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Pope
Pope
Clement VIII (Latin: Clemens VIII; 24 February 1536 – 5 March 1605), born Ippolito Aldobrandini, was Pope
Pope
from 2 February 1592 to his death in 1605. Born in Fano, Italy[1] to a prominent Florentine family, he initially came to prominence as a canon lawyer before being made a Cardinal-Priest
Cardinal-Priest
in 1585. In 1592 he was elected Pope
Pope
and took the name of Clement. During his papacy he effected the reconciliation of Henry IV of France
Henry IV of France
to the Catholic faith and was instrumental in setting up an alliance of Christian nations to oppose the Ottoman Empire in the so-called Long War. He also successfully adjudicated in a bitter dispute between the Dominicans and the Jesuits
Jesuits
on the issue of efficacious grace and free will. In 1600 he presided over a jubilee which saw a large number of pilgrimages to Rome. He had little pity for his opponents, presiding over the trial and execution of Giordano Bruno and implementing strict measures against Jewish residents of the Papal States. He may have been the first pope to drink coffee. Clement VIII died at the age of 69 in 1605 and his remains now rest in the Santa Maria Maggiore.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Cardinal 3 Ecclesiastical matters

3.1 De Auxiliis controversy 3.2 Jubilee of 1600 3.3 Canonisations and beatifications

4 Foreign relations

4.1 Relations with France
France
and Spain 4.2 Long War

5 Internal policies

5.1 Law enforcement 5.2 Anti-Jewish measures

6 Later life and death 7 Coffee 8 See also 9 References 10 External links

Early life[edit] He was from a Florentine family, and followed his father as a canon lawyer, becoming an Auditor (judge) of the Roman Rota, the highest ecclesiastical court constituted by the Holy See.[2] He was only ordained as a priest at the age of 45, and rose to Pope
Pope
in a further 12 years. He was an effective, if sometimes ruthless, administrator. Cardinal[edit]

Election of Pope
Pope
Clemens VIII in 1592, by Louis de Caullery, Petit Palais (Paris)

He was made Cardinal-Priest
Cardinal-Priest
of S. Pancrazio
S. Pancrazio
in 1585 by Pope
Pope
Gregory XIII. Pope
Pope
Sixtus V
Sixtus V
named him major penitentiary in January 1586 and in 1588 sent him as legate in Poland. He placed himself under the direction of the reformer Philip Neri, who for thirty years was his confessor. Aldobrandini won the gratitude of the Habsburgs by his successful diplomatic efforts in Poland
Poland
to obtain the release of the imprisoned Archduke Maximilian, the defeated claimant to the Polish throne.[3] After the death of Pope
Pope
Innocent IX
Innocent IX
(1591), another stormy conclave ensued, where a determined minority of Italian Cardinals were unwilling to be dictated to by Philip II of Spain. Cardinal Aldobrandini's election on 30 January 1592, was received as a portent of more balanced and liberal Papal policy in European affairs. He took the non-politicised name Clement VIII. He proved to be an able Pope, with an unlimited capacity for work and a lawyer's eye for detail, and a wise statesman, the general object of whose policy was to free the Papacy from its dependence upon Spain.[3] Ecclesiastical matters[edit] De Auxiliis controversy[edit] In 1597, he established the Congregatio de Auxiliis which was to settle the theological controversy between the Dominican Order
Dominican Order
and the Jesuits
Jesuits
concerning the respective role of efficacious grace and free will. Although the debate tended toward a condemnation of Molinism's insistence on free will to the detriment of efficacious grace, the important influence of the Jesuit Order — among other considerations — which, beside important political and theological power in Europe, had also various missions abroad (Misiones Jesuiticas in South America, missions in China, etc.), led the Pope
Pope
to abstain from an official condemnation of the Jesuits. In 1611 and again in 1625 a decree prohibited any discussion of the matter, although it was often informally avoided by the publication of commentaries on Thomas Aquinas. Jubilee of 1600[edit] During the jubilee of 1600, three million pilgrims visited the holy places. The Synod of Brest
Synod of Brest
was held 1595 in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, by which a great part of the Ruthenian clergy and people were reunited to Rome.[3] Canonisations and beatifications[edit] Clement VIII canonised Hyacinth (17 April 1594), Julian of Cuenca
Julian of Cuenca
(18 October 1594), and Raymond of Peñafort
Raymond of Peñafort
(1601). Foreign relations[edit] Relations with France
France
and Spain[edit]

Clement VIII

The most remarkable event of Clement VIII's reign was the reconciliation to the Church of Henry IV of France
Henry IV of France
(1589–1610), after long negotiations, carried on with great dexterity through Cardinal Arnaud d'Ossat, that resolved the complicated situation in France. Henry embraced Catholicism on 25 July 1593. After a pause to assess Henry IV's sincerity, Clement VIII braved Spanish displeasure, and in the autumn of 1595 he solemnly absolved Henry IV, thus putting an end to the thirty years' religious war in France.[3] Henry IV's friendship was of essential importance to the Papacy two years later, when Alfonso II, Duke of Ferrara, died childless (27 October 1597), and the Pope
Pope
resolved to attach the stronghold of the Este family to the states of the Church. Though Spain
Spain
and the Emperor Rudolf II encouraged Alfonso II's illegitimate cousin, Cesare d'Este, to withstand the Pope, they were deterred from giving him any material aid by Henry IV's threats, and a papal army entered Ferrara
Ferrara
almost unopposed.[3] In 1598 Clement VIII won more credit for the papacy by bringing about a definite treaty of peace between Spain
Spain
and France
France
in the Peace of Vervins,[3] this put an end to their long contest, and he negotiated peace between France
France
and Savoy
Savoy
as well. Long War[edit] Main articles: Holy League of Pope
Pope
Clement VIII and Long War (1591–1606) In 1595, Clement VIII initiated an alliance of Christian European powers to take part in the war with the Ottoman Empire, fought mainly in Hungary, which would become known as the "Long War" and would continue past Clement's own lifetime. Facilitated by the Pope, a treaty of alliance was signed in Prague
Prague
by Emperor Rudolf II and Sigismund Báthory
Sigismund Báthory
of Transylvania. Aron Vodă
Aron Vodă
of Moldavia
Moldavia
and Michael the Brave of Wallachia joined the alliance later that year. Clement VIII himself lent the Emperor valuable assistance in men and money.[3] Internal policies[edit] Law enforcement[edit] Clement VIII was as vigorous as Pope
Pope
Sixtus V
Sixtus V
(1585–90) in crushing banditry in the papal provinces of Umbria
Umbria
and the Marche
Marche
and in punishing the lawlessness of the Roman nobility.[3] Upon his ascension to the papal throne in 1592, he immediately had several noble troublemakers put to death. These included most famously Troio Savelli, scion of a powerful ancient Roman family, and the youthful and noble Beatrice Cenci, who had murdered her father – probably as a consequence of his repeated abuses. The latter case prompted many requests of clemency – rejected by the Pope, who passed the confiscated Cenci property to his own family. Clement's strict ways also concerned philosophical and religious matters. In 1599 he ordered the Italian miller Menocchio – who had formed the belief that God was not eternal but had Himself once been created out of chaos – to be burned at the stake. A more famous case was the trial for heresy of Giordano Bruno, who was burned at the stake in 1600. Pope
Pope
Clement VIII participated personally in the final phases of the trial, inviting the Cardinals in charge of the case to proceed with the verdict. Anti-Jewish measures[edit] Clement VIII tightened measures against the Jewish inhabitants of his territories. In 1592, the papal bull Cum saepe accidere forbade the Jewish community of the Comtat Venaissin
Comtat Venaissin
of Avignon, a papal enclave, to sell new goods, putting them at an economic disadvantage. In 1593, the bull Caeca et Obdurata
Caeca et Obdurata
reiterated Pope
Pope
Pius V's decree of 1569 which banned Jews from living in the Papal states outside the cities of Rome, Ancona, and Avignon. The main effect of the bull was to evict Jews who had returned to areas of the Papal States
Papal States
(mainly Umbria) after 1586 (following their expulsion in 1569) and to expel Jewish communities from cities like Bologna
Bologna
(which had been incorporated under papal dominion since 1569).[4] The bull also alleged that Jews in the Papal States
Papal States
had engaged in usury and exploited the hospitality of Clement VIII's predecessors "who, in order to lead them from their darkness to knowledge of the true faith, deemed it opportune to use the clemency of Christian piety towards them" (alluding to Christiana pietas).[5] With the bull Cum Hebraeorum malitia a few days later, Clement VIII also forbade the reading of the Talmud.[6] Later life and death[edit]

Statue of Pope
Pope
Clement VIII in the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore

Clement VIII was afflicted by gout, and was forced to spend much of his later life immobilized in bed. He died in March 1605, leaving a reputation for prudence, munificence, ruthlessness and capacity for business. Clement was buried in St. Peter's Basilica, and later Pope Paul V (1605–21) had a mausoleum built for him in the Borghese Chapel of Santa Maria Maggiore, where the remains were transferred in 1646. His reign is especially distinguished by the number and beauty of his medals. Clement VIII founded the Collegio Clementino
Collegio Clementino
for the education of the sons of the richer classes, and augmented the number of national colleges in Rome
Rome
by opening the Collegio Scozzese
Collegio Scozzese
for the training of missionaries to Scotland.[3] Coffee[edit] See also: History of coffee Coffee
Coffee
aficionados often claim that the spread of its popularity among Catholics is due to Pope
Pope
Clement VIII's influence. He was pressed by his advisers to denounce coffee. The advisers believed coffee was the "bitter invention of Satan" because of its popularity among Muslims.[citation needed] However, upon tasting coffee, Pope
Pope
Clement VIII declared that, "This Satan's drink is so delicious that it would be a pity to let the infidels have exclusive use of it."[7] Clement allegedly blessed the bean because it appeared better for the people than alcoholic beverages.[8] The year often cited is 1600. It is not clear whether this is a true story, but it may have been found amusing at the time.[9] See also[edit]

Giovanni Aldobrandini, his older brother, who was a cardinal Sixto-Clementine Vulgate Cardinals created by Clement VIII

References[edit]

^ http://w2.vatican.va/content/vatican/en/holy-father/clemente-viii.html ^ See John Paul II, ap. con. Pastor Bonus art. 121, 80 Acta Apostolicae Sedis 841 (1988) (noting that the Apostolic Signatura
Apostolic Signatura
is the supreme tribunal). ^ a b c d e f g h i  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Loughlin, James (1908). " Pope
Pope
Clement VIII". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. 4. New York: Robert Appleton. Retrieved 3 September 2014.  ^ Foa, Anna; Grover, Andrea (2000). The Jews of Europe After the Black Death. University of California Press. p. 117. ISBN 0520087658.  ^ Fragnito, Gigliota. Adrian Belton (trans.). 2001. Church, Censorship and Culture in Early Modern Italy. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-66172-2. p. 182-183. ^ S. Wendehorst, "Katholische Kirche und Juden in der Frühen Neuzeit" 1.3 "Zensur des Talmud", following Willchad Paul Eckert, "Catholizmus zwischen 1580 und 1848" in Karl Heinrich Rengstorf and Siegfried Kortzfleisch, eds. Kirche und Sinagoge II (Stuttgart, 1970) p. 232. ^ Cole, Adam. "Drink Coffee? Off With Your Head!", Salt, NPR, January 17, 2012 ^ Wallin, Nils-Bertil. "Coffee: A Long Way From Ethiopia", Yale Global, November 5, 2002 Archived April 1, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-06-01. Retrieved 2010-06-08.  Coffee
Coffee
Facts and Statistics

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Clemens VIII.

Mons. Jouin, "The Holy See
Holy See
and the Jews", from Révue International des Societés, 1918

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 88910241 LCCN: n81066128 ISNI: 0000 0001 2096 7241 GND: 119022524 SELIBR: 209118 SUDOC: 034126864 BNF: cb12491633v (data) ULAN: 500236251 NLA: 35906836 NKC: jn20011024152 ICCU: ITICCUTO0V83346 BNE: XX889781 SN

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