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Pope
Pope
Boniface VIII (Latin: Bonifatius VIII; born Benedetto Caetani
Caetani
( c. 1230 – 11 October 1303), was Pope
Pope
from 24 December 1294 to his death in 1303. He organized the first Catholic "jubilee" year to take place in Rome and declared that both spiritual and temporal power were under the pope's jurisdiction, and that kings were subordinate to the power of the Roman pontiff. Today, he is probably best remembered for his feuds with King Philip IV of France, who caused the Pope's death, and Dante Alighieri, who placed the pope in the Eighth Circle of Hell in his Divine Comedy, among the simoniacs.

Contents

1 Biography

1.1 Family 1.2 Early career 1.3 Abdication of Celestine V
Celestine V
and Election of Boniface VIII 1.4 Canon Law 1.5 Cardinals 1.6 Conflicts in Sicily
Sicily
and Italy 1.7 Conflicts with Philip IV 1.8 First Jubilee Year 1.9 First Scottish War of Independence 1.10 Continued feud with Philip IV 1.11 Abduction and death 1.12 Burial and exhumation 1.13 Posthumous trial

2 In culture 3 See also

3.1 Notes 3.2 References

4 Bibliography 5 External links

Biography[edit] Family[edit] Benedetto was born in Anagni, some 50 kilometres (31 mi) southeast of Rome. He was a younger son of Roffredo Caetani
Caetani
(Podestà of Todi
Todi
in 1274–1275), a member of a baronial family of the Papal States, the Caetani
Caetani
or Gaetani dell'Aquila.[1] Through his mother, Emilia Patrasso di Guarcino, a niece of Pope Alexander IV (Rinaldo dei Conti di Segni—who was himself a nephew of Pope
Pope
Gregory IX), he was not far distant from the seat of ecclesiastical power and patronage. His father's younger brother, Atenolfo, was Podestà
Podestà
di Orvieto.[2] Benedetto took his first steps in the religious life when he was sent to the monastery of the Friars Minor
Friars Minor
in Velletri, where he was put under the care of his maternal uncle Fra Leonardo Patrasso.[3] In 1252, when his paternal uncle Pietro Caetani
Caetani
became Bishop
Bishop
of Todi, in Umbria, Benedetto followed him to Todi
Todi
and began his legal studies there. He was granted a canonry of the cathedral in the family's stronghold of Anagni, with the permission of Pope
Pope
Alexander (1254–1261). His uncle Pietro Caetani
Caetani
granted him a canonry in the Cathedral of Todi
Todi
in 1260. He also came into possession of the small nearby castello of Sismano, a place with twenty-one fires (hearths, families). In later years Father Vitalis, the Prior
Prior
of S. Egidio de S. Gemino in Narni testified that he knew him and conversed with him in Todi
Todi
and that Benedetto was in a school run by Rouchetus, a Doctor of Laws, from that city.[4] Benedetto never forgot his roots in Todi, later describing the city as "the dwelling place of his early youth," the city which "nourished him while still of tender years," and as a place where he "held lasting memories." Later in life he repeatedly expressed his gratitude to Anagni, Todi, and his family. Early career[edit] In 1264 Benedetto entered the Roman Curia, perhaps with the office of Advocatus.[5] He served as secretary to Cardinal Simon de Brion, the future Pope
Pope
Martin IV, on a mission to France. Cardinal Simon had been appointed by Pope
Pope
Urban IV (Jacques Pantaléon), between 25 and 27 April 1264, to engage in negotiations with Charles of Anjou, Comte de Provence, over the Crown of Naples
Naples
and Sicily. On 1 May 1264 he was given permission to appoint two or three tabelliones (secretaries) for his mission, one of whom was Benedetto.[6] On 26 February 1265, only eleven days after his coronation, the new pope, Pope
Pope
Clement IV
Clement IV
wrote to Cardinal Simon, telling him to break off negotiations and travel immediately to Provence, where he would receive further instructions. On the same day, Clement wrote to Charles of Anjou, informing him that the pope had 35 conditions that Charles must agree to in accepting the crown; he also wrote to Henry III of England and his son Edmund that they had never been possessors of the Kingdom of Sicily.[7] He also commended to the Cardinal the Sienese bankers who had been working for Urban IV to raise funds for Charles of Anjou, and that he should transfer to them some 7,000 pounds Tournois from the decima of France. On 20 March 1265, in order to expedite the business with Charles of Anjou, Cardinal Simon was authorized to provide benefices from cathedrals or otherwise within his province to five of his clerics.[8] This may have been the occasion on which Benedetto Caetani
Caetani
acquired at least some of his French benefices. On 9 April 1265, on the petition of Cardinal Simon de Brion, the legation which had been assigned him by Pope
Pope
Urban was declared not to have expired on the death of Urban IV.[9] There would have been no point in making such a ruling if Cardinal Simon had already ceased to be Legate. Benedetto also accompanied Cardinal Ottobono Fieschi,[10] the future Pope
Pope
Adrian V, to England. Another member of Cardinal Ottobono's suite was Theobaldus of Piacenza, Archdeacon of Liège, who became a friend of Prince Edward, and went on Crusade with him; he was later elected Pope
Pope
Gregory X.[11] On 4 May 1265 Cardinal Ottobono was appointed Apostolic Legate to England, Scotland, Wales, and Ireland by the new Pope
Pope
Clement IV;[12] in fact, he was sent as the successor of Cardinal Guy Folques, who had been elected Clement IV
Clement IV
on 5 February 1265. On 29 August 1265 the Cardinal was received at the French Court by King Louis IX. There he learned that Simon de Montfort and his son Henry had been killed at the Battle of Evesham
Battle of Evesham
earlier that month. Cardinal Ottobono did not reach Boulogne until October 1265. He was in England until July 1268, working to suppress the remnants of Simon de Montfort's barons who were still in arms against King Henry III of England. To finance their rebellion, the barons had imposed a 10% tax on church property, which the Pope
Pope
wanted back, not only because the tithe was uncanonical, but also so that he could use the funds already collected for his own purposes.[citation needed] This drawback was a major concern of Cardinal Ottobono and his entourage.[13] While in England Benedetto Caetani
Caetani
became rector of St. Lawrence's church in Towcester, Northamptonshire.[14][15] Upon Benedetto's return from England, there is an eight-year period in which nothing is known about his life. This period, however, included the long vacancy of the papal throne from 29 November 1268 to February 1272, when Pope
Pope
Gregory X accepted the papal throne. It also includes the time span when Pope
Pope
Gregory and his cardinals went to France
France
in 1273 for the Council of Vienne, as well as the Eighth Crusade, led by Louis IX, in 1270. The Pope
Pope
and some of the cardinals began their return to Italy
Italy
at the end of November 1275. Pope
Pope
Gregory celebrated Christmas in Arezzo and died there on 10 January 1276. In 1276, however, Benedetto was sent to France
France
to supervise the collection of a tithe, which is perhaps when he held the office of Advocatus in the Roman Curia,[16] and then was appointed a papal Notary in the late 1270s. During this time, Benedetto accumulated seventeen benefices, which he was permitted to keep when he was promoted. Some of these are enumerated in a bull of Pope
Pope
Martin IV, in which he bestows the deaconry of S. Nicolas in Carcere on Cardinal Benedetto Caetani.[17] At Orvieto, on 12 April 1281, Pope Martin IV
Pope Martin IV
created Benedetto Caetani cardinal deacon of Saint Nicholas in Carcere.[18] In 1288 he was sent as Legate to Umbria
Umbria
to attempt to calm the strife between Guelfs and Ghibbelines, which was taking the form of a war between the cities of Perugia and Foligno.[19] In the winter of 1289, he was one of Pope Nicholas IV's advisors as he decided on a settlement of the disputes over the election or appointment of Portuguese bishops, in which King Denis played a major role. To give greater authority to the final mandate of the Pope, Cardinal Latino Orsini of Ostia, Cardinal Pietro Peregrosso of S. Marco, and Cardinal Benedetto of S. Nicola in Carcere appended their signatures and seals.[20] Three years later, on 22 September 1291,[21] Pope
Pope
Nicholas IV (Girolamo Maschi d'Ascoli, O.Min.) promoted him to the Order of Cardinal Priests, with the title of SS. Silvester and Martin.[22] Given the fact that there were only a dozen cardinals, Cardinal Benedetto was assigned the care (commenda) of the deaconry of S. Agata, and his old deaconry of S. Nicola in Carcere.[23] As cardinal, he served as papal legate in diplomatic negotiations to France, Naples, Sicily, and Aragon. Abdication of Celestine V
Celestine V
and Election of Boniface VIII[edit]

Papal bulla
Papal bulla
of Boniface VIII (pierced subsequent to original use)

Pope
Pope
Celestine V
Celestine V
(who had been Brother Peter, the hermit of Mount Murrone near Sulmone) resigned on 13 December 1294 at Naples, where, much to the discomfort of a number of cardinals, he had established the papal court under the patronage of Charles II of Naples. He had continued to live like a monk there, even turning a room in the papal apartment into the semblance of a monastic cell. A contemporary, Bartholomew of Lucca, who was present in Naples
Naples
in December 1294 and witnessed many of the events of the abdication and election, said that Benedetto Caetani
Caetani
was only one of several cardinals who pressured Celestine to resign.[24] However, it is also on record that Celestine V resigned by his own design after consultation with experts, and that Benedetto merely showed that it was allowed by Church law. Either way, Celestine V
Celestine V
vacated the throne and Benedetto Caetani
Caetani
was elected in his place as pope, taking the name Boniface VIII. The 1294 papal conclave began on 23 December, ten days after Celestine's resignation. The regulations promulgated by Pope
Pope
Gregory X at the Second Council of Lyon
Second Council of Lyon
of 1274 did not envision a papal resignation, but the cardinals waited the usual ten days from the papal resignation. All twenty-two cardinals were thus given the chance to assemble at the Castel Nuovo in Naples, the site of the resignation. Hugh Aycelin,[25] presided over the papal conclave as the senior cardinal bishop. Benedetto Caetani
Caetani
was elected by ballot and accession on Christmas Eve, 24 December 1294, taking the name Boniface VIII. On the first (secret) ballot, he had a majority of the votes, and at the accessio a sufficient number joined his majority to form the required two-thirds.[26] He was consecrated bishop of Rome
Rome
in Rome by Cardinal Hugh Aycelin on 23 January 1295.[27] He immediately returned the Papal Curia to Rome, where he was crowned at the Vatican Basilica on Sunday, 23 January 1295. One of his first acts as pontiff was to grant his predecessor residence in the Castle of Fumone in Ferentino, where he died the next year at the age of 81, attended by two monks of his order. Boniface VIII is occasionally discussed in academic literature as possibly implicated in the demise of his predecessor.[28] In 1300, Boniface VIII formalized the custom of the Roman Jubilee, which afterwards became a source of both profit and scandal to the church. Boniface VIII founded Sapienza University of Rome
Rome
in 1303.[29] Canon Law[edit] In the field of canon law Boniface VIII had considerable influence. Earlier collections of canon law had been codified in the Decretales Gregorii IX, published under the authority of Pope
Pope
Gregory IX in 1234, but in the succeeding sixty years, numerous legal decisions were made by one pope after another. By Boniface's time a new and expanded edition was needed. In 1298 Boniface ordered published as a sixth part (or Book) these various papal decisions, including some 88 of his own legal decisions, as well as a collection of legal principles known as the Regulæ Juris.[30] His contribution came to be known as the Liber Sextus.[31] This material is still of importance to canon lawyers or canonists today, to interpret and analyze the canons and other forms of ecclesiastical law properly. The "Regulae Iuris" appear at the end of the Liber Sextus (in VI°),[32] and now published as part of the five Decretales in the Corpus Juris Canonici. They appear as simple aphorisms, such as "Regula VI: Nemo potest ad impossibile obligari." ('No one can be obligated for something impossible.') Other systems of law also have their own Regulæ Juris, whether by the same name or something serving a similar function.[33] Cardinals[edit] Boniface VIII was a pope who put forward some of the strongest claims of any Pope
Pope
to temporal as well as spiritual power. He involved himself often with foreign affairs. In his Papal bull
Papal bull
of 1302, Unam sanctam, Boniface VIII stated that since the Church is one, since the Church is necessary for salvation, and since Christ appointed Peter to lead it, it is "absolutely necessary for salvation that every human creature be subject to the Roman pontiff".[34] These views, and his chronic intervention in "temporal" affairs, led to many bitter quarrels with Albert I of Germany, Philip IV of France, and Dante Alighieri, who wrote his treatise De Monarchia to dispute Boniface's claims of papal supremacy. In 1297, Cardinal Jacopo Colonna disinherited his brothers Ottone, Matteo, and Landolfo of their lands. The latter three appealed to Pope Boniface VIII who ordered Jacopo to return the land, and furthermore hand over the family's strongholds of Colonna, Palestrina, and other towns to the Papacy. Jacopo refused. Jacopo Colonna and his nephew Pietro Colonna had also seriously compromised themselves by maintaining highly questionable relations with the political enemies of the pope, James II of Aragon and Frederick III of Sicily. In May, Boniface removed them from the College of Cardinals
College of Cardinals
and excommunicated them and their followers. The Colonna family (aside from the three brothers allied with the Pope) declared that Boniface had been elected illegally following the unprecedented abdication of Pope
Pope
Celestine V. The dispute lead to open warfare, and in September Boniface appointed Landolfo to the command of his army, to put down the revolt of Landolfo's relatives. By the end of 1298 Landolfo had captured Colonna, Palestrina
Palestrina
and other towns and razed them to the ground after it surrendered peacefully under Boniface's assurances that it would be spared. Dante says it was got by treachery by "long promises and short performances" as Guido of Montefeltro counselled, but this account by the implacable Ghibelline has long since been discredited.[35] Palestrina
Palestrina
was razed to the ground, the plough driven through and salt strewn over its ruins. A new city—the Città Papale—later replaced it. Only the city's cathedral was spared.[36] To deal with the problem of the cardinals left to him by his predecessors, Boniface created new cardinals on five occasions during his reign.[37] In the first creation, in 1295, only one cardinal was appointed, the Pope's nephew Benedetto Caetano. This was no surprise. Nor was the second creation, on 17 December 1295. Two more relatives were appointed, Francesco Caetano, the son of Boniface VIII's brother Peter; and Jacopo (Giacomo) Tomassi Caetani, OFM, a son of the Pope's sister, was made Cardinal Priest of S. Clemente. Giacomo Caetani Stefaneschi, a grand-nephew of Pope
Pope
Nicholas III, was also appointed, along with Francesco Napoleone Orsini, a nephew of Pope
Pope
Nicholas III. Three years later, on 4 December 1298, four new cardinals were named: Gonzalo Gudiel (Gundisalvus Rodericus Innojosa), Archbishop
Archbishop
of Toledo, was appointed Bishop
Bishop
of Albano; Teodorico Ranieri, Archbishop-elect of Pisa and papal Chamberlain, became Cardinal Priest of Santa Croce in Gerusalemme; Niccolò Boccasini, OP, of Treviso, Master General of the Dominicans, became Cardinal Priest of Santa Sabina; and Riccardo Petroni of Siena, Vice-Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church, was named a Cardinal Deacon. A pattern begins to emerge, though one sees the pattern only in terms of negatives: of the ten new cardinals, only two are monks, and neither of them Benedictine ( Celestine V
Celestine V
had been excessively partial to Benedictines); and there are no Frenchmen (Celestine had named seven Frenchmen, under the influence of Charles II of Naples). Pope
Pope
Boniface was distinctly changing the complexion of the membership of the Sacred College. Without the Colonnas, the influence of the King of France
France
was greatly diminished. On 2 March 1300, during the Great Jubilee, Boniface VIII created three more cardinals. The first was Leonardo Patrasso, Archbishop
Archbishop
of Capua, who was Boniface VIII's uncle; he replaced the Archbishop
Archbishop
of Toledo, who had died in 1299, as Cardinal Bishop
Bishop
of Albano. The second was Gentile Partino, OFM, Doctor of Theology and Lector of Theology in the Roman Curia, who was made Cardinal Priest of S. Martin in montibus. The third was Luca Fieschi, of the Counts of Lavagna, of Genoa, named Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata (the deaconry which had once belonged to Jacopo Colonna). A relative, a Franciscan; all three Italians. In his last Consistory for the promotion of Cardinals, on 15 December 1302, Boniface VIII named two more cardinals: Pedro Rodríguez, bishop of Burgos, Spain, became Suburbicarian Bishop
Bishop
of Sabina; and Giovanni Minio da Morrovalle (or da Muro), OFM, Minister General of the Franciscans, was appointed Suburbicarian Bishop
Bishop
of Porto. A Franciscan, a Spaniard, no Benedictines, no French. In fact, there were only two French in the Sacred College at Boniface's death, only five regular clergy (only one Benedictine). Conflicts in Sicily
Sicily
and Italy[edit] When Frederick III of Sicily
Frederick III of Sicily
attained his throne after the death of Peter III of Aragon, Boniface tried to dissuade him from accepting the throne of Sicily. When Frederick persisted, Boniface excommunicated him in 1296, and placed the island under interdict. Neither the king nor the people were moved.[35] The conflict continued until the Peace of Caltabellotta in 1302, which saw Pedro's son Frederick III recognized as king of Sicily
Sicily
while Charles II was recognized as the king of Naples. To prepare for a Crusade, Boniface ordered Venice
Venice
and Genoa
Genoa
to sign a truce; they fought each other for three more years, and turned down his offer to mediate peace. Boniface also placed the city of Florence
Florence
under an interdict and invited the ambitious Charles, Count of Valois
Charles, Count of Valois
to enter Italy
Italy
in 1300 to end the feud of the Black and White Guelphs, the poet Dante Alighieri being in the party of the Whites. Boniface's political ambitions directly affected Dante when the pope invited Count Charles to intervene in the affairs of Florence. Charles's intervention allowed the Black Guelphs to overthrow the ruling White Guelphs, whose leaders, including the poet Dante, allegedly in Rome
Rome
at the time to argue Florence's case before Boniface, were sentenced to exile. Dante settled his score with Boniface in the first canticle of the Divine Comedy, the Inferno, by damning the pope, placing him within the circles of Fraud, in the bolgia of the simoniacs. In the Inferno, Pope Nicholas III, mistaking the Poet for Boniface, is surprised to see the latter, supposing him to be ahead of his time.[38] Conflicts with Philip IV[edit]

Philip IV receiving the homage of Edward I for Aquitaine.

The conflict between Boniface VIII and King Philip IV of France (1268–1314) came at a time of expanding nation states and the desire for the consolidation of power by the increasingly powerful monarchs. The increase in monarchical power and its conflicts with the Church of Rome
Rome
were only exacerbated by the rise to power of Philip IV in 1285. In France, the process of centralizing royal power and developing a genuine national state began with the Capetian kings. During his reign, Philip surrounded himself with the best civil lawyers and decidedly expelled the clergy from all participation in the administration of the law. With the clergy beginning to be taxed in France
France
and England to finance their ongoing wars against each other, Boniface took a hard stand against it. He saw the taxation as an assault on traditional clerical rights and ordered the bull Clericis laicos in February 1296, forbidding lay taxation of the clergy without prior papal approval. In the bull, Boniface states "they exact and demand from the same the half, tithe, or twentieth, or any other portion or proportion of their revenues or goods; and in many ways they try to bring them into slavery, and subject them to their authority. And also whatsoever emperors, kings, or princes, dukes, earls or barons...presume to take possession of things anywhere deposited in holy buildings...should incur sentence of excommunication." It was during the issuing of Clericis laicos that hostilities between Boniface and Philip began. Philip retaliated against the bull by denying the exportation of money from France
France
to Rome, funds that the Church required to operate. Boniface had no choice but to contest Philip's demands, informing Philip that "God has set popes over kings and kingdoms." Philip was convinced that the wealth of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
in France should be used in part to support the state. He wanted to make war against the English.[39] He countered the papal bull by decreeing laws prohibiting the export of gold, silver, precious stones, or food from France
France
to the Papal States. These measures had the effect of blocking a main source of papal revenue. Philip also banished from France
France
the papal agents who were raising funds for a new crusade in the Middle East. In the bull Ineffabilis amor of September 1296,[40] Boniface retreated. He sanctioned voluntary contributions from the clergy for the necessary defense of the state and gave the king the right to determine that necessity. Philip rescinded his ordinances regarding the exports and even accepted Boniface as arbitrator in a dispute between himself and King Edward I of England. Boniface decided most of those issues in Philip's favor. First Jubilee Year[edit]

Pope
Pope
Boniface VIII, fresco by Giotto di Bondone
Giotto di Bondone
in the Basilica of St. John Lateran, Rome

Boniface proclaimed 1300 a "jubilee" year, the first of many such jubilees to take place in Rome.[41] He may have wanted to gather money from pilgrims to Rome[42] as a substitute for the missing money from France, or it may be that he was seeking moral and political support against the hostile behavior of the French king and his henchmen. The event was a success; Rome
Rome
had never received such crowds before. It is said that on one particular day some 30,000 people were counted.[43] Giovanni Villani
Giovanni Villani
estimated that some 200,000 pilgrims came to Rome.[44] Boniface and his aides managed the affair well, food was plentiful, and it was sold at moderate prices. It was an advantage to the pope that the great sums of money he collected could be used according to Boniface's own judgment. First Scottish War of Independence[edit] After King Edward I of England
Edward I of England
invaded Scotland and forced the abdication of the Scottish King John Balliol, the deposed King was released into the custody of Pope
Pope
Boniface on condition that he remain at a papal residence. The hard-pressed Scots, then in the early stages of what came to be known as First Scottish War of Independence, appealed to the Pope
Pope
to assert a feudal overlordship over Scotland. The Pope
Pope
assented, condemning Edward's invasions and occupation of Scotland in the Papal Bull
Bull
Scimus, Fili. The bull ordered Edward to desist his attacks and start negotiations with the Scots. However, Edward ignored the bull. The English Barons' Letter of 1301
Barons' Letter of 1301
rejected the claim of Papal overlordship of Scotland and asserted an English sovereignty. Continued feud with Philip IV[edit] The feud between Boniface and Philip IV reached its peak in the early 14th century, when Philip began to launch a strong anti-papal campaign against Boniface. A quarrel arose between Philip's aides and a papal legate, Bernard Saisset. The legate was arrested on a charge of inciting an insurrection, was tried and convicted by the royal court, and committed to the custody of the archbishop of Narbonne, Giles Aycelin - one of his key ministers and allies, in 1301. In the bull Ausculta Fili ("Listen, [My] Son", December 1301) Boniface VIII appealed to Philip IV to listen modestly to the Vicar of Christ as the spiritual monarch over all earthly kings. He protested against the trial of churchmen before Philip's royal courts and the continued use of church funds for state purposes and he announced he would summon the bishops and abbots of France
France
to take measures "for the preservation of the liberties of the Church".[45] When the bull was presented to Philip IV, Robert II, Count of Artois, reportedly snatched it from the hands of Boniface's emissary and flung it into the fire.[46] In February 1302 the bull Ausculta Fili was officially burned at Paris before Philip IV and a great multitude. Nonetheless, on 4 March 1302, Pope
Pope
Boniface sent cardinal Jean Lemoine
Jean Lemoine
as his legate to reassert papal control over the French clergy.[47] To forestall the ecclesiastical council proposed by Boniface, Philip summoned the three estates of his realm to meet at Paris in April. At this first French Estates-General in history, all three classes – nobles, clergy, and commons – wrote separately to Rome
Rome
in defense of the king and his temporal power. Some forty-five French prelates, despite Philip's prohibition, and the confiscation of their property, attended the council at Rome
Rome
in October 1302.[48] Following that council, on 18 November 1302, Boniface issued the bull Unam sanctam ("One holy [catholic and apostolic Church]").[49] It declared that both spiritual and temporal power were under the pope's jurisdiction, and that kings were subordinate to the power of the Roman pontiff. The Pope
Pope
also appointed Cardinal Jean le Moine as Apostolic Legate to King Philip, to attempt to find some resolution of the impasse that had developed; he was granted the specific power of absolving King Philip from excommunication.[50] Abduction and death[edit]

Depiction of the death of Boniface in a 15th-century manuscript of Boccaccio's De Casibus.

On Maundy Thursday, 4 April 1303, the Pope
Pope
again excommunicated all persons who were impeding French clerics from coming to the Holy See, "etiam si imperiali aut regali fulgeant dignitati."[51] This included King Philip IV, though not by name. In response, Guillaume de Nogaret, Philip's chief minister, denounced Boniface as a heretical criminal to the French clergy. On 15 August 1303, the Pope
Pope
suspended the right of all persons in the Kingdom of France
France
to name anyone as Regent or Doctor, including the King. And in another document of the same day, he reserved to the Holy See the provision of all present and future vacancies in cathedral churches and monasteries, until King Philip should come to the Papal Court and make explanations of his behavior.[52] On 7 September 1303, an army led by King Philip's minister Nogaret and Sciarra Colonna
Sciarra Colonna
attacked Boniface at his Palace in Anagni
Anagni
next to the Cathedral.[53] The Pope
Pope
responded with a bull dated 8 September 1303, in which Philip and Nogaret were excommunicated.[54] The French Chancellor and the Colonnas demanded the Pope's resignation; Boniface VIII responded that he would "sooner die". In response, Colonna allegedly slapped Boniface, a "slap" historically remembered as the schiaffo di Anagni
Anagni
(" Anagni
Anagni
slap"). According to a modern interpreter, the 73-year-old Boniface was probably beaten and nearly executed, but was released from captivity after three days. He died a month later.[55] The famous Florentine chronicler Giovanni Villani, wrote:[56]

And when Sciarra and the others, his enemies, came to him, they mocked at him with vile words and arrested him and his household which had remained with him. Among others, William of Nogaret, who had conducted the negotiations for the king of France, scorned him and threatened him, saying that he would take him bound to Lyons on the Rhone, and there in a general council would cause him to be deposed and condemned.... no man dared to touch [Boniface], nor were they pleased to lay hands on him, but they left him robed under light arrest and were minded to rob the treasure of the Pope
Pope
and the Church. In this pain, shame and torment, the great Pope
Pope
Boniface abode prisoner among his enemies for three days.... the People of Anagni
Anagni
beholding their error and issuing from their blind ingratitude, suddenly rose in arms... and drove out Sciarra della Colonna and his followers, with loss to them of prisoners and slain, and freed the Pope
Pope
and his household. Pope
Pope
Boniface... departed immediately from Anagni
Anagni
with his court and came to Rome
Rome
and St. Peter's to hold a council... but... the grief which had hardened in the heart of Pope
Pope
Boniface, by reason of the injury which he had received, produced in him, once he had come to Rome, a strange malady so that he gnawed at himself as if he were mad, and in this state he passed from this life on the twelfth day of October in the year of Christ 1303, and in the Church of St. Peter near the entrance of the doors, in a rich chapel which was built in his lifetime, he was honorably buried.

He died of a violent fever on 11 October, in full possession of his senses and in the presence of eight cardinals and the chief members of the papal household, after receiving the sacraments and making the usual profession of faith. Burial and exhumation[edit] The body of Boniface VIII was buried in 1303 in a special chapel that also housed the remains of Pope
Pope
Boniface IV (A.D. 608-615), which had been moved by Boniface VIII from a tomb outside the Vatican Basilica in the portico. Boniface VIII had arranged that this would be done to offset the fact that his predecessor was still alive, which caused him to worry that the legitimacy of his own papacy would be thrown into doubt. In choosing such a burial, Boniface VIII was trying to show that he was a legitimate pope with the implicit support from the grave of a popular predecessor, Boniface IV. The body was accidentally exhumed in 1605, and the results of the excavation recorded by Giacomo Grimaldi
Giacomo Grimaldi
(1568-1623), Apostolic Notary and Archivist of the Vatican Basilica, and others.[57] The body lay within three coffins, the outermost of wood, the middle of lead, and the innermost of pine. The corporal remains were described as being "unusually tall" measuring seven palms when examined by doctors. The body was found quite intact, especially the shapely hands, thus disproving another spiteful calumny, that he had died in a frenzy, gnawing his hands, beating his brains out against the wall.[58] The body wore ecclesiastical vestments common for Boniface's lifetime: long stockings covered legs and thighs, and it was garbed also with the maniple, cassock, and pontifical habit made of black silk, as well as stole, chasuble, rings, and bejeweled gloves.[59] After this exhumation and examination, Boniface's body was moved to the Chapel of Pope
Pope
Gregory and Andrew. His body now lies in the crypt (grotte) of St. Peter's in a large marble sarcophagus, laconically inscribed BONIFACIVS PAPA VIII.[60] Posthumous trial[edit] After the papacy had been removed to Avignon
Avignon
in 1309, Pope
Pope
Clement V, under extreme pressure from King Philip IV, consented to a posthumous trial. He said, "[I]t was permissible for any persons who wanted to proceed against the memory of Boniface VIII to proceed." He gave a mandate to the Bishop
Bishop
of Paris, Guillaume de Baufet d'Aurillac, and to Guillaume Pierre Godin, OP, that the complainants should choose prosecutors and determine a day on which the Inquiry would begin in the presence of the Pope
Pope
(coram nobis Avinione). The Pope
Pope
signed his mandate at his current place of residence, the Priory of Grauselle[61] near Malusan (Malausène) in the diocese of Vasio (Vaison), on 18 October 1309. Both the King of Aragon and the King of Castile immediately sent ambassadors to Pope
Pope
Clement, complaining that scandal was being poured into the ears of the Faithful, when they heard that a Roman pontiff was being charged with a crime of heresy.[62] They had a point, in that the persecution implied that a pope was not infallible in matters of faith and morals. Complaints also came from Italy, Germany, and the Netherlands. On 27 April 1310, in what was certainly a peace gesture toward the French, Clement V pardoned Guillaume Nogaret for his offenses committed at Anagni
Anagni
against Boniface VIII and the Church, for which he had been excommunicated, with the condition that Nogaret personally go to the Holy Land in the next wave of soldiers and serve there in the military.[63] By the end of Spring 1310, Clement was feeling the embarrassment and the pressure over the material being produced by Boniface's accusers. His patience was wearing thin. He issued a mandate on 28 June 1310, in which he complained about the quality of the testimony and the corruption of the various accusers and witnesses. Then he ordered the Quaesitores that future examinations should proceed under threat of excommunication for perjury.[64] A process (judicial investigation) against the memory of Boniface was held by an ecclesiastical consistory at Priory Groseau, near Malaucène, which held preliminary examinations in August and September 1310.[65] and collected testimonies that alleged many heretical opinions of Boniface VIII. This included the offence of sodomy, although there is no substantive evidence for this, and it is likely that this was the standard accusation Philip made against enemies.[66] The same charge was brought against the Templars. Before the actual trial could be held, Clement persuaded Philip to leave the question of Boniface's guilt to the Council of Vienne, which met in 1311. On 27 April 1311, in a public Consistory, with King Philip's agents present, the Pope
Pope
formally excused the King for everything that he had said against the memory of Pope
Pope
Boniface, on the grounds that he was speaking with good intentions. This statement was written down and published as a bull, and the bull contained the statement that the matter would be referred by the Pope
Pope
to the forthcoming Council. The Pope
Pope
then announced that he was reserving the whole matter to his own judgment.[67] The XV Ecumenical Council, the Council of Vienne, opened on 1 November 1311, with more than 300 bishops in attendance. When the Council met (so it is said), three cardinals appeared before it and testified to the orthodoxy and morality of the dead pope. Two knights, as challengers, threw down their gauntlets to maintain his innocence by trial by combat. No one accepted the challenge, and the Council declared the matter closed.[68] Clement's order disbanding the Order of the Knights Templar
Knights Templar
was signed at the Council of Vienne
Council of Vienne
on 2 May 1312. In culture[edit]

Statue of Pope
Pope
Boniface VIII at the Museo dell'Opera del Duomo in Florence

In his Inferno, Dante portrayed Boniface VIII as destined for hell, where simony is punished, although Boniface was still alive at the fictional date of the poem's story. Boniface's eventual destiny is revealed to Dante by Pope
Pope
Nicholas III, whom he meets. A bit later in the Inferno, Dante reminds of the pontiff's feud with the Colonna family, which led him to demolish the city of Palestrina, killing 6,000 citizens and destroying both the home of Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
and a shrine to Mary. Boniface's ultimate fate is confirmed by Beatrice when Dante visits Heaven. It is notable that he does not adopt Guillaume de Nogaret's aspersion that Boniface VIII was a 'sodomite', however, and does not assign him to that circle of hell (although simony was placed in the eighth circle of fraud, below sodomy, in the seventh circle of violence, designating it as a worse offense and taking precedence above activities of sodomy). He is also mentioned in François Rabelais's Gargantua and Pantagruel. In the chapter that Epistemos lists the inhabitants of hell and their occupations, he says that Boniface was (in one translation) "skimming the scum off soup pots". The mathematician and astronomer Campanus of Novara
Campanus of Novara
served as personal physician or perhaps only as a chaplain to Pope
Pope
Boniface VIII.[69] Campano died at Viterbo in 1296. In Giovanni Boccaccio's Decameron, Boniface VIII is satirically depicted granting a highwayman (Ghino di Tacco) a priorate (Day 10, second tale). Earlier (I.i), Boniface VIII is also mentioned for his role in sending Charles, Count of Valois
Charles, Count of Valois
to Florence
Florence
in 1300 to end the feud between the Black and White Guelphs. The Tale of Pope
Pope
Boniface is told in Book
Book
2 of John Gower's Confessio Amantis as an exemplum of the sin of fraudulently supplanting others. Gower claims that Boniface tricked Pope
Pope
Celestine V
Celestine V
into abdicating by having a young cleric, pretending to be the voice of God, speak to him while he was sleeping and convince him to abdicate (ll. 2861-2900). Gower also repeats the rumour that Boniface died by gnawing off his own hands, but attributes it to hunger rather than a deliberate suicide attempt (ll. 3027-28). Boniface was a patron of Giotto. Boniface had the churches of Rome
Rome
restored for the Great Jubilee of 1300, particularly St. Peter's Basilica, the Lateran Basilica, and the Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore. Pope
Pope
Boniface VIII is a main character played by Jim Carter in the History Channel television show Knightfall. Boniface is portrayed as a warm and avuncular man and a seasoned politician, who acts as a stabilizing, incorruptible force within a corrupt medieval world. The Knights Templar
Knights Templar
value him as their Holy leader, and they are willing to execute his orders without question. Boniface personally appoints Landry the new Master and Commander of the Paris Temple after Godfrey's assassination, and entrusts him with the mission of finding the Holy Grail, hoping to use it to launch a new Crusade and reclaim the Holy Land.

See also[edit]

Giovanni Villani
Giovanni Villani
(Florentine chronicler who made an account of Boniface and his jubilee) Unam sanctam Barons' Letter of 1301

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

^ His elder brother, Roffredo or Goffredo, was the first Conte di Caserta
Caserta
from 1288, Signore di Calvi, Vairano e Norma in 1282, Senator of Rome
Rome
1290–1292, Signore di Vairano by decree of the King of Sicily
Sicily
on 1 April 1291, Podestà
Podestà
of Todi
Todi
(1282/5–1283), Signore di Caserta
Caserta
(1290). He had a younger brother, Giovanni, and three sisters. ^ Finke, p. 9. Tosti, p. 37. ^ Tosti, p. 37, citing Teuli, History of Velletri, Book
Book
2, chapter 5. ^ Pierre Dupuy, Histoire du differend d'entre le Pape Boniface VIII. et Philippes le Bel, Roy de France
France
(Paris 1655), pp. 527-528. ^ Ptolemaeus of Lucca Historia ecclesiastica XXIII. 26 (Muratori Rerum Italicarum Scriptores XI, p. 203). Tosti (p. 37) believed that Caetani held the office of Advocatus before he set out with Cardinal Ottoboni on the English legation. ^ August Potthast, Regesta Pontificum Romanorum II (Berlin 1875), p. 1543, nos. 18858, 18859, 18867. Pope
Pope
Urban IV had held a Consistory on 25 April, at which the matter of naming Charles of Anjou
Charles of Anjou
as Senator of Rome
Rome
was discussed. It was after this meeting that Cardinal Simon was given his Legation. ^ August Potthast, Regesta Pontificum Romanorum II (Berlin 1875), p. 1543, nos. 19037-19039. ^ Potthast, no. 19065. These were benefices which in the course of things were in the hands of the Pope. ^ Potthast, 19089. ^ This derives from a statement of Pope
Pope
Clement V in 1309, during the agitation for a posthumous trial of Boniface VIII: A. Theiner (ed.), Caesaris Baronii Annales Ecclesiastici Tomus 23 (Bar-le-Duc 1871), under year 1309, §4, p. 429. Rose Graham, "Letters of Cardinal Ottoboni," English Historical Review 15 (1900) 87-120. ^ Francis Gasquet, Henry the Third and the English Church (London 1905), p. 414. ^ Registres de Clément IV I, nos. 40-78. ^ Francis Gasquet, Henry the Third and the English Church (London 1905), pp. 403-416. ^ George Baker, The History and Antiquities of the County of Northamptonshire
Northamptonshire
Vol. III (London: J.B.Nicholas & Son 1836), pages 312-338 ^ Tosti, p. 38, n. 15 ^ Tosti (p. 37) believed that Caetani
Caetani
held the office of Advocatus before he set out with Cardinal Ottoboni on the English legation. And yet, Ottobono Fieschi was elected Pope
Pope
Adrian V on 11 July 1276 and died on 18 August 1276. ^ Tosti, p. 38, n. 15: ... ut ecclesias S. Nicolai in carcere Tulliano de Urbe, et de Barro in Ligonensi [Langres], et de Piliaco [? Pisiaco (Poissy, Seine et Oise)], archidiaconatum in Carnotensi [Chartres], ac ecclesiam die Thoucester, canonicatus quoque ac praebendas in Ligonensi, Carnotensi, Parisiensi, Anagnina, Tuderina, S. Audomari Morinensi [Therouanne], ac in Basilica S. Petri de Urbe retinere possit." Tosti is wrong in calling Benedetto Caetani
Caetani
a canon of Lyons; he misread Lugdunensi where the text twice has Lingonensi. ^ "Cardinal Deaconry".  ^ R. Morghen, "Una legazione di Benedetto Caetani
Caetani
nell' Umbria
Umbria
e la guerra tra Perugia e Foligno del 1288," Archivio della Società romana di storia patria, 52 (1929), pp. 485-490. ^ A. Theiner (ed.), Caesaris Baronii Annales Ecclesiastici Tomus 23 (Bar-le-Duc 1871), under year 1289, §31, p. 54. This fact is blown out of proportion by some commentators into a Legateship to Portugal. The business, however, was done in Rome, through Procurators of the King of Portugal. The document was signed at S. Maria Maggiore on 12 February 1289 and the ecclesiastical censures against the Portuguese withdrawn in March. ^ Conrad Eubel, Hierarchia catholica medii aevi I edition altera (Monasterii 1913), pp. 10, 47, 52. ^ "Cardinal Title".  ^ It is sometimes said that he also received the Deaconry of S. Agnes, but S. Agnes was not a deaconry or a titulus in the 13th century. ^ Bartholomew of Lucca, in: Odoricus Raynaldus [Rainaldi], Annales Ecclesiastici Tomus Quartus [Volume XXIII] (Lucca: Leonardo Venturini 1749), sub anno 1294, p. 156: Dominus Benedictus cum aliquibus cardinalibus Caelestino persuasit ut officio cedat quia propter simplicitatem suam, licet sanctus vir, et vitae magni foret exempli, saepius adversis confundabantur ecclesiae in gratiis faciendis et circa regimen orbis. ^ also known as Hughes (Seguin) of Billom
Billom
and Hughes de Billay, of the French province of the Dominican Order, former lector at the studium of Santa Sabina. Cardinal Hugh had been created a cardinal priest by Pope
Pope
Nicholas IV on 16 May 1288, with the title of Santa Sabina, and was promoted Cardinal- Bishop
Bishop
of the Suburbicarian Diocese of Ostia in August 1294 by Celestine V. See Conrad Eubel, Hierarchia catholica medii aevi I edition altera (Monasterii 1913), pp. 11, 35, 46. ^ See the poem by Jacopo Stefaneschi, Subdeacon of the Holy Roman Church, who participated in the events: Ludovicus Antonius Muratori, Rerum Italicarum Scriptores Tomus Tertius (Milan 1723), 642. ^ "Frater Hugo de Bidiliomo provincie Francie, magister fuit egregius in theologia et multum famosus in romana curia; qui actu lector existens apud Sanctam Sabinam, per papam Nicolaum quartum eiusdem ecclesie factus cardinalis" [16.V.1288]; postmodum per Celestinum papam [1294] est ordinatus in episcopum ostiensem (Cr Pg 3r). http://www.e-theca.net/emiliopanella/lector12.htm Accessed May 9, 2011; see also Bolgia, Claudia; McKitterick, McKitterick; Osborne, John (2011). Rome
Rome
Across Time and Space: Cultural Transmission and the Exchange of Ideas, C.500-1400. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-19217-0. , p. 275. ^ Philip Daileader, The Late Middle Ages, The Teaching Company. (These are audio lectures of a college-level course, with an accompanying book containing the text.) ^ Filippo Maria Renazzi, Storia dell' Universita degli studj di Roma, detto comunamente La Sapienza Volume I (Roma: Pagliarini 1803), pp. 56-69. ^ Oswald J. Reichel, The Elements of Canon Law (London: Thomas Baker, 1889), p. 51. ^ Liber Sextus Decretalium D. Bonifacii Papae VIII, suae integritate, una cum Clementinis et Extravagantibus restitutus (Francofurdi: Ioan. Wechelus 1586), pp. 1-272. ^ Liber Sextus Decretalium D. Bonifacii Papae VIII (Francofurdi 1586), pp. 252-260. ^ cf. Medieval Italy: An Encyclopedia Christopher Kleinhenz et al. eds. Routledge, 2004, p. 178. ^ Pope
Pope
Boniface VIII. "Unam Sanctam".  ^ a b Oestereich, Thomas. " Pope
Pope
Boniface VIII." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 2. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1907. 4 March 2016 ^ "The Bad Popes" by ER Chamberlin 1969, 1986 ISBN 0-88029-116-8 Chapter III "The Lord of Europe" page 102-104. ^ Conrad Eubel, Hierarchia catholica medii aevi I edition altera (Monasterii 1913), pp. 12-13. ^ Dante Alighierli, Divine Comedy, Inferno, 19.49–63 ^ A. Theiner (ed.), Caesaris Baronii Annales Ecclesiastici Tomus 23 (Bar-le-Duc 1871), under year 1296, §17, pp. 188-189; under year 1300, §26, p. 272-273. ^ A. Theiner (ed.), Caesaris Baronii Annales Ecclesiastici Tomus 23 (Bar-le-Duc 1871), under year 1296, §24-32, pp. 193-196. ^ Herbert Thurston, The Holy Year of Jubilee (St. Louis MO: B. Herder 1900), pp. 6-25. ^ Thurston, p. 17. ^ Jacopo Stefaneschi, "Jacobi Sancti Georgii ad Velum aureum diaconi Cardinalis, de centesimo seu iubileo anno Liber," Margarino de la Bigne (editor), Maxima Bibliotheca veterum Patrum et antiquorum scriptorum ecclesiasticorum Tomus 25 (Lugduni 1677), pp. 936-944, at p. 940. Stefaneschi was an eyewitness. ^ A. Theiner (ed.), Caesaris Baronii Annales Ecclesiastici Tomus 23 (Bar-le-Duc 1871), under year 1300, §6, p. 264. ^ François Guizot and Mme. Guizot de Witt, History of France
France
from the Earliest Times to 1848 Volume I (New York 1885), p. 474. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia. Tosti, History of Pope
Pope
Boniface VIII, p. 335. ^ A. Theiner (ed.), Caesaris Baronii Annales Ecclesiastici Tomus 23 (Bar-le-Duc 1871), under year 1303, §33, p. 325-326. ^ Joannes Dominicus Mansi, Sacrorum Conciliorum nova et amplissima Collectio novissima edition, Tomus vicesimus quintus (Venetiis 1782), pp. 97-100. ^ A. Theiner (ed.), Caesaris Baronii Annales Ecclesiastici Tomus 23 (Bar-le-Duc 1871), under year 1302, §13-15, p. 303-304. ^ Georges Digard (editor), Les Registres de Boniface VIII (Paris 1907), nos. 5041-5069. Cf. no. 5341 (13 April 1303), Pope
Pope
Boniface's reply to Cardinal Jean's report. ^ Georges Digard (editor), Les Registres de Boniface VIII (Paris 1907), no. 5345. ^ Georges Digard (editor), Les Registres de Boniface VIII (Paris 1907), nos. 5386-5387 ^ See the extensive narrative of Gregorovius, 588-596. Giuseppe Marchetti Longhi, "Il palazzo di Bonifacio VIII in Anagni," Archivio della Società romana di storia patria 43 (1920), 379-410. The building still exists: http://www.palazzobonifacioviii.it/ ^ A. Tomassetti, Bullarum diplomatum et privilegiorum sanctorum Romanorum pontificum Tomus IV (Augustae Taurinorum 1859), pp. 170-174. The date of September 8 has caused much scholarly controversy. Chamberlain, E.R. "The Lord of Europe". The Bad Popes. Barnes and Noble. p. 120.  Ian Mortimer: "Barriers to the Truth" History Today: 60:12: December 2010: 13 ^ Reardon, Wendy. The Deaths of the Popes. McFarland. p. 120. . Reardon's narrative does not appear to accord with contemporary sources. ^ Giovanni Villani, Historia universalis, Book
Book
VIII, chapter 65. R. E. Selfe and P. H. Wicksteed, Selections from the First Nine Books of the Croniche Fiorentine of Giovanni Villani
Giovanni Villani
(Westminster, 1898), pp. 346-350. ^ A. Theiner (ed.), Caesaris Baronii Annales Ecclesiastici Tomus 23 (Bar-le-Duc 1871), under year 1303, §34, pp. 333. A. L. Frothingham, Jr., "Procès-verbal by Giacomo Grimaldi
Giacomo Grimaldi
of the Opening of the Tomb of Pope
Pope
Boniface VIII in the Basilica of San Pietro in Vaticano in 1605," American Journal of Archaeology 4 (1888), 330-332. ^ Thomas Oestereich, " Pope
Pope
Boniface VIII." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 2. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1907. Retrieved: 6 February 2018. ^ The body was seen several times by the Papal Master of Ceremonies, Giovanni Paolo Mucanzio, who reported the details in his Diary, under 11 October 1605: Joannes Baptista Gattico, Acta Selecta Caeremonialia Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae ex variis mss. codicibus et diariis saeculi xv. xvi. xvii. Tomus I (Romae 1753), p. 478-479. The body had been discovered accidentally during the removal of several altars from the old St. Peter's to make way for the walls and new chapels of Maderno's nave. ^ Reardon, Wendy. The Deaths of the Popes. Comprehensive Accounts Including Funeral, Burial Places and Epitaphs. McFarland. pp. 120–123. . Her date of 1606 is incorrect. ^ Gallia christiana I (Paris 1716), pp. 919-920. ^ Bernardus Guidonis says. "...in publico consistorio pronuntiavit, ut liceret prosequi volentibus procedere contra memoriam Bonifacii papae VIII defuncti." A. Theiner (ed.), Caesaris Baronii Annales Ecclesiastici Tomus 23 (Bar-le-Duc 1871), under year 1309, §4, p. 428. ^ A. Theiner (ed.), Caesaris Baronii Annales Ecclesiastici Tomus 23 (Bar-le-Duc 1871), under year 1311, §50, p. 495. ^ A. Theiner (ed.), Caesaris Baronii Annales Ecclesiastici Tomus 23 (Bar-le-Duc 1871), under year 1310, §37-38, pp. 463-464. ^ Its records were republished in a critical edition by Jean Coste, Boniface VIII en procès: articles d'accusation et dépositions des témoins (1303-1311) (Rome: 'L'Erma' di Bretschneider 1995). See especially pp. 547-732. ^ James Brundage, Law, Sex and Christianity in Medieval Europe (University of Chicago, 1990), p. 473 ^ A. Theiner (ed.), Caesaris Baronii Annales Ecclesiastici Tomus 23 (Bar-le-Duc 1871), under year 1311, §25-30, p. 481-483. ^ The Age of Faith, Will Durant, 1950, 13th printing, page 816--but without citing a source. Durant's authority is not high. It seems quite unlikely that the Church, especially during an Ecumenical Council, would have acquiesced in a trial for heresy by combat--which was contrary to Church policy. And there is evidence that a legal brief had been prepared by an eminent lawyer of Bologna for a trial of Boniface VIII at the Council: Joannes Dominicus Mansi, Sacrorum Conciliorum nova et amplissima Collectio novissima edition, Tomus vicesimus quintus (Venetiis 1782), pp. 415-426; it is pointed out in several places in the same work that the case of Boniface was presented to the Council by Pope
Pope
Clement, and that the Council rejected it. ^ Robin Healey, Italian Literature Before 1900 In English Translation: An Annotated Bibliography 1929–2008, page 390 (University of Toronto Press Incorporated, 2011). ISBN 978-1-4426-4269-0. He is not listed as a physician of Boniface VIII by Gaetano Marini, Degli archiatri pontificj I (Roma: Pagliarini 1784), pp. 32-42.

Bibliography[edit]

Bautz, Friedrich Wilhelm (1975). " Pope
Pope
Boniface VIII". In Bautz, Friedrich Wilhelm. Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL) (in German). 1. Hamm: Bautz. cols. 690–692. ISBN 3-88309-013-1.  Boase, Thomas S. R. (1933). Boniface VIII. London: Constable.  Celidonio, Giuseppe (1896). Vita di S. Pietro del Morrone, Celestino Papa V, scritta su documenti coevi (in Italian). 3 volumes. Sulmone: Angeletti.  Coppa, Frank J, ed. (2002). The Great Popes Through History. Connecticut: Greenwood Press. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Coste, Jean, ed. (1995). Boniface VIII en procès. Articles d'accusation et dépositions des témoins (1303–1311) (in French). Rome: L'Erma di Bretschneider. ISBN 88-7062-914-7.  Denifle, H. (1889). "Die Denkschriften der Colonna gegen Bonifaz VIII. und der Cardinale gegen die Colonna". Archiv für Literatur- und Kirchen- geschichte (in German). Freiburg im Breisgau. V.  Finke, Heinrich (1902). Aus den Tagen Bonifaz VIII. Funde und Forschungen (in German). Muenster.  Frugoni, A. (1950). Il giubileo di Bonifacio VIII (in Italian). LXII. Bulletino dell'Istituto storico per il Medioevo.  Gregorovius, Ferdinand (1906). History of the City of Rome
Rome
in the Middle Ages. vol. V. London: George Bell and Sons.  Marrone, John and Charles Zuckerman (1975). "Cardinal Simon of Beaulieu and relations between Philip the Fair and Boniface VIII". Traditio. 21: 195–222.  Matheus, Michael / Lutz Klinkhammer (eds.): Eigenbild im Konflikt. Krisensituationen des Papsttums zwischen Gregor VII. und Benedikt XV. WBG, Darmstadt, 2009, ISBN 978-3-534-20936-1. Morghen, R. (1929). "Una legazione di Benedetto Caetani
Caetani
nell' Umbria
Umbria
e la guerra tra Perugia e Foligno del 1288". Archivio della Società romana di storia patria. 52.  Paravicini Bagliani, Agostino (2003). Boniface VIII. Un pape hérétique? (in French). Paris: Payot.  Paravicini Bagliani, Agostino (2003). Bonifacio VIII (in Italian). Torino: Einaudi.  Rociglio, A. (1894). La Rinuncia di Celestino V: Celestino V ed il VI centenario della sua Incornazione (in Italian). Aquila.  Rubeus (Rossi), Joannes (Giovanni) (1651). Bonifacius VIII e familia Caietanorum principum Romanus Pontifex (in Italian). Romae: Corbelletti.  Schmidinger, H. (1964). "Ein vergessener Bericht über das Attentat von Anagni". Mélanges Tisserant (in German). Roma. V.  Schmidt, Tilmann (1983). Bonifatius VIII. In: Lexikon des Mittelalters. Vol. 2, Munich/Zurich 1983, cols. 414-416. Schmidt, Tilmann (1989). Der Bonifaz-Prozeß. Verfahren der Papstanklage zur Zeit Bonifaz' VIII. und Clemens' V (in German). Cologne, Vienna: Böhlau.  Scholz, Richard (1903). Die Publizistik zur Zeit Philipps des Schönen und Bonifaz' VIII (in German). Stuttgart.  Sestan, Ernesto (1970). Bonifacio VIII. In: Enciclopedia Dantesca, a cura di Umberto Bosco. A-CIL, Rome, 1970, pp. 675–679. Souchon, Martin (1888). Die Papstwahlen von Bonifaz VIII bis Urban VI (in German). Braunschweig: Benno Goeritz.  Theseider, Eugenio Dupré: Bonifacio VIII. In: Massimo Bray (ed.): Enciclopedia dei Papi, Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, Vol. 2  (Niccolò I, santo, Sisto IV), Rome, 2000, OCLC 313581688 Tierney, Brian (1964). Crisis of Church and State. Totowa, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.  Tosti, Luigi (1911). History of Pope
Pope
Boniface VIII and his times. Translated by Donnelly, E. J. New York.  Wenck, Karl (1905). War Bonifaz VIII. ein Ketzer? In: Historische Zeitschrift 94 (1905), pp. 1–66. Wood, Charles, T. (1967). Phillip the Fair and Boniface VIII: State vs Papacy. New York: Holt, Rhinehart, and Winston.  Xavier, Adro (1971). Bonifacio VIII. Barcelona, 1971.

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Clement V: a paragraph on the trial of Boniface VIII Notes on the Conclave of April 4, 1292--July 5, 1294 Dr. J. P. Adams (with contemporary sources) Notes on the Conclave of December, 1294 Dr. J. P. Adams (with contemporary sources) The Bull
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Clericis Laicos (Medieval Sourcebook) "Boniface VIII against the Revolution" (Saint Benedict Center) [a strongly biased conservative Catholic view] "Boniface VIII and the Heresy of Statism" (Saint Benedict Center) [a strongly biased conservative Catholic view] Literature by and about Pope
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Frankish Papacy
(756–857)

Innocent I Zosimus Boniface I Celestine I Sixtus III Leo I Hilarius Simplicius Felix III Gelasius I Anastasius II Symmachus Hormisdas John I Felix IV Boniface II John II Agapetus I Silverius Vigilius Pelagius I John III Benedict I Pelagius II Gregory I Sabinian Boniface III Boniface IV Adeodatus I Boniface V Honorius I Severinus John IV Theodore I Martin I Eugene I Vitalian Adeodatus II Donus Agatho Leo II Benedict II John V Conon Sergius I John VI John VII Sisinnius Constantine Gregory II Gregory III Zachary Stephen II Paul I Stephen III Adrian I Leo III

9th–12th centuries Papal selection before 1059 Saeculum obscurum (904–964) Crescentii
Crescentii
era (974–1012) Tusculan Papacy
Tusculan Papacy
(1012–1044/1048) Imperial Papacy (1048–1257)

Stephen IV Paschal I Eugene II Valentine Gregory IV Sergius II Leo IV Benedict III Nicholas I Adrian II John VIII Marinus I Adrian III Stephen V Formosus Boniface VI Stephen VI Romanus Theodore II John IX Benedict IV Leo V Sergius III Anastasius III Lando John X Leo VI Stephen VII John XI Leo VII Stephen VIII Marinus II Agapetus II John XII Benedict V Leo VIII John XIII Benedict VI Benedict VII John XIV John XV Gregory V Sylvester II John XVII John XVIII Sergius IV Benedict VIII John XIX Benedict IX Sylvester III Benedict IX Gregory VI Clement II Benedict IX Damasus II Leo IX Victor II Stephen IX Nicholas II Alexander II Gregory VII Victor III Urban II Paschal II Gelasius II Callixtus II Honorius II Innocent II Celestine II Lucius II Eugene III Anastasius IV Adrian IV Alexander III Lucius III Urban III Gregory VIII Clement III Celestine III Innocent III

13th–16th centuries Viterbo (1257–1281) Orvieto
Orvieto
(1262–1297) Perugia (1228–1304) Avignon
Avignon
Papacy (1309–1378) Western Schism
Western Schism
(1378–1417) Renaissance Papacy
Renaissance Papacy
(1417–1534) Reformation Papacy
Reformation Papacy
(1534–1585) Baroque Papacy
Baroque Papacy
(1585–1689)

Honorius III Gregory IX Celestine IV Innocent IV Alexander IV Urban IV Clement IV Gregory X Innocent V Adrian V John XXI Nicholas III Martin IV Honorius IV Nicholas IV Celestine V Boniface VIII Benedict XI Clement V John XXII Benedict XII Clement VI Innocent VI Urban V Gregory XI Urban VI Boniface IX Innocent VII Gregory XII Martin V Eugene IV Nicholas V Callixtus III Pius II Paul II Sixtus IV Innocent VIII Alexander VI Pius III Julius II Leo X Adrian VI Clement VII Paul III Julius III Marcellus II Paul IV Pius IV Pius V Gregory XIII Sixtus V Urban VII Gregory XIV Innocent IX Clement VIII

17th–20th centuries Revolutionary Papacy (1775–1848) Roman Question
Roman Question
(1870–1929) Vatican City
Vatican City
(1929–present) World War II (1939–1945) Cold War (1945–1991)

Leo XI Paul V Gregory XV Urban VIII Innocent X Alexander VII Clement IX Clement X Innocent XI Alexander VIII Innocent XII Clement XI Innocent XIII Benedict XIII Clement XII Benedict XIV Clement XIII Clement XIV Pius VI Pius VII Leo XII Pius VIII Gregory XVI Pius IX Leo XIII Pius X Benedict XV Pius XI Pius XII John XXIII Paul VI John Paul I John Paul II

21st century

Benedict XVI Francis

History of the papacy

Antiquity and Early Middle Ages

During the Roman Empire (until 493)

Under Constantine (312–337)

Ostrogothic Papacy
Ostrogothic Papacy
(493–537) Byzantine Papacy
Byzantine Papacy
(537–752) Frankish Papacy
Frankish Papacy
(756–857) Saeculum obscurum (904–964) Crescentii
Crescentii
era (974–1012)

High and Late Middle Ages

Tusculan Papacy
Tusculan Papacy
(1012–1044 / 1048) Imperial Papacy (1048–1257) Wandering Papacy

Viterbo, 1257–1281 Orvieto, 1262–1297 Perugia, 1228–1304

Avignon
Avignon
Papacy (1309–1378) Western Schism
Western Schism
(1378–1417)

Early Modern and Modern Era

Renaissance Papacy
Renaissance Papacy
(1417–1534) Reformation Papacy
Reformation Papacy
(1534–1585) Baroque Papacy
Baroque Papacy
(1585–1689) Revolutionary Papacy (1775–1848) Roman Question
Roman Question
(1870–1929) Vatican City
Vatican City
(1929–present)

WWII (1939–1945)

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History (Timeline)

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Apostles Early Christianity History of the papacy Ecumenical councils Missions Great Schism of East Crusades Great Schism of West Age of Discovery Protestant Reformation Council of Trent Counter-Reformation Catholic Church
Catholic Church
by country Vatican City

index outline

Second Vatican Council

Hierarchy (Precedence)

Pope
Pope
(List)

Pope
Pope
Francis (2013–present)

conclave inauguration theology canonizations visits

Pope
Pope
Emeritus Benedict XVI (2005–2013)

Roman Curia College of Cardinals

Cardinal List

Patriarchate Episcopal conference Patriarch Major archbishop Primate Metropolitan Archbishop Diocesan bishop Coadjutor bishop Auxiliary bishop Titular bishop Bishop
Bishop
emeritus Abbot Abbess Superior general Provincial superior Grand Master Prior
Prior
(-ess) Priest Brother

Friar

Sister Monk Nun Hermit Master of novices Novice Oblate Postulant Laity

Theology

Body and soul Bible Catechism Divine grace Dogma Ecclesiology

Four Marks of the Church

Original sin

List

Salvation Sermon on the Mount Ten Commandments Trinity Worship

Mariology

Assumption History Immaculate Conception Mariology of the popes Mariology of the saints Mother of God Perpetual virginity Veneration

Philosophy

Natural law Moral theology Personalism Social teaching Philosophers

Sacraments

Baptism Confirmation Eucharist Penance Anointing of the Sick

Last rites

Holy orders Matrimony

Saints

Mary Apostles Archangels Confessors Disciples Doctors of the Church Evangelists Church Fathers Martyrs Patriarchs Prophets Virgins

Doctors of the Church

Gregory the Great Ambrose Augustine of Hippo Jerome John Chrysostom Basil of Caesarea Gregory of Nazianzus Athanasius of Alexandria Cyril of Alexandria Cyril of Jerusalem John of Damascus Bede
Bede
the Venerable Ephrem the Syrian Thomas Aquinas Bonaventure Anselm of Canterbury Isidore of Seville Peter Chrysologus Leo the Great Peter Damian Bernard of Clairvaux Hilary of Poitiers Alphonsus Liguori Francis de Sales Peter Canisius John of the Cross Robert Bellarmine Albertus Magnus Anthony of Padua Lawrence of Brindisi Teresa of Ávila Catherine of Siena Thérèse of Lisieux John of Ávila Hildegard of Bingen Gregory of Narek

Institutes, orders, and societies

Assumptionists Annonciades Augustinians Basilians Benedictines Bethlehemites Blue nuns Camaldoleses Camillians Carmelites Carthusians Cistercians Clarisses Conceptionists Crosiers Dominicans Franciscans Good Shepherd Sisters Hieronymites Jesuits Mercedarians Minims Olivetans Oratorians Piarists Premonstratensians Redemptorists Servites Theatines Trappists Trinitarians Visitandines

Associations of the faithful

International Federation of Catholic Parochial Youth Movements International Federation of Catholic Universities International Kolping Society Schoenstatt Apostolic Movement International Union of Catholic Esperantists Community of Sant'Egidio

Charities

Aid to the Church in Need Caritas Internationalis Catholic Home Missions Catholic Relief Services CIDSE

Particular churches (By country)

Latin Church Eastern Catholic Churches: Albanian Armenian Belarusian Bulgarian Chaldean Coptic Croatian and Serbian Eritrean Ethiopian Georgian Greek Hungarian Italo-Albanian Macedonian Maronite Melkite Romanian Russian Ruthenian Slovak Syriac Syro-Malabar Syro-Malankara Ukrainian

Liturgical rites

Alexandrian Antiochian Armenian Byzantine East Syrian Latin

Anglican Use Ambrosian Mozarabic Roman

West Syrian

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History of the Catholic Church

By country or region

History of the Papacy Timeline of the Catholic Church Catholic ecumenical councils History of the Roman Curia Catholic Church
Catholic Church
art Religious institutes Christian monasticism Papal States Role of Christianity in civilization

Church beginnings, Great Church

Jesus John the Baptist Apostles

Peter John Paul

Saint Stephen Great Commission Council of Jerusalem Apostolic Age Apostolic Fathers Ignatius of Antioch Irenaeus Pope
Pope
Victor I Tertullian

Constantine to Pope
Pope
Gregory I

Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
and Christianity Arianism Archbasilica of St. John Lateran First Council of Nicaea Pope
Pope
Sylvester I First Council of Constantinople Biblical canon Jerome Vulgate Council of Ephesus Council of Chalcedon Benedict of Nursia Second Council of Constantinople Pope
Pope
Gregory I Gregorian chant

Early Middle Ages

Third Council of Constantinople Saint Boniface Byzantine Iconoclasm Second Council of Nicaea Charlemagne Pope
Pope
Leo III Fourth Council of Constantinople East–West Schism

High Middle Ages

Pope
Pope
Urban II Investiture Controversy Crusades First Council of the Lateran Second Council of the Lateran Third Council of the Lateran Pope
Pope
Innocent III Latin Empire Francis of Assisi Fourth Council of the Lateran Inquisition First Council of Lyon Second Council of Lyon Bernard of Clairvaux Thomas Aquinas

Late Middle Ages

Pope
Pope
Boniface VIII Avignon
Avignon
Papacy Pope
Pope
Clement V Council of Vienne Knights Templar Catherine of Siena Pope
Pope
Alexander VI

Reformation Counter-Reformation

Reformation Counter-Reformation Thomas More Pope
Pope
Leo X Society of Jesus Ignatius of Loyola Francis Xavier Dissolution of the Monasteries Council of Trent Pope
Pope
Pius V Tridentine Mass Teresa of Ávila John of the Cross Philip Neri Robert Bellarmine

Baroque
Baroque
Period to the French Revolution

Pope
Pope
Innocent XI Pope
Pope
Benedict XIV Suppression of the Society of Jesus Anti-clericalism Pope
Pope
Pius VI Shimabara Rebellion Edict of Nantes Dechristianization of France
France
during the French Revolution

19th century

Pope
Pope
Pius VII Pope
Pope
Pius IX Dogma of the Immaculate Conception
Immaculate Conception
of the Virgin Mary Our Lady of La Salette Our Lady of Lourdes First Vatican Council Papal infallibility Pope
Pope
Leo XIII Mary of the Divine Heart Prayer of Consecration to the Sacred Heart Rerum novarum

20th century

Pope
Pope
Pius X Our Lady of Fátima Persecutions of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and Pius XII Pope
Pope
Pius XII Pope
Pope
Pius XII Consecration to the Immaculate Heart of Mary Dogma of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary Lateran Treaty Pope
Pope
John XXIII Second Vatican Council Pope
Pope
Paul VI Pope
Pope
John Paul I Pope
Pope
John Paul II World Youth Day

1995 2000

21st century

Catholic Church
Catholic Church
sexual abuse cases Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI World Youth Day

2002 2005 2008 2011 2013 2016

Pope
Pope
Francis

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Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 23416912 LCCN: n79056773 ISNI: 0000 0001 2124 2007 GND: 118513257 SELIBR: 42043 SUDOC: 029716721 BNF: cb12128117z (data) ULAN: 500332133 NLA: 35863280 NKC: js20020115035 ICCU: ITICCURMLV21129 SN

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