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Pontiac
Pontiac
is a now-defunct car brand that was owned, made, and sold by General Motors. Introduced as a companion make for GM's more expensive line of Oakland automobiles,[1] Pontiac
Pontiac
overtook Oakland in popularity and supplanted its parent brand entirely by 1933. Sold in the United States, Canada, and Mexico
Mexico
by GM, Pontiac
Pontiac
was advertised as the performance division of General Motors
General Motors
from the 1960s onward.[2] Amid late 2000s financial problems and restructuring efforts, GM announced in 2008 it would follow the same path with Pontiac
Pontiac
as it had with Oldsmobile
Oldsmobile
in 2004 and discontinued manufacturing and marketing vehicles under that brand by the end of 2010. The last Pontiac
Pontiac
badged cars were built in December 2009, with one final vehicle in January, 2010. Franchise agreements for Pontiac
Pontiac
dealers expired October 31, 2010,[3] leaving GM to focus on its four remaining North American brands: Chevrolet, Buick, Cadillac, and GMC.

Contents

1 History

1.1 1926–1942 1.2 1946–1954 1.3 1955–1960 1.4 1961–1970 1.5 1970–1982 1.6 1982–1988 1.7 1989–1997 1.8 1997–2004 1.9 2005–2010

2 Style trademarks and logo 3 Canadian/export models 4 Engines

4.1 Carburetors

5 Models 6 Evolution of models 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links

10.1 Further reading

History[edit] 1926–1942[edit]

1928 Pontiac

1936 Pontiac
Pontiac
Master Six Coupe

The Pontiac
Pontiac
brand was introduced by General Motors
General Motors
in 1926 as the companion marque to GM's Oakland division, and shared the GM A platform. Purchased by General Motors
General Motors
in 1909, Oakland continued to produce modestly priced automobiles until 1931 when it was renamed Pontiac. It was named after the famous Ottawa chief who had also given his name to the city of Pontiac, Michigan
Pontiac, Michigan
where the car was produced.[4] Within months of its introduction, Pontiac
Pontiac
was outselling Oakland, which was essentially a 1920s Chevrolet
Chevrolet
with a six-cylinder engine installed.[5] Body styles offered included a sedan with both two and four doors, Landau Coupe, with the Sport Phaeton, Sport Landau Sedan, Sport Cabriolet and Sport Roadster. As a result of Pontiac's rising sales, versus Oakland's declining sales, Pontiac
Pontiac
became the only companion marque to survive its parent, with Oakland ceasing production in 1932. Pontiacs were also manufactured from knock-down kits at GM's short-lived Japanese factory at Osaka Assembly in Osaka, Japan
Osaka, Japan
from 1927-1941.[6]

Postcard showing a Pontiac
Pontiac
dealer in Oklahoma, ca 1930-1945

Pontiac
Pontiac
produced cars offering 40 hp (30 kW; 41 PS) 186.7 cu in (3.1 L) (3.25x3.75 in, 82.5x95mm) L-head straight 6-cylinder engines in the Pontiac
Pontiac
Chief of 1927; its stroke was the shortest of any American car in the industry at the time.[citation needed] The Chief sold 39,000 units within six months of its appearance at the 1926 New York Auto Salon, hitting 76,742 at twelve months. The next year, it became the top-selling six in the U.S., ranking seventh in overall sales.[7] By 1933, it had moved up to producing the least expensive cars available with straight eight engines. This was done by using many components from the 6-cylinder Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Master, such as the body, but installing a large chrome strip on the top and center of the front hood Pontiac
Pontiac
called the "Silver Streak". Only eight cylinder engines were offered in 1933 and 1934, displacing 223.4 cubic inches for 77 HP. In the late 1930s, Pontiac
Pontiac
used a Buick
Buick
"torpedo" body for one of its models, just prior to its being used by Chevrolet, earning some media attention for the marque. An unusual feature of the "torpedo"-bodied exhibition car was that, with push of a button, the front half of the body would open showing the engine and the car's front seat interior.[8] 1937 was a year of major change for Pontiac, all models except the new station wagon now using the all steel B-body shared with Oldsmobile, LaSalle and small Buicks. New stronger X frame had Hotchkiss drive using a two part drive shaft. The eight-cylinder had a 122-inch (3,099 mm) wheelbase, while the six-cylinder had a 117-inch (2,972 mm) wheelbase.[9] Both engines had increased displacements, the six going to 222.7 cubic inches for 85 HP, the eight to 248.9 for 100 HP. In 1940 & 42, Pontiac
Pontiac
was built on three different bodies. The "A" body with Chevrolet, the "B" body shared with Oldsmobile
Oldsmobile
and Buick
Buick
and the "C" body shared with the large Oldsmobile, Buick
Buick
and the small Cadillac. The "C" body for 1940 was called the Torpedo. In 1941 all Pontiac's were called Torpedoes. On 2 February 1942, a Pontiac
Pontiac
was the last civilian automobile manufactured in the United States
United States
during World War II, as all automobile factories converted to military production.[10] For an extended period of time—prewar through the early 1950s—the Pontiac
Pontiac
was a quiet, solid car, but not especially powerful. It came with a flathead straight eight. Straight 8s were slightly less expensive to produce than the increasingly popular V8s, but they were also heavier and longer. Additionally, the long crankshaft suffered from excessive flex, restricting straight 8s to a relatively low compression ratio with a modest redline. However, in this application, inexpensive (yet very quiet) flatheads were not a liability.[citation needed] 1946–1954[edit]

1948 Pontiac
Pontiac
Silver Streak Convertible Coupe

From 1946 to 1948, all Pontiac
Pontiac
models were essentially 1942 models with minor changes. The Hydra-matic automatic transmission was introduced in 1948 and helped Pontiac
Pontiac
sales grow even though their cars, Torpedoes and Streamliners, were quickly becoming out of date. The first all-new Pontiac
Pontiac
models appeared in 1949. They incorporated styling cues such as lower body lines and rear fenders that were integrated in the rear-end styling of the car. Along with new styling came a new model. Continuing the Native American theme of Pontiac, the Chieftain line was introduced to replace the Torpedo. These were built on the GM B-Body platform and featured different styling than the more conservative Streamliner. In 1950, the Catalina pillarless hardtop coupe was introduced as a "halo" model, much like the Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Bel Air of the same year. In 1952, Pontiac
Pontiac
discontinued the Streamliner and replaced it with additional models in the Chieftain line built on the GM A-body platform. This single model line continued until 1954 when the Star Chief was added. The Star Chief was created by adding an 11-inch (280 mm) extension to the A-body platform creating a 124-inch (3,100 mm) wheelbase. The 1953 models were the first to have one-piece windshields instead of the normal two-piece units. While the 1953 and 1954 models were heavily re-worked versions of the 1949-52 Chieftain models, they were engineered for the V8 engine
V8 engine
that was supposed to be introduced on the 1953 models, however Buick
Buick
division complained to corporate that the introduction might take sales away because Buick
Buick
was introducing its new nailhead V-8 in 1953. The corporation held Pontiac
Pontiac
back until 1955. 1955–1960[edit]

Pontiac Star Chief
Pontiac Star Chief
1955

1956 Canadian Pontiac Pathfinder
Pontiac Pathfinder
Sedan delivery. 1,383 built, not available in the U.S.

Completely new bodies and chassis were introduced for 1955. A new 173 hp (129 kW; 175 PS) overhead valve V8 engine
V8 engine
was introduced. (see Engines section below). Sales increased. With the introduction of this V8, the six-cylinder engines were discontinued; a six-cylinder would not return to the full-size Pontiac
Pontiac
line until the GM corporate downsizing of 1977. A four-cylinder engine was introduced in the Tempest model line in 1961, followed by an overhead-cam six-cylinder starting in 1966, as well as on the Firebird. It was the first popular-priced, mass-produced engine in America utilizing an overhead-camshaft configuration.[11] In 1956, when 42-year-old Semon "Bunkie" Knudsen became general manager of Pontiac, alongside new heads of engineering, E. M. Estes and John DeLorean, Knudsen immediately began reworking the brand's image. One of the first steps involved the removal of the famous trademark "silver streaks" from the hood and deck lid of the 1957 models just weeks before the 1957s were introduced. Another step was introducing the first Bonneville—a limited-edition Star Chief convertible that showcased Pontiac's first fuel-injected engine. Approximately 630 Bonnevilles were built for 1957, each with a retail price of nearly $5,800. While new car buyers could buy a Cadillac
Cadillac
for that price, the Bonneville raised new interest in what Pontiac
Pontiac
now called "America's No. 1 Road Car."

1959 Bonneville from the rear, showing double rear fins

The following year the Bonneville became its own line, built on the 122-inch (3,100 mm) wheelbase of the A-body platform. A 1958 Tri power Bonneville was the pace car for that year's Indianapolis 500. Also, 1958 was the last year Pontiac
Pontiac
Motor Division would bear the "Indian" motif throughout the vehicle. The exception would be the Indian head high beam indicator light in the instrument cluster. All 1958 models now featured Ball joint
Ball joint
front suspension replacing the previous king pin design. With the 1959 model year, Pontiac
Pontiac
came out with its "Arrowhead" emblem, with the star design in the middle. The "Arrowhead" design ran all the way up the hood from between the split grille, and on Starchief Models, had eight chrome stars from the emblem design bolted to both sides of the vehicle as chrome trim. Knudsen saw to it that the car received a completely reworked chassis, body, and interior styling. Quad headlamps, as well as a longer, lower body were some of the styling changes. The Chieftain line was renamed Catalina; Star Chief was downgraded to replace the discontinued Super Chief series and for the first time did not have a two-door hardtop, only a two-door sedan along with a four-door hardtop and four-door sedan, in addition there was no Star Chief wagon. The Bonneville was now the top of the line, coming in three body styles of two-door hardtop, four-door vista and four-door wagon. The Star Chief's four-door "Vista" hardtop was also shared by the Bonneville. Catalina models included a two-door hardtop, two-door sedan, four-door sedan, four-door hardtop vista and two wagons, one a six-passenger and one a nine-passenger wagon. Bonneville and Star Chief were built on a 124-inch (3,100 mm) wheelbase with the exception of the Bonneville wagon and all Catalina models and Bonneville wagon that rode on a 122-inch wheelbase. Catalina was also seven inches shorter than Bonneville and Star Chief and weighed one hundred to two hundred pounds less than its long-wheelbase counterparts. All 1959 Pontiac
Pontiac
engines were equipped with a 389-cubic-inch engine with horsepower ratings from 215Hp economy engine to a conservative rated 345 hp Tri power carbureted engine. All automatics were four-speed Super-Hydra-Matics or, as Hydramatic Division who designed and built them called them, "Controlled coupling HydraMatic". A special note here is that Oldsmobile
Oldsmobile
used this same transmission and called it Jetaway HydraMatic and Cadillac
Cadillac
also used this transmission and Cadillac called it 315 or P 315 Hydramatic. A three-speed column-mounted stick shift was standard on all Pontiacs. This coincided with major body styling changes across all models that introduced increased glass area, twin V-shaped fins and lower hood profiles. Because of these changes, Motor Trend
Motor Trend
magazine picked the entire Pontiac
Pontiac
line as 1959 Car of the Year. The '59s have a five-inch (127 mm) wider track, Front at 63 7/8" front track and 64.0" rear track because Knudsen noticed the new, wider bodies looked awkward on the carried-over 1958 frames. The new "Wide-Track" Pontiacs not only had improved styling, but also handled better—a bonus that tied into Pontiac's resurgence in the marketplace. The 1960 models saw a complete re-skinning with the exception of the body's canopies which remained identical to the 59's, but removed the tail fins and the distinctive split grille (which Ford copied on the final Edsel
Edsel
models for 1960). The 1960 models standard engine all had a Horsepower gain of 3 hp due to a compression bump of .25 to one over the 59 engine. The front track was now widened to the rear track at 64". Ventura was introduced, a more luxurious hardtop coupe and the Vista 4-door hardtop now being built on the shorter 122-inch (3,100 mm) wheelbase platform, with it falling between the Catalina and Star Chief models. The Ventura featured the luxury features of the Bonneville in the shorter, lighter Catalina body. 1961–1970[edit] Most of Pontiac's models built during the 1960s and 1970s were either styled like, or were siblings to, other GM makes (except Cadillac). However, Pontiac
Pontiac
retained its own front and rear end styling, interiors, and engines.

1964 Pontiac Bonneville
Pontiac Bonneville
Brougham

Full size Pontiacs from 1960 to 1968 featured these unique, finned, 8 bolt wheels, which aided in the cooling of the drum brakes

The 1961 models were similarly reworked. The split grille returned, as well as all-new bodies and a new design of a perimeter-frame chassis for all its full-size models (something which would be adopted for all of GM's intermediate-sized cars in 1964, and all its full-sized cars in 1965). These new chassis allowed for reduced weight and smaller body sizes. It is interesting to note that the similarly styled Chevrolet
Chevrolet
still used the radically different "X" frame in the early 1960s. But a complete departure in 1961 was the new Tempest, one of the three BOP (Buick-Olds-Pontiac) "compacts" introduced that year, the others being the Buick
Buick
Special
Special
and Skylark and Oldsmobile
Oldsmobile
F-85 and Cutlass. Toward the end of the 1961 model year an upscale version of the Tempest called the "LeMans" was introduced, named after the famous 24 Hours of Le Mans auto race in France. All three were uni-body cars, dubbed the "Y-body" platform, combining the frame and body into a single construction, making them comparatively lighter and smaller. All three put into production new technology pushed by John DeLorean[citation needed] which GM had been working on for several years prior, but the Tempest was by far the most radical. A flexible steel shaft rotating at the speed of the engine delivered power from the front-mounted engine through a "torque tube" to a rear-mounted trans-axle. This innovation not only delivered close to a 50/50 front-rear weight distribution that drastically improved handling, it enabled four-wheel independent suspension which enhanced it even more. It also all but eliminated the large floor "hump" common to front-engined rear-drive cars. Though the Tempest's transaxle was similar to the one in the Corvair, introduced the year before, it shared virtually no common parts. GM had planned to launch a Pontiac
Pontiac
version of the Corvair (dubbed "Polaris"), but "Bunkie" Knudsen—whose niece had been seriously injured in a Corvair crash—successfully argued against the idea. The Polaris design apparently made it to full-scale clay before it was cancelled. Instead, DeLorean's "rope-shaft" design was green-lighted. Contemporary rumors of the rope-shaft's demise due to reliability problems are unfounded; the rope-shaft's durability and performance had been proven in tests in full-size Pontiacs and Cadillacs in 1959, and only adapted to a smaller car in 1960. The Tempest won the Motor Trend "Car of the Year" award in 1961—for Pontiac, the second time in three years. DeLorean's vision has been further vindicated by the adoption of similar designs in a slew of modern high-performance cars, including the Porsche 928, 924, and 944, the Corvette C5, and the Aston Martin DB9. Unless customers checked an option, the Tempest's power-plant was a 194.5 Ci inline-slant-four-cylinder motor, derived from the right bank of the venerable Pontiac
Pontiac
389 V8, enabling it to be run down the same production line as the 389, saving costs for both the car's customers and Pontiac. Pontiac
Pontiac
engineers ran early tests of this motor by literally cutting off the left bank of pistons and adding counterweights to the crankshaft, and were surprised to find it easily maintained the heaviest Pontiacs at over 90 miles per hour (140 km/h). In production, the engine received a crankshaft designed for just four cylinders, but this didn't completely solve its balance issues. The engine gained the nickname "Hay Baler" because of it tendency to kick violently, like the farm machine, when its timing was off. The aforementioned Buick
Buick
215 V8, was ordered by less than two percent of its customers in the two years it was available, 1961 and 1962. Today, the 215 cars are among the most sought-after of all Tempests. In 1963, Pontiac
Pontiac
replaced the 215 with a "new" 326 which was really a 336 with a bore of 3.78 and stroke of 3.75 ( same stroke as the 389 ), an iron block mill that had the same external dimensions and shared parts with the 389, but an altered, reduced bore. The car's body and suspension was also changed to be lower, longer and wider. The response was that more than half of the 1963 Tempests and LeMans (separate lines for that one year only) were ordered with the V8, a trend that did not go unnoticed by management. The next year, the 326 would become a true 326 with a new bore size of 3.72. The Tempest's popularity helped move Pontiac
Pontiac
into third place among American car brands in 1962, a position Pontiac
Pontiac
would hold through 1970. The Buick 215 V8 would remain in production for more than thirty five years, being used by Britain's Rover Group
Rover Group
after it had bought the rights to it. GM attempted to buy the rights back, however, Rover wished, instead, to sell the engines directly. In November 1961, Knudsen had moved to Chevrolet. Pete Estes now became general manager of Pontiac
Pontiac
and Delorean was promoted to Pontiac Chief engineer. Both continued Knudsen's work of making Pontiac
Pontiac
a performance-car brand. Pontiac
Pontiac
capitalized on the emerging trend toward sportier bucket-seat coupes in 1962 by introducing the Grand Prix, taking the place of the Ventura which now became a trim option on the Catalina. Although GM officially ended factory support for all racing activities across all of its brands in January 1963, Pontiac continued to cater to performance car enthusiasts by making larger engines with more power available across all model lines. For 1963, the Grand Prix received the same styling changes as other full-sized Pontiacs such as vertical headlights and crisper body lines, but also received its own squared-off roof-line with a concave rear window, along with less chrome. This concave rear window would be duplicated on all Tempest/LeMans four-door intermediates in 1964-1965. For 1964, the Tempest and LeMans' trans-axle design was dropped and the cars were redesigned under GM's new A body platform; frame cars with a conventional front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout. The most important of these is the GTO, short for "Gran Turismo Omologato," the Italian for "Grand Touring, Homologated" used by Ferrari
Ferrari
as a badge to announce a car's official qualification for racing. In spite of a GM unwritten edict against engines larger than 330 Ci in intermediate cars, DeLorean (with support from Jim Wangers from Pontiac's ad agency), came up with the idea to offer the GTO as an option package that included a 389 Ci engine rated at 325 or 348 horsepower (260 kW). The entire Pontiac
Pontiac
lineup was honored as Motor Trend's Car of the Year for 1965, the third time for Pontiac
Pontiac
to receive such honors. The February, 1965 issue of Motor Trend
Motor Trend
was almost entirely devoted to Pontiac's Car of the Year award and included feature stories on the division's marketing, styling, engineering and performance efforts along with road tests of several models.

1969 Pontiac GTO
Pontiac GTO
convertible

Due to the popularity of the GTO option, it was split from being an option on the Tempest LeMans series to become the separate GTO series. On the technology front, 1966 saw the introduction of a completely new overhead camshaft 6-cylinder engine in the Tempest, and in an industry first, plastic grilles were used on several models. The 1967 model year saw the introduction for the Pontiac Firebird
Pontiac Firebird
pony car, a variant of the Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Camaro that was the brand's answer to the hot-selling Ford Mustang. Intermediate sized cars (Tempest, LeMans, GTO) were mildly face-lifted but all full size cars and GTO lost their Tri-Power engine option though it did get a larger 400 cubic-inch V8 that replaced the previous 389. Full-sized cars got a major facelift with rounder wasp-waisted body lines, a name change for the mid-line series from Star Chief to Executive and a one-year-only Grand Prix convertible. 1968 introduced the Endura 'rubber' front bumper on the GTO, the precursor to modern cars' integrated bumpers, and the first of a series "Ram Air" engines, which featured the induction of cold air to the carburetor(s) for more power, and took away some of the sting from deleting the famous Tri-Power multiple carburetion option from the engine line up. This Tri carburetor deletion came from the 14th floor of GM banning multiple carburetion and headed by GM president Ed Cole. The Ram Air V garnered much auto press publicity, but only a relative few were made available for sale. Full-sized cars and intermediates reverted from vertical to horizontal headlights while the sporty/performance 2+2 was dropped from the lineup. For 1969, Pontiac
Pontiac
moved the Grand Prix from the full-sized lineup into a G-body model of its own based on the A-body intermediate four-door modified from 116 inches to 118 inches wheelbase chassis, but with distinctive styling and long hood/short deck proportions to create yet another niche product - the intermediate-sized personal-luxury car that offered the luxury and styling of the higher priced personal cars such as the Buick
Buick
Riviera and Ford Thunderbird
Ford Thunderbird
and the old Grand Prix and Olds Starfire but for a much lower price tag. The development of the car really has an interesting twist. Pete Estes who like Knudsen had moved to be GM of Chevrolet
Chevrolet
in 1966 and Delorean now general manager of the Pontiac
Pontiac
division needed a car to take the place of the sagging sales of the full size Grand Prix, but the development cost of the car was too much of burden for Pontiac
Pontiac
division alone, so Delorean went to his old boss now at Chevrolet
Chevrolet
to gather support for the development cost of the new "G" body Grand Prix. Estes agreed to share in the cost and allow Pontiac
Pontiac
to have a one-year exclusivity on this new car, the next year Chevy would follow with its version which was called Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Monte Carlo. The new Grand Prix was such a sales success in 1969 as dealers moved 112,000 units - more than four times the number of Grand Prixs sold in 1968. Full-sized Pontiacs were also substantially restyled but retained the same basic under-body structure and chassis that debuted with the 1965 model - in fact the roof-lines for the four-door pillared sedans and Safari wagons were the same as the 1965 models, while the two-door semi-fastback design gave way to a squared-off notch-back style and four-door hardtop sedans were also more squared off than 1967-68 models. The GTOs and Firebirds received the Ram Air options, the GTO saw the addition of the "Judge" performance/appearance package, and the Firebird also got the "Trans Am" package. Although originally conceived as a 303 cubic inch model to compete directly in the Trans Am racing series, in a cost-saving move the Pontiac Trans Am
Pontiac Trans Am
debuted with the standard 400-cubic-inch performance engines. This year also saw De Lorean leaving the post of general manager to accept a similar position at GM's Chevrolet
Chevrolet
division. His replacement was F. James McDonald. Pontiacs built in the late 1960s conformed to new U.S. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards. These included energy-absorbing interior parts such as steering columns, steering wheels, knobs and handles, dual-circuit hydraulic brake systems, shoulder belts, side marker lights, and headrests. The 1969 Firebirds. received a heavy facelift but otherwise continued much the same as the original 1967 model. It was the final year for the overhead cam six-cylinder engine in Firebirds and intermediates, and the Firebird convertible (until 1991). Production of the 1969 Firebirds was extended into the first three months of the 1970 model year (all other 1970 Pontiacs debuted Sept. 18, 1969) due to a decision to delay the introduction of an all-new 1970 Firebird (and Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Camaro) until Feb. 26, 1970.[by whom?] In addition in the late-1960s, GM directed their GM and Pontiac divisions to develop concept mini-cars called commuter car for urban drivers. GM developed a gasoline-electric drive hybrid the XP-833 and the Pontiac
Pontiac
X-4 a rear-wheel drive mid-engine car that was powered by a radical X-shaped aircraft type air-cooled two-stroke radial engine where the standard crankshaft was replaced by a unit called a Scotch yoke. While the GM car was fully tested the Pontiac
Pontiac
concept was not. Neither was placed in production.[12] 1970–1982[edit] Increasing insurance and fuel costs for owners coupled with looming Federal emissions and safety regulations would eventually put an end to the unrestricted, powerful engines of the 1960s. Safety, luxury and economy would become the new watch-words of this decade. Engine performance began declining in 1971 when GM issued a corporate edict mandating that all engines be capable of using lower-octane unleaded gasoline, which led to dramatic drops in compression ratios, along with performance and fuel economy. This, coupled with trying to build cars as plush as GM's more luxurious Buicks and Oldsmobiles, contributed to the start of a slow decline of Pontiac
Pontiac
in 1971.[13] In mid-1971 Pontiac
Pontiac
introduced the compact, budget-priced Ventura II (based on the third generation Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Nova). This same year, Pontiac
Pontiac
completely restyled its full-sized cars, moved the Bonneville, and replaced it with a higher luxury model named the Grand Ville, while Safari wagons got a new clamshell tailgate that lowered into the body while the rear window raised into the roof. 1971–1976 model full-size station wagons featured a 'Clamshell' design where the rear power-operated glass slid up into the roof as the tailgate (manually or with power assist), dropped below the load floor. The power tailgate, the first in station wagon history, ultimately supplanted the manual tailgate, which required marked effort to lift from storage. The 1972 models saw the first wave of emissions reduction and safety equipment and updates. GTO was a now sub-series of the LeMans series. The Tempest, was dropped, after being renamed 'T-37' and 'GT-37' for 1971. The base 1972 mid-sized Pontiac
Pontiac
was now called LeMans. James MacDonald left the post of general manager to be replaced by Martin J. Caserio in late 1972. Caserio was the first manager in over a decade to be more focused on marketing and sales than on performance.

1973 Pontiac
Pontiac
Grand Am, the first model year of the Grand Am

1975 Pontiac
Pontiac
Astre

For 1973, Pontiac
Pontiac
restyled its personal-luxury Grand Prix, mid-sized LeMans and compact Ventura models and introduced the all-new Grand Am as part of the LeMans line. All other models including the big cars and Firebirds received only minor updates. Again, power dropped across all engines as more emissions requirements came into effect. The 1973 Firebird Trans Am's factory applied hood decal, a John Schinella restylized interpretation of the Native American fire bird, took up most of the available space on the hood. Also in 1973, the new Super Duty 455 engine ("Super Duty" harkening back to Pontiac's Racing Engines) was introduced. Although it was originally supposed to be available in GTOs and Firebirds, only a few SD 455 engines made it into Firebird Trans Ams that year. One so equipped was tested by 'Car and Driver' magazine, who proclaimed it the last of the fast cars. But the pendulum had swung, and the SD 455 only hung on one more year in the Trans Am. All Federal emissions and safety regulations were required to be in full effect for 1974 causing the demise of two of the three iterations of the big 455 cubic inch engines after this year. The last version of the 455 would hang on for two more years before being discontinued.

The 1975 Grand Ville was the last full-size convertible built by Pontiac

For 1975, Pontiac
Pontiac
introduced the new sub-compact Astre, a version of the Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Vega. This was the brand's entry into the fuel economy segment of the market. Astre had been sold exclusively in Canada
Canada
from 1973. It was offered through the 1977 model year. 1975 would also see the end of Pontiac
Pontiac
convertibles for the next decade. The 1976 models were the last of the traditional American large cars powered by mostly big block V8 engines. After this year, all GM models would go through "downsizing" and shrink in length, width, weight and available engine size. The 1976 Sunbird, based on the Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Vega and Monza's equivalent, joined the line. It was first offered as a Notchback, with a Hatchback body style added in 1977. The Vega Wagon body style was added in 1978, Sunbird Safari Wagon, replacing the Astre Safari Wagon. The Sunbird was offered in its rear-wheel-drive configuration through the 1980 model year. (Sunbird Safari wagon through 1979.) At mid-year 1977, Pontiac
Pontiac
introduced the Phoenix, an upscale version of the Ventura which replaced the Ventura entirely after the end of the 1977 model year. Pontiac
Pontiac
also introduced its 151 cubic inch "Iron Duke" 4-cylinder overhead valve engine. It was first used in the 1977 Astre, replacing Astre's aluminum-block 140 cubic inch Vega engine. The 'Iron Duke' engine would later go into many GM and non-GM automobiles into the early 1990s. The 151 cubic inch L4 and the 301 cubic inch V8 were the last two engines designed solely by Pontiac. Subsequent engine design would be accomplished by one central office with all designs being shared by each brand. For model year 1977, the full sized Pontiacs received the same "downsizing" as GM's other "B" body cars. The new Bonnevilles and Catalinas continued to be best-sellers, although their styling similarity to the Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Caprice was seen by some buyers as a "cheapening" of Pontiac's image. In 1981, the full-size Bonneville was discontinued, the name reassigned to the "A" body intermediate platform. That left the Catalina as the only big Pontiac, further reducing sales as buyers went for more plushness. The remainder of the 1970s and the early 1980s saw the continued rise of luxury, safety and economy as the key selling points in Pontiac products. Wire-spoked wheel covers returned for the first time since the 1930s. More station wagons than ever were being offered. Padded vinyl roofs were options on almost every model. Rear-wheel drive
Rear-wheel drive
began its slow demise with the introduction of the first front-wheel drive Pontiac, the 1980 Phoenix (a version of the Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Citation). The Firebird continued to fly high on the success of the 'Smokey and the Bandit' film, still offering Formula and Trans Am packages, plus a Pontiac
Pontiac
first- a turbocharged V8, for the 1980 and 1981 model years. In addition to this, The Rockford Files, which lasted for 6 years used an Esprit Firebird. James Garner
James Garner
was given a new model each year, which was resprayed and painted. But he disapproved of the front facelift. The turn which he performed throughout the show were all his own stunts and came to be known as the Rockford turn
Rockford turn
or J turn. 1982–1988[edit]

1985 Firebird Trans Am

Introduced in 1982, the wedge shaped Firebird was the first major redesign of the venerable pony car since 1970. Partly due to the hugely successful NBC television series Knight Rider, it was an instant success and provided Pontiac
Pontiac
with a foundation on which to build successively more performance oriented models over the next decade. The Trans Am also set a production aerodynamic mark of .32 cd. The next step in Pontiac's resurgence came in the form of its first convertible in nine years. GM adapted the J-body cars. The all-new for 1982 J2000 (later renamed Sunbird) had a convertible as part of its line.

1985 Fiero Sport Coupe

Next came the 1984 Fiero. This was a major departure from anything Pontiac
Pontiac
had produced in the past. A two-seat, mid-engined coupe, the Fiero was targeted straight at the same market that Semon Knudsen
Semon Knudsen
had been aiming for in the late 1950s: the young, affluent buyer who wanted sporting performance at a reasonable price. The Fiero was also an instant success and was partially responsible for Pontiac
Pontiac
seeing its first increase in sales in four years. Pontiac
Pontiac
also began to focus on technology. In 1984, a Special
Special
Touring Edition (STE) was added to the 6000 line as a competitor to European road cars such as the Mercedes 190. The STE sported digital instruments and other electronics as well as a more powerful V-6 and retuned suspension. Later iterations would see some of the first introductions on Pontiacs of anti-lock brakes, steering wheel mounted radio controls and other advanced features.Full size buyers, disappointed by the lack of an available big Bonneville, complained, resulting in Pontiac's importing the Canadian-market Pontiac
Pontiac
Parisienne, which featured the Bonneville's deluxe trim. This car, although a Pontiac
Pontiac
in name, was no more than a slightly re-trimmed Caprice. Despite this fact, the Parisienne sold in profitable numbers and this car continued in production until 1986 for the sedan, and 1989 for the Safari station wagon.With the exception of the Parisienne Safari, the Firebird and Fiero, beginning in 1988 all Pontiacs, with the exception of the Firebird, switched to front-wheel drive platforms. For the first time since 1970, Pontiac
Pontiac
was the number three domestic car maker in America. Pontiac's drive to bring in more youthful buyers was working as the median age of Pontiac
Pontiac
owners dropped from 46 in 1981 to 38 in 1988. 1989–1997[edit]

A mid-90s Grand Prix

Anti-lock brakes, GM's Quad-4 engine, airbags, and composite materials became standard on Pontiacs during this time. 1989 saw the end of Safari wagon production, thus the last V8 powered full sized rear wheel drive Pontiac
Pontiac
until the 2009 G8. The 1990 model year saw the launch of Pontiac's first minivan and light truck, the Trans Sport. In addition, the Grand Prix line added its first ever 4 door model, offered in LE and STE trims. At the end of the 1991 model year, the 6000 was discontinued in favor of the newly expanded Grand Prix line up and the new Trans Sport minivan, which replaced the 6000 station wagon. In 1992, a brand-new Bonneville was introduced. This full-size model featured aerodynamic styling, large expanses of curved glass, front-wheel drive, and a V6 as standard equipment. A new sub model,the SSEi, was introduced in 1992 carrying all standard equipment from the SSE model, plus the 205 hp supercharged 3800 V6. For 1993 the Bonneville added a new option package (H4U) called the Sport Luxury Edition (SLE), which was available on the SE model. This package included leather bucket seats, specific grille, side trim, exhaust, dash trim, lace alloy wheels, as well as a spoiler, sport handling and suspension systems and anti lock brakes. An all new Firebird was introduced in 1993. It was powered by either a 3.4 L V6 with 160 hp (120 kW), or in Trans Am guise a 275 hp (205 kW) LT-1, a 5.7 L (350c.i.) V8, and could be backed by a T-56 six-speed manual.The Sunbird was replaced with the (still J-body) Sunfire in 1995. While the V6 engine
V6 engine
was no longer available in the J-car, sedan, coupe, and convertible body styles did survive. For 1996 the Bonneville received updated front and rear fascias along with several other enhancements. The 3800 Series II V6 had become standard in 1995, featuring 200 hp. The updated supercharged 3800 Series II now featured 240 hp. Division Sales Figures

Year Sales

1989 801,600

1990 636,390

1991 518,598

1992 519,925

1993 533,776

1994 577,022

1995 589,192

1996 479,973

1997 563,897

[14] 1997–2004[edit]

An early-2000s Montana minivan

2006 GTO (LS2 V8 version)

1996 was the last year for the 5th-generation Grand Prix. The Grand Prix debuted in 1997 with the "Wider is Better" advertising campaign. The GTP trim level was added to the Grand Prix. It featured a supercharged 3.8 L V6 rated at 240 hp (180 kW) and 280 lb⋅ft (380 N⋅m) of torque. One design highlight of this generation Grand Prix is the sharing of the roof's sheet metal between both coupe and sedan models. The 1999 model year saw the replacement of the Trans Sport with the larger Montana minivan. The year 2000 marked the first redesign of the Bonneville, since 1992. Based was on the G-Body, shared with the Oldsmobile
Oldsmobile
Aurora and Buick
Buick
LeSabre. In 1998 the Firebird was updated. The TransAm received the LS-1 motor which produced 305 hp (227 kW). The WS6 option saw this number increase to 320 hp (240 kW) and the addition of Ram Air and stiffer springs. In 2002, both the Firebird/Trans Am and Camaro were discontinued as a result of declining sales and a saturated sport market. The coupe version of the Grand Prix was also discontinued. The 2003 Vibe arrived in spring 2002, a Toyota-based compact wagon built at the NUMMI
NUMMI
joint-venture plant. In 2003, it was announced that the Grand Prix would be in its last year of its generation, with an improved 7th generation on the way for 2004. It would also be Pontiac's final year in NASCAR. Pontiac's final victory in NASCAR
NASCAR
would be achieved by Ricky Craven
Ricky Craven
in one of the closest finishes in NASCAR
NASCAR
history. In 2004 the re-introduction of the Pontiac GTO
Pontiac GTO
(based on the Holden Monaro from Australia). The GTO was also initially powered by the 350 HP LS-1 V8 in 2004. It had an independent front and rear suspension and an upscale full leather interior. Sales did not reach the 18,000 units that GM predicted. The LS1 engine was retired in 2004. Pontiac added the drive-by-wire 400 HP LS2 V8 for 2005–2006 model years at no additional cost. Additional upgrades also consisted of stainless steel dual exhaust outlets, larger Corvette sourced PBR brakes with EBD, larger front vented rotors with vented rear rotors, and functional heat extractor hood scoops. The Bonneville introduced the GXP trim level to replace the SSEi. The Bonneville GXP featured a 4.6 Northstar V8, borrowed from Cadillac, and replaced the Supercharged 3800 Series II. The redesigned Grand Prix made its appearance, and featured a GT and GTP trim level. The GTP's new 3.8 L supercharged V6 now made 260 horsepower (190 kW), up 20 from the previous generation. TAPshift was also introduced as well as a Competition Group package (Comp G). 2005–2010[edit] Pontiac
Pontiac
went through a complete product revamping through this period. The Grand Am was replaced with the mid-size G6 in 2004. The Grand Am coupe was produced for the 2005 model year to fill the gap until the new G6 coupe and convertible became available for the 2006 model year.The Bonneville ended production in 2005 after nearly 50 years of production. Although it was not directly replaced, the RWD G8 introduced for the 2009 model year did fill some of the market void.The Solstice concept shown in 2002 was approved for production as a roadster (2006-2009) and, for a few months, a hard-top coupe (2009), which is considered to be quite rare, as a total of only 1,266 coupes made it off the assembly line in Wilmington, DE before it was shut down due to the demise of Pontiac. This is in stark contrast to the over 64,000 Solstice Convertibles that were manufactured on that same line.The controversial and slow-selling Aztek was finally phased out and replaced by the Torrent, which was identical to the Chevrolet Equinox. In 2005 the Sunfire was discontinued and replaced by the new Pontiac Pursuit
Pontiac Pursuit
(later named G5 for the American market). Initially, Pontiac
Pontiac
did not plan on offering the G5 in the United States, however dealer pressure to fill the gap left by the discontinuation of the Sunfire caused Pontiac
Pontiac
to introduce only the coupe variation into the U.S. The 4 door sedan was available in Canada
Canada
as the Pursuit throughout the model run. The Grand Prix ended production in 2008 and the launch of the Australian-built RWD G8 commenced. The G8 gained positive reception for its high performance and low costs. Many noted the G8 as the poor man's BMW M5, due to similar performance at a much cheaper price.[15] The Holden
Holden
Ute was scheduled to be launched as the G8 ST before it was cancelled in January 2009 due to GM's financial situation. It was later announced that the G8 may not see a second generation.Towards the end of the decade many rumors began spreading that Pontiac
Pontiac
would become completely reliant on RWD. Reports ranged from a compact sedan based on the Alpha platform to a new RWD G6 for the 2013 model year. Many reports suggested that the Trans Am/Firebird would return after GM confirmed the rebirth of the Camaro, however, no reports confirmed this. On December 2, 2008, General Motors
General Motors
announced that it was considering eliminating numerous brands, including Pontiac, in order to appease Congress in hope of receiving a $25 billion loan.[16] On February 17, 2009, GM proposed the elimination of its Saturn division, the sale of Saab, and either the sale or elimination of Hummer, depending on whether a buyer could be found quickly. GM clarified that Pontiac would have begun to focus on "niche" models aimed at the "youthful and sporty" segment, but did not provide specifics. Pontiac
Pontiac
was to trim its number of models to four,[17] although there was talk of retaining only one model.[18] By April 2009 several automotive websites and business publications were reporting that GM was doing a study suggesting it might eliminate the brand altogether, along with sister truck brand GMC.[19][20][21] On April 23 a report was published[22] stating the company would be dropping the Pontiac
Pontiac
brand while preserving the GMC truck line, and the Chevrolet, Cadillac, and Buick brands. The decision to eliminate Pontiac
Pontiac
was made primarily due to the increasing threat of a bankruptcy filing if the June 1 deadline could not be met.[23] On April 27, 2009, GM announced that Pontiac would be dropped and that all of its remaining models would be phased out by the end of 2010.[24] Though both production and franchise agreements ended in 2010, Pontiac
Pontiac
remains a registered and active trademark of GM.[25] [26] General Motors
General Motors
would eliminate an additional 7,000 to 8,000 factory jobs in the United States
United States
and shed 2,600 dealers by 2010 under a revised business plan. GM Chief Executive Officer Fritz Henderson said the Pontiac
Pontiac
brand would be closed by 2010, calling it an “extremely personal decision”. In addition to speeding up decisions on Saturn, Saab and Hummer, GM would be left with four brands—Chevrolet, Buick, GMC and Cadillac.[27]

The G6 was the last Pontiac
Pontiac
manufactured by General Motors
General Motors
(2009.5 model shown)

In early May 2009, Jim Waldron, a Davison, Michigan, Pontiac
Pontiac
dealer, announced that he was interested in purchasing the Pontiac
Pontiac
brand and logos, and had found financing to purchase them and some soon-to-be shuttered GM plants in order to build cars. However, GM had already decided to retire the brand as it has begun to sell off its remaining inventory and said that, unlike Saturn, Hummer, and Saab, Pontiac
Pontiac
was not for sale.[28] The Pontiac
Pontiac
brand was pulled after the 2009 model year in Mexico
Mexico
and the brand was renamed Matiz, selling only one vehicle, the Matiz G2 (Matiz's logo is similar to Pontiac's). The last Pontiac, a white 2010 model year G6 4 door sedan, was built at the Orion Township Assembly Line in January, 2010.[29] Pontiac
Pontiac
became the second brand General Motors
General Motors
had eliminated in six years. Oldsmobile
Oldsmobile
met the same fate in 2004 after being more slowly phased out over four years. Pontiac
Pontiac
also became the ninth North American automobile brand since 1987 to be phased out, after Merkur, Mercury, Passport, Asüna, Geo, Plymouth, American Motors
American Motors
(AMC) (renamed Eagle in 1988, and phased out in 1999), and Oldsmobile. Style trademarks and logo[edit]

American Indian headdress and silver streak in a 1952 Pontiac Chieftain

Split grille and arrowhead logo in a 1966 Pontiac
Pontiac
Tempest

A Native American headdress was used as a logo until 1956. This was updated to the Native American red arrowhead design for 1957 in all usage except the high-beam indicator lamp, which retained the original logo through 1970. The arrowhead logo is also known as the Dart. Besides the logo, another identifying feature of Pontiacs were their "Silver Streaks"—one or more narrow strips of stainless steel which extended from the grille down the center of the hood. Eventually they extended from the rear window to the rear bumper as well, and finally; along the tops of the fins. Although initially a single band, this stylistic trademark doubled to two for 1955 - 1956. The Streaks were discontinued the same year as the Indian Head emblems (1957).

Pontiac
Pontiac
Motors Division, Zero Defects tie tack (mid-1960s)

One long-familiar styling element was the split-grille design which was introduced in 1959 to complement the make's new "wide track" stance. The 1960 models, however, reverted to the full-width grille styling. The split-grille then returned for the 1961 model year and would remain as the marque's trademark. Other styling cues were the pointed 'arrowhead' nose (in the 1960s and 70s), and "grilled-over" (in the 1960s), or multiple horizontal-striped taillights. This later feature originated with the 1963 Grand Prix, and although the '62 Grand Prix also had rear grillework, the taillight lenses were not behind it. Less longstanding but equally memorable is the 'cladding' common on the doors and fenders of Pontiacs produced in the 1980s and 90s. Rather than minimizing the side bumper, Pontiac
Pontiac
designers put two troughs going along the length. Bumpers with this appearance were found on nearly all Pontiacs until the arrival of the G6. From 2004 onwards, new Pontiacs had cleaner, more premium styling, but retained the traditional split grille. Canadian/export models[edit] In Canada, the post- World War II
World War II
Pontiac
Pontiac
brand sold well. General Motors of Canada
Canada
offered a line of full-size Pontiac
Pontiac
cars that were styled like U.S market models, but were actually Chevrolets under their skins. Model lineup during this period included the base Strato-Chief, mid-range Laurentian, and top-of-the-line Parisienne series. Under their exteriors, however, these cars featured Chevrolet frames, engines, and even dimensions. Interiors (except for instrument panels which were Pontiac-based) were a combination of Chevy and Pontiac
Pontiac
styling. During the early 1960s, Pontiacs featured the controversial "X" frame used on the big Chevys, as well as the complete Chevy lineup of OHV straight Sixes, small-block 283 and 327 cubic inch V8s, and the big-block 348 and 409 V8s. This scheme was used well into the 1980s, and the Caprice-based 1984 and later Parisienne made it into U.S. Pontiac
Pontiac
showrooms to replace the recently discontinued Bonneville. This strategy helped keep the price of the cars to a minimum, as was needed in the then less-affluent Canadian marketplace. GM of Canada
Canada
was already building Chevrolets in Ontario; they only needed to stamp Pontiac-styled body skins (these were styled like, but not interchangeable with, US Pontiac
Pontiac
body parts) and import Pontiac-specific trim from the United States, to convert these Chevys to Pontiacs. It also reduced the cost of tariffs GM would have needed to pay, had they imported U.S.-market Pontiacs Up North. GM of Canada
Canada
also executed right-hand drive versions of Pontiac
Pontiac
for export. These cars were popular in Australia, where GM faced competition from the big Ford Galaxie and Dodge Phoenix. Pontiac
Pontiac
dealers in Canada
Canada
also sold smaller Chevrolet-based cars under the Acadian and Beaumont badges. These models are often referred to as Pontiacs, but in fact were never marketed as such, nor did they ever wear Pontiac
Pontiac
badges (although the Acadian and Beaumont emblem was in fact, similar to the Pontiac
Pontiac
Arrowhead). However, some Chevrolet
Chevrolet
were badged as Pontiacs later on in Canada. Engines[edit] Main article: Pontiac
Pontiac
V8 engine Pontiac
Pontiac
engineer Clayton Leach designed the stamped steel valvetrain rocker arm, a simplified and reliable alternative to a bearing-equipped rocker. This design was subsequently picked up by nearly every OHV engine manufacturer at one point or another. Pontiac
Pontiac
began work on a V8 configuration in 1946. This was initially intended to be an L-head
L-head
engine, and 8 experimental units were built and extensively tested by the end of the 1940s. But testing comparisons to the OHV Oldsmobile
Oldsmobile
V8 revealed the L-head
L-head
could not compete performance-wise. So, in addition to building a new Pontiac Engineering building in 1949–1951, the decision to re-direct the V8 to an OHV design delayed its introduction until the 1953 model year, however the Buick
Buick
division was introducing its new engine (Nailhead V-8) in 1953 and asked the corporation to hold back or delay Pontiac's V-8 introduction until the 1955 model year which it did. In mid-1956, Pontiac
Pontiac
introduced a higher-powered version of its V8. Among other things, this version of the engine was equipped with a high-performance racing camshaft and dual 4-barrel carburetors. This was the first in a series of NASCAR-ready pre- Super-Duty V8 engines and introduced the long line of multi-carburetor equipped engines that saw Pontiac
Pontiac
become a major player during the muscle car and pony car era of the 1960s. Interestingly, the enlarged 1956 Pontiac
Pontiac
V8 found its way into light-duty GMC pickup trucks. Pontiac's second generation V8 engines shared numerous similarities, allowing many parts to interchange from its advent in 1959 to its demise in 1979. Sizes ranged from 287 cubic inch to 455 cubic inch. This similarity (except the 301 & 265) makes rebuilding these engines relatively easier. This feature also made it possible for Pontiac
Pontiac
to invent the modern muscle car, by the relatively simple process of placing its second largest-displacement engine, the 389 cid, into its mid-size car, the Le Mans, creating the Pontiac
Pontiac
LeMans GTO. From their inception in the 1950s until the early 1970s, Pontiac engines were known for their performance. The largest engine was a massive 455 cubic inch V8 that was available in most of their mid-size, full-size and sports car models. At the height of the horsepower era, Pontiac
Pontiac
engines reached a powerful 390 rated horsepower (SAE gross), though other engines achieved considerably higher outputs in actuality. Federal emissions laws eventually brought the horsepower era to a close and resulted in a steady decline for Pontiac's engines. One holdout to this industry-wide slide was the Super Duty 455 engine of 1973–1974. Available only in the Firebird Formula and Trans Am models, this was rated at 310 hp (230 kW) net initially but after having issues passing EPA emissions tests, the camshaft was changed to the old RA III cam and with the change, came a 290 hp (220 kW) net rating. The engine was the pinnacle of Pontiac
Pontiac
engine development and was a very strong performer that included a few race-specific features, such as provisions for dry-sump oiling. This engine and its legacy drive the SD Trans Ams and Formulas as one of the more, if not the most, desirable Pontiacs ever produced. The only non-traditional Pontiac
Pontiac
V8 engines were the 301 cubic inch and the smaller displacement 265 cubic inch V8s. Produced from 1977 through 1981, these engines had the distinction of being the last V8s produced by Pontiac; GM merged its various brands' engines into one collectively shared group in 1980, entitled General Motors
General Motors
Powertrain. Interestingly, the 301 had a 4-inch (100 mm) bore and 3-inch (76 mm) stroke, identical to the vaunted Chevrolet
Chevrolet
small-block engine and Ford Boss 302 engine. Pontiac
Pontiac
engines were not available in Canada, however, but were replaced with Chevrolet
Chevrolet
engines of similar size and power, resulting in such interesting and unusual (at least to American car fans) models as the Beaumont SD-396 with a Chevrolet
Chevrolet
big-block 396 cubic inch V8. Carburetors[edit] PMD used Carter 1-barrel carburetors for many years, but by the time of the second generation V8 engines had switched mostly to 2-barrel offerings. These also were the basis for the Tri-Power setups on the engines. The Tri-Power setup included one center carburetor with idle control and two end carburetors that did not contribute until the throttle was opened more than half way. This was accomplished two ways, mechanically for the manual transmission models, and via a vacuum-switch on the automatics. This went through various permutations as it was only a factory installed option in from 1957-1966. PMD also had a square-bore 4-barrel at the time, but this was rated at a lower power than the Tri-Power. This carburetor was later replaced by the Quadrajet, a spread bore. 'Spread-bore' refers to the difference in sizes between the primaries and secondaries, using smaller primaries paired with larger secondaries for increased airflow at wider throttle with fuel delivery changes akin to the two-plus-four benefit of Tri-Power but with a single carburetor. It must be understood that the Q jet was not the only thing that gave the top GTO 400" engine and the 428 H-O engines the same H.P. as the 389 and 421. Aside of the displacement advantage the new engine had redesigned cylinder heads with different valve angles and larger ports. The different valve angles allowed for larger diameter intake and exhaust valves. There have been many test when a Tri-Power set-up was added to a 400" or 428" engine that they made even more H.P. than a Q-Jet. By the end of the muscle car era, the Quadrajet
Quadrajet
setup had become the nearly ubiquitous choice on PMD engines. The Quadrajet
Quadrajet
design continued until 1990 for Oldsmobile
Oldsmobile
V8 applications, along with added computer controls to meet emissions and fuel economy standards. Models[edit]

Pontiac 2+2
Pontiac 2+2
(1964–1970) Pontiac 1000
Pontiac 1000
(1983–1987) Pontiac 2000
Pontiac 2000
(1983) Pontiac 2000
Pontiac 2000
Sunbird (1983–1984) Pontiac 6000
Pontiac 6000
(1982–1991) Pontiac Acadian
Pontiac Acadian
(1976–1987, rebadged Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Chevette/Pontiac T1000/1000, Canada) Pontiac Astre
Pontiac Astre
(1975–1977; 1973–1977 Canada) Pontiac Aztek
Pontiac Aztek
(2001–2005) Pontiac Bonneville
Pontiac Bonneville
(1957–2005) Pontiac Catalina
Pontiac Catalina
(1959–1981) Pontiac Chieftain
Pontiac Chieftain
(1949–1958) Pontiac Custom S
Pontiac Custom S
(1969) Pontiac De-Lux
Pontiac De-Lux
(1937) Pontiac Executive
Pontiac Executive
(1967–1970) Pontiac Fiero
Pontiac Fiero
(1984–1988) Pontiac Firebird
Pontiac Firebird
(1967–2002) Pontiac Firefly
Pontiac Firefly
(1985–2001, rebadged Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Sprint/Geo Metro/ Suzuki
Suzuki
Cultus, Canada) Pontiac G3
Pontiac G3
(2006–2009 (Mexico), 2009 (US), rebadged Chevrolet Aveo/Daewoo Gentra) Pontiac G4
Pontiac G4
(2005–2009, rebadged Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Cobalt, Mexico) Pontiac G5
Pontiac G5
(2007–2009, rebadged Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Cobalt) Pontiac G6
Pontiac G6
(2004–2010) Pontiac G8
Pontiac G8
(2008–2009, rebadged Holden
Holden
VE Commodore, Australia) Pontiac
Pontiac
GT-37 (1970-1971) Pontiac Grand Am
Pontiac Grand Am
(1973–1975, 1978–1980, 1985–2005) Pontiac Grand Prix
Pontiac Grand Prix
(1962–2008) Pontiac Grand Safari
Pontiac Grand Safari
(1971–1978) Pontiac Grand Ville
Pontiac Grand Ville
(1971–1975) Pontiac Grande Parisienne
Pontiac Grande Parisienne
(1966–1969, Canada) Pontiac GTO
Pontiac GTO
(1964–1974) Pontiac GTO
Pontiac GTO
(2004–2006, rebadged Holden
Holden
Monaro, Australia) Pontiac J2000
Pontiac J2000
(1982) Pontiac Laurentian
Pontiac Laurentian
(1955–1981, Canada) Pontiac LeMans
Pontiac LeMans
(1962–1981, 1988–1993) Pontiac Matiz
Pontiac Matiz
(1998–2005, rebadged Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Matiz, Mexico) Pontiac Matiz
Pontiac Matiz
G2 (2006–2010, rebadged Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Matiz, Mexico) Pontiac Montana
Pontiac Montana
(1999–2005) Pontiac Montana
Pontiac Montana
SV6 (2005–2006, continued in production for Canada and Mexico
Mexico
until 2009) Pontiac Parisienne
Pontiac Parisienne
(1983–1986; 1958–1986, Canada) Pontiac Pathfinder
Pontiac Pathfinder
(1955–1958, Canada) Pontiac Phoenix
Pontiac Phoenix
(1977–1984) Pontiac Pursuit
Pontiac Pursuit
(later G5 Pursuit) (2005–2006, rebadged Chevrolet Cobalt, Canada) Pontiac Safari
Pontiac Safari
(1955–1989) Pontiac
Pontiac
Silver Streak Pontiac Solstice
Pontiac Solstice
(2006–2009) Pontiac Star Chief
Pontiac Star Chief
(1954–1966) Pontiac Star Chief
Pontiac Star Chief
Executive (1966) Pontiac Strato-Chief
Pontiac Strato-Chief
(1955–1970, Canada) Pontiac Streamliner
Pontiac Streamliner
(1942-1951) Pontiac Sunbird
Pontiac Sunbird
(1975–1980, 1985–1994) Pontiac Sunburst
Pontiac Sunburst
(1985–1989, rebadged Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Spectrum/Isuzu Gemini, Canada) Pontiac Sunfire
Pontiac Sunfire
(1995–2005) Pontiac Sunrunner
Pontiac Sunrunner
(1994–1997, rebadged Geo Tracker/ Suzuki
Suzuki
Escudo, Canada) Pontiac Super Chief
Pontiac Super Chief
(1957–1958) Pontiac T1000
Pontiac T1000
(1981–1982) Pontiac
Pontiac
T-37 (1970-1971) Pontiac
Pontiac
Tojan (1985 -1991) Pontiac Tempest
Pontiac Tempest
(1961–1970; 1987–1991, rebadged Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Corsica, Canada) Pontiac Torpedo
Pontiac Torpedo
(1940-1948) Pontiac Torrent
Pontiac Torrent
(2006–2009) Pontiac Trans Am
Pontiac Trans Am
(1969–2002) Pontiac Trans Sport
Pontiac Trans Sport
(1990–1998) Pontiac Ventura
Pontiac Ventura
(1960–1970 full-size, 1973–1977 compact) Pontiac Ventura
Pontiac Ventura
II (1971–1972) Pontiac Vibe
Pontiac Vibe
(2003–2010, rebadged Toyota
Toyota
Voltz) Pontiac Wave
Pontiac Wave
(later G3 Wave) (2004–2010, rebadged Chevrolet Aveo/Daewoo Gentra, Canada)

Evolution of models[edit]

Pontiac
Pontiac
New Series 6-28 8240 2-door Sedan 1928

Pontiac
Pontiac
Big Six Series 6-29 8930 4-Door Landaulette 1929

Pontiac
Pontiac
Series 603 34318 Convertible Coupé 1934

Pontiac
Pontiac
De Luxe Series 26 2611 2-door Touring Coach 1937

Pontiac
Pontiac
De Luxe Series 26 2611 2-door Touring Sedan 1938

Pontiac
Pontiac
De Luxe Convertible Coupé 1939

Pontiac
Pontiac
Station Wagon 1948

Pontiac Chieftain
Pontiac Chieftain
Catalina 1953

Pontiac Chieftain
Pontiac Chieftain
Catalina 1953

Pontiac Star Chief
Pontiac Star Chief
1954

Pontiac Laurentian
Pontiac Laurentian
Convertible 1956

Pontiac Star Chief
Pontiac Star Chief
1957

Pontiac Bonneville
Pontiac Bonneville
Convertible 1957

Pontiac
Pontiac
2119 Tempest 1961

Pontiac GTO
Pontiac GTO
1966

Pontiac Fiero
Pontiac Fiero
1988

Pontiac Grand Am
Pontiac Grand Am
Sedan 1996–1998

Pontiac Bonneville
Pontiac Bonneville
2003

Pontiac Grand Prix
Pontiac Grand Prix
GTP 2005

Pontiac GTO
Pontiac GTO
2006

Pontiac G8
Pontiac G8
2008

See also[edit]

Category: Pontiac
Pontiac
vehicles Pontiac
Pontiac
V8 engine Pontiac
Pontiac
Straight-8 engine Pontiac
Pontiac
Straight-6 engine List of GM engines Pontiac, Michigan Pontiac
Pontiac
(person)

Notes[edit]

^ Niedermeyer, Paul (March 13, 2010). "An Illustrated History Of Pontiac: Part I – 1926 To 1970". The Truth About Cars. Retrieved 25 June 2015.  ^ "Pontiac". General Motors. Retrieved 17 June 2015.  ^ "Why Did GM Discontinue Pontiac?". gmauthority.com. Retrieved 17 June 2015.  ^ [1] ^ History of Pontiac
Pontiac
1926-1932 ^ Location of GM Osaka factory ^ Editors of Automobile
Automobile
Quarterly. General Motors: The First 75 Years. (New York: Crown Publishers, 1983), p.43. ^ "Car Body Splits Wide Open to Show Engine and Interior". Popular Mechanics. 75 (1): 26. January 1941. Retrieved 24 April 2015.  ^ "1937 Pontiac
Pontiac
Brochure". oldcarbrochures.com. Retrieved 24 April 2015.  ^ "U.S. Auto Plants are Cleared for War". Life: 19. 16 February 1942. Retrieved 24 April 2015.  ^ [2] retrieved 4/19/2009 Archived April 2, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Amazing Radial Engine in Pontiac's Mini-Car." Popular Science, April 1969, pp. 63-65. ^ Flory, J. "Kelly", Jr. American Cars 1960–1972 (Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Coy, 2004), p.854. ^ Standard Catalog of American Cars 1976-1999 ^ [3] 2009 Pontiac G8
Pontiac G8
GXP First Look - Motor Trend ^ ""GM Restructuring Plan for Long-Term Viability" (December 2, 2008)" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-10-12.  ^ Tutor, Chris (2009-01-14). ""Official: GM shrinking to four brands; Pontiac
Pontiac
to four models" from Autoblog (January 25, 2009)". Autoblog. Retrieved 2010-10-12.  ^ Tutor, Chris (2008-12-15). ""Goodbye-amino? Pontiac
Pontiac
could kill G8 ST; become one-car brand" From Autoblog (December 15, 2008)". Autoblog.com. Retrieved 2010-10-12.  ^ Green, Jeff (2009-04-16). ""GM Said to Study Dropping Pontiac, GMC in Savings Bid (Update3)" From Bloomberg.com (April 16, 2009)". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 2010-10-12.  ^ Apr 16, 2009 10:03 a.m. (2009-04-16). ""GM May Kill Pontiac, GMC Brands" From US News & World Report (April 16, 2009)". Usnews.rankingsandreviews.com. Retrieved 2010-10-12.  ^ Roth, Dan (2009-04-16). ""REPORT: Pontiac
Pontiac
and GMC may get axe... you knew this was coming" From Autoblog (April 16, 2009)". Autoblog.com. Retrieved 2010-10-12.  ^ Lavrinc, Damon (2009-04-23). ""REPORT: General Motors
General Motors
to kill Pontiac
Pontiac
on Monday" From Autoblog (April 23, 2004)". Autoblog.com. Retrieved 2010-10-12.  ^ Green, Jeff (2009-04-24). ""GM Said to Preserve GMC Brand, Eliminate Pontiac
Pontiac
in New Plan" (April 24, 2009)". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 2010-10-12.  ^ Silke, Sharon (2009-04-28). ""GM killing its Pontiac
Pontiac
brand, sources say" From USA Today (April 27, 2009)". Usatoday.com. Retrieved 2010-10-12.  ^ Paukert, Chris (2009-04-27). ""Officially Official: GM kills Pontiac (UPDATED with LIVE webcast embed)" From Autoblog.com (April 27, 2009)". Autoblog.com. Retrieved 2010-10-12.  ^ "Trademark Basics". legalhelp.org. Retrieved 17 June 2015.  ^ "Article - WSJ.com". Online.wsj.com. 2009-04-27. Archived from the original on April 30, 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-02.  ^ Longley, Kristin (May 7, 2009). " Pontiac
Pontiac
not for sale, GM says, despite local dealership's offer to buy". The Flint Journal. Retrieved 24 October 2012.  ^ " Pontiac
Pontiac
hits end of the road after 82 years". NBCNews.com. Retrieved October 5, 2014. 

References[edit]

Kimes, Beverly R. (1996). Clark, Henry A., ed. The Standard Catalog of American Cars 1805–1945. Krause Publications. ISBN 0-87341-428-4.  Gunnell, John, ed. (1987). The Standard Catalog of American Cars 1946–1975. Krause Publications. ISBN 0-87341-096-3.  Flammang, James; Kowalke, Ron (1999). The Standard Catalog of American Cars 1976–1999. Krause Publications. ISBN 0-87341-755-0. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pontiac
Pontiac
vehicles.

Pontiac
Pontiac
App on the App Store (All Diagnostic Trouble Codes & Car Dashboard Symbols) [4] Pontiac
Pontiac
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Forever Pontiac
Pontiac
- The ONLY online Pontiac
Pontiac
Enthusiast community Pontiac
Pontiac
Portal
Portal
at The Crittenden Automotive Library Classic Pontiac
Pontiac
web site Pontiac
Pontiac
web site from Switzerland Pontiac
Pontiac
club English, Czech 1966 European export range from RitzSite

Further reading[edit]

Jim Wangers; Glory Days: When Horsepower and Passion Ruled Detroit; Bentley Publishers (October 1998); paperback: 348 pages, ISBN 0-8376-0208-4, ISBN 978-0-8376-0208-0; hardcover: 309 pages, ISBN 0-8376-0207-6, ISBN 978-0-8376-0207-3.

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Pontiac
Pontiac
road car timeline, 1950s–1980 — next »

Type 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0

Subcompact

Astre

Sunbird

Acadian

Compact

Tempest

Ventura II Ventura

LeMans

Phoenix Phoenix

Mid-size

Tempest T-37

Tempest Custom Custom S

LeMans LeMans LeMans LeMans

Grand Am

Grand Am

Full-size

Pathfinder Strato Chief Strato Chief Strato Chief

Pathfinder Deluxe Strato Chief Laurentian Laurentian Laurentian Laurentian Laurentian

Laurentian Laurentian Parisienne Parisienne Parisienne / Grande Parisienne

Chieftain Chieftain Chieftain Catalina Catalina Catalina Catalina Catalina

Super Chief Super Chief

Ventura Ventura

Ventura

Catalina Brougham Parisienne Brougham Parisienne

Streamliner

Star Chief Star Chief Star Chief Star Chief Star Chief Star Chief Star Chief Executive Executive Bonneville Bonneville

Bonneville Bonneville Bonneville Bonneville Bonneville Grand Ville Grand Ville Brougham Bonneville Brougham Bonneville Brougham

Station wagon

Safari Safari Safari Safari Safari Safari / Grand Safari Safari / Grand Safari

Personal luxury

Grand Prix Grand Prix Grand Prix Grand Prix Grand Prix

Muscle car

GTO GTO GTO

Firebird Firebird

Grand tourer

2+2 2+2

Red denotes models which were exclusive to Canada

v t e

« previous — Pontiac, a division of General Motors, automobile timeline, 1980s–2010

Type 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0

Subcompact

Matiz/G2 Matiz/Matiz G2

Sunbird T1000 1000 LeMans

Acadian

Sunburst

Firefly Firefly

Firefly Firefly

Wave G3

Compact

J2000 2000 Sunbird Sunbird Sunfire Pursuit/G4/G5

Tempest

Phoenix Grand Am Grand Am Grand Am G6

Mid-size LeMans Bonneville

Grand Prix Grand Prix Grand Prix

Grand Am

6000

Full-size Laurentian

Catalina

Parisienne Bonneville Bonneville Bonneville

G8

Bonneville

Station wagon Safari

Mid-size crossover

Aztek Torrent

Compact SUV

Sunrunner

Compact MPV

Vibe Vibe

Minivan

Trans Sport Trans Sport/Montana Montana SV6

Personal luxury Grand Prix

Muscle car Firebird Firebird Firebird

GTO

Sports

Fiero

Solstice

Red denotes models which are exclusive to Canada

Green denotes models which are exclusive to Mexico

v t e

Pontiac

Historic models

Cars

2+2 6000 Acadian Astre Bonneville Can-Am Catalina Chieftain Custom S Executive Firebird Firefly G6 G8 Grand Am Grand Prix Grand Safari Grand Ville GTO Laurentian LeMans Matiz Pathfinder Phoenix Pursuit Safari Star Chief Strato Chief Streamliner Sunbird Sunburst Sunfire Tempest Ventura Wave

SUVs

Aztek Sunrunner Torrent

Minivans

Montana Trans Sport Vibe

Coupes

Fiero G5 Solstice

v t e

Automotive marques of General Motors

Wholly owned

Current

Buick Cadillac Chevrolet GMC Holden

Discontinued

Acadian (1962–1971) Alpheon
Alpheon
(2010-2015) Asüna
Asüna
(1992–1995) Beaumont (1966–1969) Bedford (1930–1986) Cartercar
Cartercar
(1905–1915) Daewoo (1982–2011) Elmore (1893–1912) Envoy (1959–1970) GM Diesel (1938-2000) Geo (1989–1997) Hummer
Hummer
(1992–2010) LaSalle (1927–1940) Marquette (1929–1930) McLaughlin (1918–1942) Oakland (1907–1931) Oldsmobile
Oldsmobile
(1897–2004) Passport (1988–1991) Pontiac
Pontiac
(1926–2010) Ranger (1968–1976) Rainier (1905–1911) Saturn (1985–2010) Scripps-Booth
Scripps-Booth
(1913–1923) Sheridan (1920–1921) Statesman (1971–1984) Viking (1929–1931) Yellow Coach (1925–1943)

Former

Lotus (1986–1993) Saab (1989–2010) Opel
Opel
(1929–2017) Vauxhall (1925–2017)

Shareholdings and joint ventures

Current

Baojun1 Jie Fang (50%) Ravon (25%) Wuling1

Former

Fiat (2000–2005; up to 20%) Isuzu Motors
Isuzu Motors
(c.1971–2006; up to 49%) Subaru
Subaru
(c.1999–2006; 20%) Suzuki
Suzuki
(1985–2008; up to 15%) PSA Peugeot Citroën
PSA Peugeot Citroën
(2012-2013; up to 7%) UzDaewoo (1992-2015; up to 50%)

1Marques of SAIC-GM-Wuling
SAIC-GM-Wuling
(GM up to 44%) Category

v t e

General Motors

Divisions and subsidiaries

Vehicle brands

Buick Cadillac Chevrolet GMC Holden

Holden
Holden
Special
Special
Vehicles

Services

ACDelco GM Certified Service GM Financial Maven OnStar

Geographic

General Motors
General Motors
Canada

CAMI Automotive

General Motors
General Motors
de Mexico General Motors
General Motors
do Brasil General Motors
General Motors
Egypt General Motors
General Motors
India

Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Sales India Private Limited

General Motors
General Motors
South Africa General Motors
General Motors
de Argentina

Shareholdings

FAW-GM
FAW-GM
(50%) GM-AvtoVAZ
GM-AvtoVAZ
(41.61%) GM Korea
GM Korea
(96%)

Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Europe GM Vietnam

GM Uzbekistan
GM Uzbekistan
(25%)

UzDaewooAvto
UzDaewooAvto
50%

HRL Laboratories
HRL Laboratories
(50%) SAIC-GM
SAIC-GM
(49%) SAIC-GM-Wuling
SAIC-GM-Wuling
(34%)

Baojun

Industries Mécaniques Maghrébines
Industries Mécaniques Maghrébines
(20%)

Products and technologies

Platforms Transmissions Hybrids Vehicles

Engines

I3

Family 0 SGE

I4

Family 0 SGE Family 1 MGE Family II Ecotec

V6

High Feature Gen V

V8

Gen IV Gen V

Former divisions, joint ventures and subsidiaries

Allison Engine Company
Allison Engine Company
(1929–1995) Allison Transmission
Allison Transmission
(1929–2007) Ally Financial
Ally Financial
(1919-2013) Atlantic Aircraft Dayton-Wright Company
Dayton-Wright Company
(1919–1923) Delco Electronics Delphi (1994–1999) Detroit
Detroit
Diesel (1938–1988) DirecTV
DirecTV
(1994–2003) Electro-Motive Diesel
Electro-Motive Diesel
(1930–2004) Electronic Data Systems (1984–1996) Euclid Trucks
Euclid Trucks
(1953–1968) Fisher Body Fleetwood Metal Body Frigidaire
Frigidaire
(1919–1980) General Motors
General Motors
Europe (1986–2010) General Motors
General Motors
Diesel Division (1938–1987) General Motors
General Motors
Diesel (1949–1969) Ghandhara Industries
Ghandhara Industries
(1953–1963) GM Defense (1950–2003) GMAC Real Estate
GMAC Real Estate
(1998–2008) GMC Heavy Trucks Hughes Aircraft
Hughes Aircraft
(1985–1997) Hughes Electronics
Hughes Electronics
(1985–1997) Hughes Network Systems (1987–2003) HughesNet (DirecWay/DirecPC) (1996–2003) Kettering University National City Lines NUMMI
NUMMI
(1984–2009) New Venture Gear
New Venture Gear
(36%, 1990–2002) Nexteer (2009–2010) North American Aviation
North American Aviation
(1933–1948) Nuvell Financial Services
Nuvell Financial Services
(1997–2008) PanAmSat (1995–2003) Remy Electric
Remy Electric
(1918–1994) Rochester Products Division Terex United Australian Automobile
Automobile
Industries (1989–1996) Winton Motor Carriage Company Yellow Coach Manufacturing Company
Yellow Coach Manufacturing Company
(1925–1943)

Places

Renaissance Center GM Technical Center GM Proving Grounds Factories

People

William C. Durant
William C. Durant
(Founder) Tim Solso (Chairman) Mary Barra
Mary Barra
(CEO) Dan Ammann (President)

Other

General Motors
General Motors
Foundation History Reorganization General Motors
General Motors
Motorama Streetcar conspiracy Concept of the Corporation Ignition switch recalls

Categ

.