the chair of Peter. For this, I know, is the rock on which the church is built! This is the house where alone the paschal lamb can be rightly eaten. This is the ark of Noah, and he who is not found in it shall perish when the flood prevails. But since by reason of my sins I have betaken myself to this desert which lies between Syria and the uncivilized waste, I cannot, owing to the great distance between us, always ask of your sanctity the holy thing of the Lord. Consequently I here follow the Egyptian confessors who share your faith, and anchor my frail craft under the shadow of their great argosies. I know nothing of Vitalis; I reject Meletius; I have nothing to do with Paulinus. He that gathers not with you scatters; he that is not of Christ is of Antichrist.[21]

Relations with the Eastern Church[edit] The Eastern Church, in the person of St. Basil of Caesarea, earnestly sought the aid and encouragement of Damasus against an apparently triumphant Arianism. Damasus, however, harbored some degree of suspicion against the great Cappadocian Doctor of the Church. In the matter of the Meletian Schism at Antioch, Damasus—together with St. Athanasius, the patriarch of Alexandria, and his successor, Peter II of Alexandria—sympathized with the party of Paulinus as more sincerely representative of Nicene orthodoxy. On the death of Meletius he sought to secure the succession for Paulinus and to exclude Flavian.[22] He supported the appeal of the Christian senators to Emperor Gratian
Gratian
for the removal of the altar of Victory from the Senate House,[23] and lived to welcome the famous edict of Theodosius I, "De fide Catholica" (27 February 380),[24] which proclaimed as the religion of the Roman State that doctrine which Saint
Saint
Peter had preached to the Romans and of which Damasus was head.[12] During his papacy, Peter II of Alexandria was obliged for a while to seek refuge in Rome
Rome
from the persecuting Arians. He was received by Damasus, who sympathised with him and gave him support against the Arians.[12] This reconciled the relations between the Catholic Church and the Church of Antioch, which both supported the Church of Alexandria. Devotion to the martyrs[edit] He also did much to encourage the veneration of the Christian martyrs,[25] restoring and creating access to their tombs in the Catacombs of Rome
Rome
and elsewhere, and setting up tablets with verse inscriptions composed by himself, several of which survive or are recorded in his Epigrammata.[26] Damasus rebuilt or repaired his father's church named for Saint Laurence, known as San Lorenzo fuori le Mura
San Lorenzo fuori le Mura
("St Lawrence outside the walls"), which by the 7th century was a station on the itineraries of the graves of the Roman martyrs. Damasus' regard for the Roman martyr is attested also by the tradition according to which the Pope
Pope
built a church devoted to Laurence in his own house, San Lorenzo in Damaso. St. Damasus sat in the Chair of St. Peter for eighteen years and two months. His feast day is 11 December. He was buried beside his mother and sister in a "funerary basilica ... somewhere between the Via Appia and Via Ardeatina", the exact location of which is lost.[27] See also[edit]

Biography portal Christianity portal History portal

List of popes List of Catholic saints

References[edit]

^ The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church ^ Cameron, 136-139; 136 and 137 are quoted in turn ^ Cameron, 136 ^ Cameron, 142-143 ^ "DAMAS" on 4 glasses per Grig, 5 per Lutraan; Grig, 208-215, 216-220, 229-230, 229 quoted (examples illustrated); Lutraan, 31-32 and pages following ^ https://www.britannica.com/biography/Saint-Damasus-I ^ The Liturgy of the Hours, Vol. I, 11 December. ^ " Pope
Pope
Damasus I". www.nndb.com. Retrieved 2016-01-13.  ^ Foley OFM, Leonard. "St. Damasus I", Saint
Saint
of the Day, (revised by Pat McCloskey OFM), Franciscan Media ^ ST DAMASUS, POPE, CONFESSOR (A.D. 305–384) Butler, Alban. "The Lives or the Fathers, Martyrs and Other Principal Saints, vol. III, ewtn ^ Kelly, J. N. D. (1989). The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. USA: Oxford University Press. pp. 32, 34. ISBN 0192139649.  ^ a b c Shahan, Thomas. " Pope
Pope
St. Damasus I." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 4. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1908. 29 Sept. 2017 ^ Ammianus Marcellinus, 27.3.12; 27.9.9. Translated by J.C. Rolfe, Ammianus Marcellinus
Ammianus Marcellinus
(Cambridge: Loeb Classical Library, 1939), pp. 19, 61ff ^ Ambrose, Epistles iv ^ M. Walsh, Butler's Lives of the Saints (HarperCollins Publishers: New York, 1991), 413. ^ Gibbon, The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire chapter 25, n. 83 ^ https://www.ewtn.com/library/COUNCILS/CONSTAN1.HTM ^ Epistle cxx.10 ^ Bruce, F. F. (1988). The Canon of Scripture. InterVarsity Press. p. 225.  ^ De Viris Illustribus, ch. 103 ^ Letter of Jerome
Jerome
to Pope
Pope
Damasus, 376, 2. ^ Socrates, Historia Ecclesiastica 5.15 ^ Ambrose, Epistles xvii, n. 10 ^ Codex Theodosianus
Codex Theodosianus
XVI, 1, 2 ^ M. Walsh, Butler's Lives, 414. ^ Epigrammata texts in Latin; Grig, 213, 215 ^ Grig, 213 note 50

Literature[edit]

Lippold, A., "Ursinus und Damasus," Historia 14 (1965), pp. 105–128. Sheperd, M. H., "The Liturgical Reform of Damasus," in Kyriakon. Festschrift für Johannes Quasten (ed. Patrick Granfield and J.A. Jungmann) II (Münster 1970) pp. 847–863. Green, M., "The Supporters of the Antipope
Antipope
Ursinus," Journal of Theological Studies 22 (1971) pp. 531–538. Taylor, J., "St. Basil the Great and Pope
Pope
Damasus," Downside Review 91 (1973), pp. 183–203, 261-274. Nautin, P. "Le premier échange épistulaire entre Jérôme et Damase: lettres réelles ou fictives?," Freiburger Zeitschrift für Philosophie und Theologie 30, 1983, pp. 331–334. Cameron, Alan, "The Date and the Owners of the Esquiline Treasure", American Journal of Archaeology, Vol 89, No. 1, Centennial Issue (Jan., 1985), pp. 135–145, JSTOR Reynolds, R. E., "An Early Medieval Mass Fantasy: The Correspondence of Pope
Pope
Damasus and St Jerome
Jerome
on a Nicene Canon," in Proceedings of the Seventh International Congress of Medieval Canon Law, Cambridge, 23–27 July 1984 (ed. P. Linehan) (Città del Vaticano 1988), pp. 73–89. Chadwick, Henry. The Pelican History of the Church – 1: The Early Church. [incomplete short citation] Grig, Lucy, "Portraits, Pontiffs and the Christianization of Fourth-Century Rome", Papers of the British School at Rome, Vol. 72, (2004), pp. 203–230, JSTOR Lutraan, Katherine L., Late Roman Gold-Glass: Images and Inscriptions, MA thesis, McMaster University, 2006, available online -"investigates the images and inscriptions that decorate the extant corpus of gold-glass vessel bases". Antonio Aste, Gli epigrammi di papa Damaso I. Traduzione e commento. Libellula edizioni, collana Università (Tricase, Lecce 2014). Walker, Williston. A History of the Christian Church.  Markus Löx: monumenta sanctorum. Rom und Mailand als Zentren des frühen Christentums: Märtyrerkult und Kirchenbau unter den Bischöfen Damasus und Ambrosius. Wiesbaden, 2013. Carlo Carletti: Damaso I. In: Massimo Bray (ed.): Enciclopedia dei Papi, Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, Vol. 1  (Pietro, santo. Anastasio bibliotecario, antipapa), Rome, 2000, OCLC 313504669, pp. 349–372. Ursula Reutter: Damasus, Bischof von Rom (366–384). Leben und Werk (= Studien und Texte zu Antike und Christentum. Vol. 55). Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, 2009, ISBN 978-3-16-149848-0 (also: Jena, Univ., Diss., 1999). Franz X. Seppelt: Geschichte der Päpste von den Anfängen bis zur Mittel des zwanzigsten Jahrhunderts. Vol.: 1: Die Entfaltung der päpstlichen Machtstellung im frühen Mittelalter. Von Gregor dem Grossen bis zur Mitte des elften Jahrhunderts. 2nd newly revised edition (by Georg Schwaiger). Kösel, Munich, 1955, pp. 109–126. Bernhard Schimmelpfennig: Das Papsttum. Von der Antike bis zur Renaissance. 6th edition. Bibliographically revised and updated by Elke Goez. Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt, 2009, ISBN 978-3-534-23022-8.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Damasus I.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Damasus.

Opera Omnia by Migne Patrologia (in Latin) Literature by and about Pope
Pope
Damasus I in the German National Library catalogue Works by and about Pope
Pope
Damasus I in the Deutsche Digitale Bibliothek (German Digital Library)

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 267405622 LCCN: n85257304 ISNI: 0000 0001 1773 9336 GND: 118878689 SELIBR: 183318 SUDOC: 060143843 BNF: cb13517392n (data) NLA: 35065

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