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POP MUSIC is a genre of popular music that originated in its modern form in the United States
United States
and United Kingdom
United Kingdom
during the mid-1950s. The terms "popular music" and "pop music" are often used interchangeably, although the former describes all music that is popular and includes many styles. "Pop" and "rock " were roughly synonymous terms until the late 1960s, when they became increasingly differentiated from each other.

Although pop music is seen as just the singles charts , it is not the sum of all chart music. Pop music
Pop music
is eclectic, and often borrows elements from other styles such as urban , dance , rock , Latin , and country ; nonetheless, there are core elements that define pop music. Identifying factors include generally short to medium-length songs written in a basic format (often the verse-chorus structure ), as well as the common use of repeated choruses, melodic tunes, and hooks .

CONTENTS

* 1 Definitions and etymology * 2 Characteristics

* 3 Development and influence

* 3.1 Stylistic evolution * 3.2 Technology and media * 3.3 Legitimacy in music criticism * 3.4 International spread

* 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 Further reading * 7 External links

DEFINITIONS AND ETYMOLOGY

David Hatch and Stephen Millward define pop music as "a body of music which is distinguishable from popular, jazz, and folk musics". According to Pete Seeger
Pete Seeger
, pop music is "professional music which draws upon both folk music and fine arts music". Although pop music is seen as just the singles charts , it is not the sum of all chart music. The music charts contain songs from a variety of sources, including classical , jazz , rock , and novelty songs . Pop music, as a genre, is seen as existing and developing separately. Thus "pop music" may be used to describe a distinct genre, designed to appeal to all, often characterized as "instant singles-based music aimed at teenagers" in contrast to rock music as "album-based music for adults".

Pop music
Pop music
continuously evolves along with the term's definition. According to The _New Grove Dictionary Of Music and Musicians_, popular music is defined as "the music since industrialization in the 1800's that is most in line with the tastes and interests of the urban middle class." The term "pop song" was first recorded as being used in 1926, in the sense of a piece of music "having popular appeal". Hatch and Millward indicate that many events in the history of recording in the 1920s can be seen as the birth of the modern pop music industry, including in country , blues and hillbilly music . _ The Oxford Dictionary of Music_ states that the term "pop" refers to music performed by such artists as the Rolling Stones (pictured here in a 2006 performance)

According to the website of The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians , called _Grove Music Online_, the term "pop music" "originated in Britain in the mid-1950s as a description for rock and roll and the new youth music styles that it influenced". _The Oxford Dictionary of Music_ states that while pop's "earlier meaning meant concerts appealing to a wide audience ... since the late 1950s, however, pop has had the special meaning of non-classical mus, usually in the form of songs, performed by such artists as the Beatles , the Rolling Stones , ABBA
ABBA
, etc". _Grove Music Online_ also states that "... in the early 1960s, 'pop music' competed terminologically with beat music , while in the USA its coverage overlapped (as it still does) with that of 'rock and roll'".

From about 1967, the term was increasingly used in opposition to the term rock music , a division that gave generic significance to both terms. Whereas rock aspired to authenticity and an expansion of the possibilities of popular music, pop was more commercial, ephemeral and accessible. According to British musicologist Simon Frith , pop music is produced "as a matter of enterprise not art", is "designed to appeal to everyone" and "doesn't come from any particular place or mark off any particular taste". It is "not driven by any significant ambition except profit and commercial reward ... and, in musical terms, it is essentially conservative". It is, "provided from on high (by record companies, radio programmers, and concert promoters) rather than being made from below ... Pop is not a do-it-yourself music but is professionally produced and packaged".

CHARACTERISTICS

_ The Righteous Brothers – "You\'ve Lost That Lovin\' Feelin\'" (1965) As of 2011 , "You\'ve Lost That Lovin\' Feelin\' " ranks as the most frequently played song in US radio history, described by music writers Nick Logan and Bob Woffinden as "the ultimate pop record". -------------------------

Problems playing this file? See media help ._

According to Frith, characteristics of pop music include an aim of appealing to a general audience, rather than to a particular sub-culture or ideology, and an emphasis on craftsmanship rather than formal "artistic" qualities. Music scholar Timothy Warner said it typically has an emphasis on recording, production, and technology, rather than live performance; a tendency to reflect existing trends rather than progressive developments ; and aims to encourage dancing or uses dance-oriented rhythms.

The main medium of pop music is the song, often between two and a half and three and a half minutes in length, generally marked by a consistent and noticeable rhythmic element , a mainstream style and a simple traditional structure . Common variants include the verse-chorus form and the thirty-two-bar form , with a focus on melodies and catchy hooks , and a chorus that contrasts melodically, rhythmically and harmonically with the verse . The beat and the melodies tend to be simple, with limited harmonic accompaniment. The lyrics of modern pop songs typically focus on simple themes – often love and romantic relationships – although there are notable exceptions.

Harmony
Harmony
and chord progressions in pop music are often "that of classical European tonality , only more simple-minded." Clichés include the barbershop quartet-style harmony (i.e. ii – V – I) and blues scale -influenced harmony. There was a lessening of the influence of traditional views of the circle of fifths between the mid-1950s and the late 1970s, including less predominance for the dominant function .

DEVELOPMENT AND INFLUENCE

STYLISTIC EVOLUTION

See also: Traditional pop , Pop rock , Experimental pop
Experimental pop
, Orchestral pop , Progressive pop
Progressive pop
, Synthpop
Synthpop
, and Indie pop

Throughout its development, pop music has absorbed influences from other genres of popular music. Early pop music drew on the sentimental ballad for its form, gained its use of vocal harmonies from gospel and soul music , instrumentation from jazz and rock music , orchestration from classical music , tempo from dance music , backing from electronic music , rhythmic elements from hip-hop music , and spoken passages from rap .

In the 1960s, the majority of mainstream pop music fell in two categories: guitar, drum and bass groups or singers backed by a traditional orchestra. Since early in the decade, it was common for pop producers, songwriters, and engineers to freely experiment with musical form, orchestration , unnatural reverb , and other sound effects. Some of the best known examples are Phil Spector
Phil Spector
's Wall of Sound and Joe Meek
Joe Meek
's use of homemade electronic sound effects for acts like the Tornados . At the same time, pop music on radio and in both American and British film moved away from refined Tin Pan Alley to more eccentric songwriting and incorporated reverb-drenched rock guitar, symphonic strings, and horns played by groups of properly arranged and rehearsed studio musicians.

During the mid-1960s, pop music made repeated forays into new sounds, styles, and techniques that inspired public discourse among its listeners. The word "progressive" was frequently used, and it was thought that every song and single was to be a "progression" from the last. Music critic Simon Reynolds
Simon Reynolds
writes that beginning with 1967, a divide would exist between "progressive" pop and "mass/chart" pop, a separation which was "also, broadly, one between boys and girls, middle-class and working-class." Before the progressive pop of the late 1960s, performers were typically unable to decide on the artistic content of their music. Assisted by the mid-1960s economic boom, record labels began investing in artists, giving them freedom to experiment, and offering them limited control over their content and marketing. This situation fell in disuse after the late 1970s and would not reemerge until the rise of Internet
Internet
stars. Indie pop , which developed in the late 1970s, marked another departure from the glamour of contemporary pop music, with guitar bands formed on the then-novel premise that one could record and release their own music without having to procure a record contract from a major label. In 2014, pop music worldwide was permeated by electronic dance music .

A _ Scientific Reports _ study that examined over 464,000 recordings of popular music recorded between 1955 and 2010 found less variety in pitch progressions, growing average loudness levels, less diverse instrumentation and recording techniques, and less timbral variety, which declined after reaching a peak in the 1960s. _Scientific American _'s John Matson reported that this "seems to support the popular anecdotal observation that pop music of yore was better, or at least more varied, than today’s top-40 stuff."

TECHNOLOGY AND MEDIA

Left, Michael Jackson
Michael Jackson
; right, Madonna known respectively as the "King and Queen of Pop ".

In the 1940s improved microphone design allowed a more intimate singing style and ten or twenty years later inexpensive and more durable 45 r.p.m. records for singles "revolutionized the manner in which pop has been disseminated" and helped to move pop music to 'a record/radio/film star system'. Another technological change was the widespread availability of television in the 1950s; with televised performances, "pop stars had to have a visual presence". In the 1960s, the introduction of inexpensive, portable transistor radios meant that First World teenagers could listen to music outside of the home. Multi-track recording (from the 1960s); and digital sampling (from the 1980s) have also been utilized as methods for the creation and elaboration of pop music. By the early 1980s, the promotion of pop music had been greatly affected by the rise of music television channels like MTV
MTV
, which "favoured those artists such as Michael Jackson and Madonna who had a strong visual appeal".

LEGITIMACY IN MUSIC CRITICISM

See also: Poptimism

The latter half of the 20th-century included a large-scale trend in American culture in which the boundaries between art and pop music were increasingly blurred. Between 1950 and 1970, there was a debate of pop versus art. Since then, certain music publications have embraced its legitimacy. According to _ Popmatters
Popmatters
_' Robert Loss: "There’s a strong argument for the 'rockist ' mode in music criticism—that it exists, and that it’s harmful—and poptimism has positioned itself as a corrective, an antidote. ... In general, the Old Guard of rock critics and journalists is depicted as a bunch of bricklayers for the foundations of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. True in part, which is to say, false. Like film studies, rock criticism of the late ‘60s and the ‘70s was an attempt to make popular music worthy of study; it was poptimism before its day."

INTERNATIONAL SPREAD

The story of pop music is largely the story of the intertwining pop culture of the United States
United States
and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in the postwar era. “ ” — Bob Stanley

Pop music
Pop music
has been dominated by the American and (from the mid-1960s) British music industries , whose influence has made pop music something of an international monoculture , but most regions and countries have their own form of pop music, sometimes producing local versions of wider trends, and lending them local characteristics. Some of these trends (for example Europop ) have had a significant impact of the development of the genre.

According to _Grove Music Online_, "Western-derived pop styles, whether coexisting with or marginalizing distinctively local genres, have spread throughout the world and have come to constitute stylistic common denominators in global commercial music cultures". Some non-Western countries, such as Japan, have developed a thriving pop music industry, most of which is devoted to Western-style pop. has for several years produced a greater quantity of music of everywhere except the USA. The spread of Western-style pop music has been interpreted variously as representing processes of Americanization, homogenization , modernization, creative appropriation, cultural imperialism , or a more general process of globalization .

In Korea, pop music's influence has led to the birth of boy bands and girl groups which have gained overseas renown through both their music and aesthetics. Korean co-ed groups (mixed gender groups) have not been as successful.

SEE ALSO

* Music portal

* Honorific nicknames in popular music
Honorific nicknames in popular music
* Origins of rock and roll
Origins of rock and roll
* Popular music
Popular music
pedagogy * List of popular music genres * History of music
History of music
* Public domain music * Internet
Internet
Archive

NOTES

* ^ Traditional Pop, _Allmusic.com_. Retrieved 25 August 2016 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ R. Middleton, et al., "Pop", _Grove music online_, retrieved 14 March 2010. (subscription required) * ^ _A_ _B_ Gilliland, John (1969). "Show 1 - Play A Simple Melody: Pete Seeger
Pete Seeger
on the origins of pop music" (audio). _ Pop Chronicles
Pop Chronicles
_. University of North Texas Libraries . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ S. Frith, W. Straw, and J. Street, eds, _The Cambridge Companion to Pop and Rock _ (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), ISBN 0-521-55660-0 , pp. 95–105. * ^ D. Hatch and S. Millward, _From Blues
Blues
to Rock: an Analytical History of Pop Music_ (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1987), ISBN 0-7190-1489-1 , p. 1. * ^ R. Serge Denisoff and William L. Schurk, _Tarnished Gold: the Record Industry Revisited_ (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 3rd edn., 1986), ISBN 0-88738-618-0 , pp. 2–3. * ^ Moore, Allan F. (2016). _Song Means: Analysing and Interpreting Recorded Popular Song_. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-05265-4 . * ^ Musicologist Allan Moore surmises that the term "pop music" itself may have been popularized by Pop art
Pop art
. * ^ "What Is Pop Music?". Retrieved 2016-10-06. * ^ J. Simpson and E. Weiner, _Oxford English Dictionary_(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989). ISBN 0-19-861186-2 , cf pop. * ^ D. Hatch and S. Millward, _From Blues
Blues
to Rock: an Analytical History of Pop Music_, ISBN 0-7190-1489-1 , p. 49. * ^ "Pop", _The Oxford Dictionary of Music_, retrieved 9 March 2010.(subscription required) * ^ _A_ _B_ Kenneth Gloag in _The Oxford Companion to Music_ (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001), ISBN 0-19-866212-2 , p. 983. * ^ _A_ _B_ T. Warner, _Pop Music: Technology and Creativity: Trevor Horn and the Digital Revolution_ (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2003), ISBN 0-7546-3132-X , pp. 3–4. * ^ "Van\'s Brown Eyed Girl hits the 10 million mark in US". _BBC_. 5 October 2011. * ^ Steve Sullivan (October 4, 2013). _Encyclopedia of Great Popular Song Recordings, Volume 2_. Scarecrow Press. pp. 101–103. ISBN 978-0810882959 . * ^ W. Everett, _Expression in Pop-rock Music: A Collection of Critical and Analytical Essays_ (London: Taylor & Francis, 2000), p. 272. * ^ J. Shepherd, _Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World: Performance and production_ (Continuum, 2003), p. 508. * ^ V. Kramarz, _The Pop Formulas: Harmonic Tools of the Hit Makers_ (Mel Bay Publications, 2007), p. 61. * ^ Winkler, Peter (1978). "Toward a theory of pop harmony", _In Theory Only_, 4, pp. 3–26. * ^ Sargeant, p. 198. cited in Winkler (1978), p. 4. * ^ Winkler (1978), p. 22. * ^ "Making Arrangements—A Rough Guide To Song Construction & Arrangement, Part 1". _Sound on Sound_. October 1997. Archived from the original on 8 May 2014. Retrieved 8 May 2014. * ^ Blake 2009 , p. 45. * ^ Pareles, Jon (October 31, 2008). "Orchestral Pop, the Way It Was (More or Less)". _ The New York Times
The New York Times
_. Retrieved July 4, 2013. * ^ Hewitt & Hellier 2015 , p. 162. * ^ Reynolds 2006 , p. 398. * ^ Willis 2014 , p. 217. * ^ _A_ _B_ Moore 2016 , p. 202. * ^ Abebe, Nitsuh (24 October 2005), "Twee as Fuck: The Story of Indie Pop", _Pitchfork Media_, archived from the original on 24 February 2011 * ^ _A_ _B_ Christgau, Robert (2014). "Anti-Rockism\'s Hall of Fame". _ The Barnes & Noble Review _. Retrieved August 18, 2015. * ^ Joan Serrà, Álvaro Corral, Marián Boguñá, Martín Haro & Josep Ll. Arcos, "Measuring the Evolution of Contemporary Western Popular Music", _Nature.com_, 26 July 2012. Retrieved 30 March 2016 * ^ _A_ _B_ John Matson, "Is Pop Music Evolving, or Is It Just Getting Louder?", _Scientific American_, 26 July 2012. Retrieved 30 March 2016 * ^ McGee, Alan (August 20, 2008). "Madonna Pop Art". _The Guardian _. Retrieved April 17, 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ D. Buckley, "Pop" "II. Implications of technology", _Grove Music Online_, retrieved 15 March 2010. * ^ Edmondson, Jacqueline, ed. (2013). _Music in American Life: An Encyclopedia of the Songs, Styles, Stars, and Stories that Shaped our Culture_. ABC-CLIO. pp. 317, 1233. ISBN 978-0-313-39348-8 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Loss, Robert (August 10, 2015). "No Apologies: A Critique of the Rockist v. Poptimist Paradigm". _ PopMatters
PopMatters
_. * ^ J. Kun, _Audiotopia: Music, Race, and America_ (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2005), ISBN 0-520-24424-9 , p. 201. * ^ "Star profiles" in S. Frith, W. Stray and J. Street, _The Cambridge Companion to Pop and Rock_ (Cambridge University Press, 2001), ISBN 0-521-55660-0 , pp. 199–200. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ P. Manuel, "Pop. Non-Western cultures 1. Global dissemination", _Grove Music Online_, retrieved 14 March 2010. * ^ K-Pop, la música y la moda \'rarita\' coreana que arrasa la red Moda EL MUNDO; PATRICIA RIVERA; 03/12/2015 * ^ Why aren’t there many mixed-gender K-pop
K-pop
groups? SBS PopAsia

FURTHER READING

_ This "further reading " section may contain inappropriate and/or excessive suggestions. Please ensure that only a reasonable number of balanced , topical, reliable, and notable further reading suggestions are given. Consider utilising appropriate texts as inline sources or creating a separate bibliography article . (December 2016)_

* Adorno, Theodor W. , (1942) "On Popular Music", Institute of Social Research. * Bell, John L., (2000) _The Singing Thing: A Case for Congregational Song_, GIA Publications, ISBN 1-57999-100-9 * Bindas, Kenneth J., (1992) _America's Musical Pulse: Popular Music in Twentieth-Century Society_, Praeger. * Clarke, Donald , (1995) _The Rise and Fall of Popular Music_, St Martin's Press. http://www.musicweb.uk.net/RiseandFall/index.htm * Dolfsma, Wilfred, (1999) _Valuing Pop Music: Institutions, Values and Economics_, Eburon. * Dolfsma, Wilfred, (2004) _Institutional Economics and the Formation of Preferences: The Advent of Pop Music_, Edward Elgar Publishing. * Frith, Simon , Straw, Will, Street, John, eds, (2001), _The Cambridge Companion to Pop and Rock_, Cambridge University Press, * Frith, Simon (2004) _Popular Music: Critical Concepts in Media and Cultural Studies_, Routledge. * Gillett, Charlie , (1970) _The Sound of the City. The Rise of Rock and Roll_, Outerbridge & Dienstfrey. * Hatch, David and Stephen Millward, (1987), _From Blues
Blues
to Rock: an Analytical History of Pop Music_, Manchester University Press, ISBN 0-7190-1489-1 * Johnson, Julian, (2002) _Who Needs Classical Music?: Cultural Choice and Musical Value_, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-514681-6 . * Kent, Jeff , (1983) _The Rise and Fall of Rock_, Witan Books, ISBN 0-9508981-0-4 . * Lonergan, David F., (2004) _Hit Records, 1950–1975_, Scarecrow Press, ISBN 0-8108-5129-6 . * Maultsby, Portia K., (7907) _Intra- and International Identities in American Popular Music_, Trading Culture. * Middleton, Richard , (1990) _Studying Popular Music_, Open University Press. * Negus, Bob, (1999) _Music Genres and Corporate Cultures_, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-17399-X . * Pleasants, Henry (1969) _Serious Music and All That Jazz_, Simon & Schuster. * Roxon, Lillian , (1969) _Rock Encyclopedia_, Grosset & Dunlap. * Shuker, Roy, (2002) _Popular Music: The Key Concepts_, Routledge, (2nd edn.) ISBN 0-415-28425-2 . * Starr, Larry ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

* Popular music
Popular music
* Pop music

General forms of Western popular music

* Adult contemporary * Avant-pop * Christmas music
Christmas music
* Contemporary Christian music
Contemporary Christian music
* Crossover music * Easy listening * Orchestral pop * Traditional

MAJOR GENRES

* Country * Folk (contemporary) * Hip hop * Jazz
Jazz
* R">SONG TYPES

* Car song
Car song
* Cover version
Cover version
* Illustrated song
Illustrated song
* Jingle
Jingle
* Novelty song
Novelty song
* Pocket symphony * Sentimental ballad
Sentimental ballad
* Slow jam * Standard * Three-minute

Topics specific to pop music style

* Millennial Whoop * New Pop * Pop music automation * Rockism and poptimism
Rockism and poptimism
* Spanish Tinge
Spanish Tinge

Subgenres (by style)

* Art * Baroque * Bedroom * Brill Building * Bubblegum * Chamber * Country * Dance * Dark * Downtempo * Dream * Electro * Emo * Experimental * Folk * Hypnagogic * Indie * Jangle * Noise * Operatic * Rap * Reggae * Rock * Soul * Power * Progressive * Psychedelic * Shibuya-kei
Shibuya-kei
* Sophisti-pop * Surf * Sunshine * Swamp * Synthesizer * Teen * Tropical * Twee * Wonky * Yé-yé
Yé-yé

CULTURAL IMPACT OF ...

* The Beach Boys * The Beatles
The Beatles
* Madonna * Elvis Presley

LISTS

* Best-selling albums

* Best-selling artists

* Girl groups
Girl groups

* Best-selling singles * Genres * Honorific nicknames * Glossary of terms

OTHER TOPICS

* 50s progression
50s progression
* Boy band
Boy band
* Catchiness * Concept album
Concept album
* Earworm
Earworm
* Folk music
Folk music
* Girl group
Girl group
* Groove * Hook * Lick * Microgenre * Record chart * Recording consciousness * Popular culture * Pop icon
Pop icon
* Song structure
Song structure
* Stan * Tin Pan Alley
Tin Pan Alley
* Vernacular music

REGIONAL VARIANTS

ASIA

* Arabic * Assyrian

* Chinese

* Mandarin * Taiwanese

* Hong Kongese

* Cantopop
Cantopop
* Hong Kong English pop

* Indian * Iranian * Japanese

* Korean

* Global

* Pakistani * Indonesian * Lao * Malaysian * Philippine * Thai * Vietnamese * Turkish

AFRICA

* Africa

* Afropop

AMERICA

* American

* Popular music
Popular music
* Pop music
Pop music

* Brazilian

* Latin

* Colombian * Mexican

EUROPE

* Azerbaijani * British

* Europop

* Austropop * French * Greek * Hungarian * Italian * Nederpop * Serbian

* Scandipop

* Swedish

* Russian * SFR Yugoslavia * Ukraine

* v * t * e

Rock festivals

SUBTYPES

* List of heavy metal festivals
List of heavy metal festivals
* List of jam band music festivals
List of jam band music festivals
* List of punk rock festivals
List of punk rock festivals
* List of gothic festivals
List of gothic festivals
* List of industrial music festivals
List of industrial music festivals

Traveling (_italics_ = ongoing)

* Anger Management Tour
Anger Management Tour
* Area Festival
Area Festival
* Big Day Out
Big Day Out
* Coachella * Crüe Fest
Crüe Fest
* _ Curiosa
Curiosa
_ * Deconstruction Tour * Doomination * Family Values Tour * Festival Express
Festival Express
* Fuji Rock Festival
Fuji Rock Festival
* _G3 _ * Gigantour
Gigantour
* Hard Electric Tour * H.O.R.D.E. * Lilith Fair
Lilith Fair
* _ Lollapalooza
Lollapalooza
_ * Mayhem Festival * Magic Circle Festival * Monsters of Rock * _ Persistence Tour _ * _ Rock in Rio
Rock in Rio
_ * _ Rock in Roma _ * _ Rock Boat _ * _ Ozzfest
Ozzfest
_ * Projekt Revolution
Projekt Revolution
* Rock Never Stops Tour * _ Sonisphere Festival _ * Nintendo Fusion Tour * Sounds of the Underground * Soundwave * Summer Sanitarium Tour * Taste of Chaos * _ The Unholy Alliance Tour _ * Uproar Festival * _ Vive Latino
Vive Latino
_ * _ Warped Tour
Warped Tour
_

CULTURE

* Deadheads * Hippies * La Onda * Moshpit * Pogo (dance) * Headbanging * Stage diving * Crowd surfing * Sign of the horns
Sign of the horns
* Summer of Love
Summer of Love
* Rivethead

RELATED EVENTS

* Music festival
Music festival
* Rock concert
Rock concert
* Concert tour * Pop festival * Folk festival * Hip hop music
Hip hop music
festival * EDM festival * Trance festival * Reggae festival

* v * t * e

Media culture

MEDIA

* Mass media
Mass media
* Mainstream media
Mainstream media
* 24-hour news cycle * Corporate media
Corporate media
* News broadcasting
News broadcasting
* News media
News media
* Film
Film
* Internet
Internet
* Radio
Radio
* Television
Television

IDEOLOGY

* Mainstream * Advanced capitalism
Advanced capitalism
* American Dream
American Dream
* Bipartisanship * Consumerism
Consumerism
* Pensée unique * Pop music

DECEPTION

FORMS

* Advertising
Advertising
* Propaganda
Propaganda
* Public relations
Public relations
* Spin * Tabloid journalism

TECHNIQUES

* Cult of personality * Dumbing down * Framing * Media circus
Media circus
* Media event
Media event
* Narcotizing dysfunction * Recuperation * Sensationalism

OTHERS

* Crowd manipulation
Crowd manipulation
* Managing the news * Media manipulation

PHILOSOPHERS

* Theodor W. Adorno
Theodor W. Adorno
* Edward Bernays
Edward Bernays
* Noam Chomsky
Noam Chomsky
* Guy Debord
Guy Debord
* Walter Lippmann
Walter Lippmann
* Marshall McLuhan
Marshall McLuhan

COUNTERCULTURE

* Boycott
Boycott
* Civil disobedience
Civil disobedience
* Culture jamming
Culture jamming
* Demonstration * Graffiti
Graffiti
* Occupation * Political satire
Political satire
* Protest
Protest
* Punk * Strike action
Strike action

IN ACADEMIA

* Media influence * Media studies
Media studies
* Semiotic democracy * _ The Lonely Crowd _

ISSUES

* Anonymity
Anonymity
* Concentration of media ownership
Concentration of media ownership
* Freedom of speech
Freedom of speech
* Media bias
Media bias
* Privacy
Privacy

SYNONYMS

* Advanced capitalism
Advanced capitalism
* Culture industry
Culture industry
* Mass society
Mass society
* Post-Fordism * Society of the Spectacle

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* GND : 4046781-8

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