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Pondicherry
Pondicherry
(/pɒndɪˈtʃɛri/ or /-ˈʃɛri/; French: Pondichéry ) is the capital city and the largest city of the Indian union territory of Puducherry. The city of Pondicherry
Pondicherry
is situated in Puducherry district of the union territory. It is affectionately known as Pondy and short code as "Pdy", and has been officially known by the alternative name Puducherry
Puducherry
in Tamil (New Town) since 2006.[2] Pondicherry
Pondicherry
city consists of 42 wards. Wards 1–10 are located in north of the city. Wards 11–19 are located in Boulevard Town and remaining wards are located in the southwest of the downtown.[3]

Contents

1 History 2 Topography 3 Economy 4 Climate 5 Demographics 6 Urban agglomeration 7 Transport

7.1 Road 7.2 Rail 7.3 Air

8 Tourism 9 Gallery 10 Notable people

10.1 Literature 10.2 Science and technology 10.3 Armed forces 10.4 Fictional

11 See also 12 References 13 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of Puducherry

Pondicherry
Pondicherry
waterfront circa 1900

The history of the city of Pondicherry
Pondicherry
is recorded only after the arrival of Dutch, Portuguese, British and French colonialists. By contrast, nearby places such as Arikamedu, Ariyankuppam, Kakayanthoppe, Villianur
Villianur
and Bahur, which were colonised by the French East India
India
Company over a period of time and which later became the union territory of Pondicherry, have recorded histories that predate the colonial period. A marketplace named Poduke or Poduca is recorded as a Roman trading destination from the mid 1st century. The area was part of the Pallava Kingdom of Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
in the 4th century. The Cholas of Thanjavur held it from the 10th to 13th centuries, only to be replaced by the Pandya Kingdom in the 13th century. The Vijayanagar Empire took control of almost all of the South of India
India
in the 14th century and maintained control until 1638 when they were supplanted by the Sultan of Bijapur. The French East India
India
Company established this town as their headquarters in 1674. Five trading posts were established along the south Indian coast between 1668 and 1674. The town was separated by a canal into the French Quarter and the Indian Quarter.[4] During the Anglo-French wars (1742–1763), Puducherry
Puducherry
changed hands frequently. On January 16, 1761, the British captured Puducherry
Puducherry
from the French, but the Treaty of Paris
Paris
(1763) at the conclusion of the Seven Years' War
Seven Years' War
returned it.[5] The British took control of the area again in 1793 at the Siege of Pondicherry
Pondicherry
amid the Wars of the French Revolution, and returned it to France
France
in 1814. When the British gained control of the whole of India
India
in the late 1850s, they allowed the French to retain their settlements in the country. Pondicherry, Mahé, Yanam, Karaikal
Karaikal
and Chandernagor
Chandernagor
remained a part of French India
India
until 1954 when it was incorporated into the Indian Union along with the rest of French India. On 18 October 1954 in a general election involving 178 people in Pondicherry
Pondicherry
Municipal and Commune Panchayat, 170 people were in favour of independence and eight people voted against. The de facto transfer of the French Indian territories from French governance to the Indian union took place on 1 November 1954, and was established as the union territory of Pondicherry. However, the formal de jure transfer of territory agreement between France
France
and India
India
was signed on 16 August 1962. Topography[edit] The topography of Pondicherry
Pondicherry
is the same as that of coastal Tamil Nadu. Pondicherry's average elevation is at sea level, and a number of sea inlets, referred to as "backwaters" can be found. Puducherry experiences extreme coastal erosion as a result of a breakwater constructed in 1989,[6] just to the south of the town. Where there was once a broad, sandy beach, now the city is "protected" against the sea by a 2-km-long seawall. While there was an early seawall made by the French government in 1735, this was not "hard structure coastal defense" so much as an adjunct to the old shipping pier and a transition from the beach to the town, which sits at a height of 8.5 m above sea level.[7] Today, the seawall consists of rows of granite boulders which are reinforced every year in an attempt to stop erosion. As a consequence of the seawall, Pondicherry
Pondicherry
experiences severe seabed erosion and turbulence at the coastal margin, resulting in an extreme loss of biodiversity within the critical intertidal zone. Whenever gaps appear as the stones fall into the continually eroding seabed, the government of Puducherry
Puducherry
adds more boulders. Pondicherry's seawall has also caused beach erosion to migrate further up the coast, to the fishing villages in Puducherry
Puducherry
and Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
to the north of the town.[8] Economy[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (February 2011)

In 2012, the Ministry of Power inaugurated the Smart Grid project in Puducherry.[9] Farming around Pondicherry
Pondicherry
include crops such as rice, pulses, sugarcane, coconuts, and cotton. In 2016, the Pondicherry State Government Employees Central Federation presented a status paper on the fiscal and social crisis in Puducherry
Puducherry
to Union Home Minister Rajnath Singh. The report stated that a "combination of a staggering debt, stagnant tax revenues and rampant misappropriation of funds has throttled the economy of the Union Territory" and called for measures on a war footing to "deliver good governance and end corruption."[10] Climate[edit] The climate of Pondicherry
Pondicherry
is classified by Köppen-Geiger system as tropical wet and dry (As),[11] similar to that of coastal Tamil Nadu. Summer lasts from April to early June, when maximum temperatures frequently hit the 41 °C (106 °F) mark. The average maximum temperature is 36 °C (97 °F). Minimum temperatures are in the order of 28–32 °C (82–90 °F). This is followed by a period of high humidity and occasional thundershowers from June till September. The northeast monsoon sets in during the middle of October, and Pondicherry
Pondicherry
gets the bulk of its annual rainfall during the period from October to December. The annual average rainfall is 1,240 mm (49 in).[12] Winters are warm, with highs of 30 °C (86 °F) and lows often dipping to around 18–20 °C (64–68 °F).

Climate
Climate
data for Pondicherry
Pondicherry
Airport

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 33.2 (91.8) 35.2 (95.4) 37.2 (99) 41.8 (107.2) 43.1 (109.6) 41.7 (107.1) 40.7 (105.3) 40.2 (104.4) 38.6 (101.5) 37.9 (100.2) 36.3 (97.3) 32.5 (90.5) 43.1 (109.6)

Average high °C (°F) 29.0 (84.2) 30.0 (86) 31.2 (88.2) 32.8 (91) 34.6 (94.3) 35.8 (96.4) 34.5 (94.1) 33.9 (93) 33.1 (91.6) 31.5 (88.7) 29.8 (85.6) 29.0 (84.2) 32.1 (89.8)

Average low °C (°F) 21.9 (71.4) 22.5 (72.5) 23.8 (74.8) 25.9 (78.6) 26.8 (80.2) 26.5 (79.7) 25.7 (78.3) 25.2 (77.4) 24.9 (76.8) 24.5 (76.1) 23.6 (74.5) 22.6 (72.7) 24.5 (76.1)

Record low °C (°F) 17.1 (62.8) 17.3 (63.1) 18.8 (65.8) 21.9 (71.4) 21.9 (71.4) 21.5 (70.7) 21.6 (70.9) 21.4 (70.5) 21.5 (70.7) 19.6 (67.3) 16.5 (61.7) 17.1 (62.8) 16.5 (61.7)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 12.3 (0.484) 22.2 (0.874) 19.3 (0.76) 7.8 (0.307) 48.6 (1.913) 48.0 (1.89) 89.5 (3.524) 132.3 (5.209) 132.8 (5.228) 273.9 (10.783) 350.0 (13.78) 217.3 (8.555) 1,354 (53.307)

Average rainy days 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.4 1.9 2.8 5.3 6.7 6.5 10.3 11.8 6.8 55.0

Source: India
India
Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)[13][14]

Demographics[edit]

The French consulate in Pondicherry.

L' Alliance française
Alliance française
of Pondicherry.

At the 2011 India
India
census,[15] Pondicherry
Pondicherry
had a population of 675,000. Males constitute 50% of the population and females 50%. Pondicherry has an average literacy rate of 76%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 82%, and female literacy is 71%. In Pondicherry, 11% of the population is under 6 years of age. The majority speaks Tamil in Pondicherry, while there is a community of French people
French people
in Pondicherry
Pondicherry
and a number of French institutions such as the consulate of France
France
in Pondicherry, the French Institute of Pondicherry, and L'Alliance française.[16] Urban agglomeration[edit]

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Local bodies Area Population

Pondicherry
Pondicherry
Municipality 19.54 km2 241,773

Oulgaret
Oulgaret
Municipality 36.70 km2 300,028

Total  56.24 km2 12,22,234

Data according to 2012 census There are two proposals by the Puducherry
Puducherry
government, firstly to merge Pondicherry
Pondicherry
and Oulgaret
Oulgaret
municipalities, and upgrade Pondicherry municipality into a '"municipal corporation", and secondly to upgrade Villianur
Villianur
and Ariyankuppam
Ariyankuppam
commune panchayats into municipalities, which would increase the Pondicherry
Pondicherry
region's urban area around 155 km2. of the total 292 km2. Transport[edit] Road[edit] Pondicherry
Pondicherry
is connected to Chennai
Chennai
via the East Coast Road
East Coast Road
through Mahabalipuram.[17] The Pondicherry Road Transport Corporation runs buses within the city.[18] The Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
State Transport Corporation operates Volvo
Volvo
air-conditioned services from Chennai
Chennai
to Pondicherry.[19] There are daily bus services from several main stops from Chennai. The Pondicherry
Pondicherry
road transport corporation also operates Volvo
Volvo
buses to Chennai
Chennai
and to various places. Rail[edit] PDY/ Puducherry
Puducherry
(Pondicherry) is connected by train to all metros: Chennai, Delhi, Kolkata, and Mumbai, as well as other important cities such as Kanyakumari, Pune, Bhubaneshwar, Bangalore, Visakhapatnam
Visakhapatnam
and Mangalore.[20][21] Important trains: 12867/Howrah- Puducherry
Puducherry
(Aurobindo) SF Express, 22403/ Puducherry
Puducherry
– New Delhi
Delhi
SF Express and 12898/Bhubaneswar- Pondicherry
Pondicherry
Weekly SF Express Air[edit] Puducherry
Puducherry
Airport is located at Lawspet. It has direct flights to Hyderabad, Bangalore
Bangalore
operated by SpiceJet Airlines. It also has chartered flights to Chennai
Chennai
operated by TruJet Airlines. It is the busiest airport in Puducherry. Tourism[edit]

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French War Memorial

Main article: Tourism in Puducherry Pondicherry
Pondicherry
is a popular tourist destination in South India. The city has many colonial buildings, churches, temples, and statues which, combined with the systematic town planning and planned French style avenues, still preserve much of the colonial ambiance.

Sri Aurobindo
Sri Aurobindo
Ashram

While the sea is a popular draw for tourists, Pondicherry
Pondicherry
no longer has the beautiful sand beaches that once graced its coastline. The breakwater to the harbour and other hard structures constructed on the shore caused extreme coastal erosion and the sand from Pondicherry's famous Promenade Beach
Promenade Beach
was permitted to disappear entirely. As a result of the town's seawall and groyne construction, the beaches further up the coast to the north have also been lost. An enormous deposition of sand has accrued to the south of the harbour breakwater, but this is not a commodious beach and is not easily accessible from the town. The Sri Aurobindo
Sri Aurobindo
Ashram, located on rue de la Marine, is one of the most important ashrams in India, founded by the renowned Freedom Fighter and spiritual philosopher Sri Aurobindo. Auroville
Auroville
(City of Dawn) is an "experimental" township located 8 km north-west of Pondicherry. It is meant to be a universal town where men and women of all countries are able to live in peace and progressive harmony, above all creeds, all politics and all nationalities. There are a number of old and large churches in Pondicherry, most of which were built in the 18th and 19th centuries. A number of heritage buildings and monuments are present around the Promenade Beach, such as the Children's Park & Dupleix Statue, Gandhi statue, Nehru Statue, Le Café, French War Memorial, 19th Century Light House, Bharathi Park, Governors Palace, Romain Rolland Library, Legislative Assembly, Pondicherry Museum and the French Institute of Pondicherry at Saint-Louis Street. Puducherry
Puducherry
is also popular for its eateries that cover a wide variety of cuisines ranging from French, Indian and Italian to Mexican, Thai and Chinese. Some restaurants also serve a unique Indo-French cuisine that gives tourists a taste of Puducherry's colonial influences. Most popular eateries include Baker's Street, The White Town Cafe, Zuka, Carte Blanche and La Maison Rose. Puducherry
Puducherry
Botanical Gardens is located south of the New Bus Stand. Chunnambar Backwater resort is situated 8 km from Pondicherry, along the Cuddalore Main Road. This tropical resort is flanked by a quiet-flowing creek on one side. Boating and tree house[clarification needed] are very popular. Arulmigu Manakula Vinayagar Devasthanam on Manakula Vinayagar Street is a Hindu temple, which houses Lord Ganesha. Sri Manakula Vinayagar Temple was in existence before the French came and settled in Pondicherry
Pondicherry
i.e. before 1666. According to Sasthra, Lord Ganesha is named in 16 types based on his various forms, out of which this god facing the east coast near the Bay of Bengal was named as Bhuvaneshar Ganapathy, now called as Manakula Vinayagar. In Tamil, 'Manal' means sand and 'Kulam' means pond near the sea. Earlier, there was full of sand around the pond. So, the people called the god as Manal Kulathu Vinayagar [means God near the pond of sand]. Later, it was named as Manakula Vinayagar. Thirukaameeswarar Temple is one of the ancient temples located in a rural town called Villianur
Villianur
(the ancient name is Vilvanallur, meaning "vilva marangal niraindha nalla vur"), which is located about 10 km away (towards Villupuram) from Pondicherry
Pondicherry
town. This temple is renowned as Periya Koil "Big Temple". The prime god is Lord Shiva and the prime goddess is Goddess Kokilambigai. In addition, there are also other Hindu gods such as Murugan, Vinayagar, Thakshanamoorthy, Perumal, Bhramah, Chandikeshwarar, Natarajar, Navagrahah, and 63 Naayanmaars. The pioneers[clarification needed] in this temple say that the age of this temple is about 1000+ years. It is thought to have been built by one of the Chola kings. There is also a huge "temple pond". The "Ther Thiruvizha" procession is celebrated at this temple. Apart from sight seeing places for the tourists, there are a number of various bakeries and restaurants that cater to the Europeans taste buds. For others there are many Indian, Continental, Chinese and fast food restaurants to choose from. Pondicherry
Pondicherry
being once a French colony has good French cuisine i.e. Cafe des Arts, Rendezvous, Le Dupleix, Villa Shanti, Palais de Mahe, Maison Perumal. Some other notable restaurants for pizzas Cafe Xtasi, Auro Pizza and Tanto Pizzeria, & The Sunway Manor and for bakeries Hot Breads, Daily Breads, Bon Bakes, Grand Bakery and Zuka Choco-La.

Panoramic view of Pondicherry
Pondicherry
town

Gallery[edit]

Pondicherry
Pondicherry
in 1816

Map of Pondicherry
Pondicherry
Region, Union Territory of Puducherry, India

Beach Promenade

Mahatma Gandhi's Statue

Pondicherry
Pondicherry
beach viewed from light house

French War Memorial

Park Monument (Aayi Mandapam) in the Government Park

Bharati Park (Government Park)

The Cathedral of Our Lady of the Immaculate Conception

Basilica of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, Pondicherry

The Church of Our Lady of Angels

Soldier on guard at gate of Government Palace, Pondicherry

Goubert Avenue, Pondicherry, India

Street sign in Tamil and French

Puducherry
Puducherry
Tamil house

Notable people[edit] Literature[edit]

Tamil Poet Subramania Bharati. Tamil Poet Bharathidasan.

Anandaraj, Kollywood actor Kalki Koechlin, Bollywood actress Ayesha Kapur, Bollywood actress M. Night Shyamalan, Hollywood Director Tao Porchon-Lynch, Yoga instructor, American actress

Science and technology[edit]

S. Somasegar, former senior vice-president, Microsoft Ganapathi Thanikaimoni, Indian scientist and director of the Palynology laboratory of the French Institute of Pondicherry Yvonne Artaud, French educationalist and psychologist. Navi Radjou, an innovation and leadership strategist based in Silicon Valley.[22]

List of Lieutenant governors 1) S.L. Silam 2) B.D. Jatti 3) Chhedilal 4) B.T. Kulkarni 5) Ram Kishore Vyas 6) R.N. Haldipur 7) K.M. Chandy 8) Kona Prabhakara Rao 9) Tribhuvan Prasad Tewary 10) Ranjit Singh Dyal 11) Chandrawati 12) Har Swarup Singh 13) Rajendra Kumari Bajpai 14) Rajani Rai 15) K. R. Malkani 16) Nagendra Nath Jha 17) M. M. Lakhera 18) Mukut Mithi 19) Bhopinder Singh 20) Govind Singh Gurjar 21) Surjit Singh Barnala^ 22) Iqbal Singh 23) Virendra Kataria 23) A. K. Singh[1] 24) Kiran Bedi[2] Armed forces[edit]

Maréchal Le Marquis de Lauriston (1768–1828), a very senior-ranking military commander in the French Army, was born in Pondicherry.

Fictional[edit]

Home town of the titular character in Yann Martel's Life of Pi. Prince Pondicherry, a character from Roald Dahl's Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, is named for the city. The character asked that Willy Wonka build him a palace made of chocolate. Given the heat of the Indian climate, this decision worked out poorly for the fictitious prince. Chatur from the Bollywood movie 3 Idiots
3 Idiots
mentioned that he grew up in Pondicherry

See also[edit]

Mahé, India Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
Medical College & Research Institute Pondicherry
Pondicherry
Engineering College Pondicherry
Pondicherry
University Pondicherry
Pondicherry
urban area Rajiv Gandhi College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Yanam, India Manakula Vinayagar Temple

References[edit]

^ "The Paris
Paris
of the East". [permanent dead link] ^ "Bill to rename Pondicherry
Pondicherry
as Puducherry
Puducherry
passed". The Hindu. 22 August 2006. Retrieved 2 May 2016.  ^ Town and Country Planning Department, Pondicherry, India: City Development Plan – Pondicherry, Final Report, March 2007, S. 159 Archived 19 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ WORRALL, JILL (11 April 2016). "Peace, love and a French flavour in Pondicherry, South India". www.stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 2 May 2016.  ^ Chand, Hukam. History Of Medieval India, 202. ^ The story of Pondicherry's eroding coastline ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 16 September 2009. Retrieved 22 June 2009.  ^ [1] ^ "Smart grid project inaugurated". Puducherry. The Hindu. 20 October 2012. Retrieved 23 October 2012.  ^ Special
Special
Correspondent (October 18, 2016). "Report paints grim picture of Puducherry's economy". The Hindu. Retrieved October 28, 2017.  ^ "Climate: Pondicherry
Pondicherry
Climate
Climate
graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 6 October 2013.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 26 July 2009. Retrieved 10 July 2009.  ^ " Pondicherry
Pondicherry
Climatological Table Period: 1971–2000". India Meteorological Department. Retrieved 11 April 2015.  ^ "Ever recorded Maximum and minimum temperatures up to 2010" (PDF). India
India
Meteorological Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 May 2013. Retrieved 11 April 2015.  ^ " Census
Census
of India
India
2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census
Census
Commission of India. Archived from the original on 16 June 2004. Retrieved 1 November 2008.  ^ "Pondicherry: Forever France? by Anand Jha". Boloji.com. 10 November 2002. Retrieved 18 March 2013.  ^ Ramakrishnan, Deepa (23 February 2012). "After a decade on fast lane, ECR is set to expand". The Hindu. Chennai. Retrieved 16 September 2012.  ^ "20 buses launched in urban routes". The Hindu. Puducherry. 8 June 2010. Retrieved 19 September 2012.  ^ V, Venkatasubramanian (19 February 2010). "A boon to Kancheepuram unit of TNSTC". The Hindu. Kancheepuram. Retrieved 15 September 2012.  ^ "Delhi- Puducherry
Puducherry
train link from July 3". The Hindu. 25 June 2011. Retrieved 16 September 2012.  ^ "Changes in train timings". The Hindu. Puducherry. 13 September 2012. Retrieved 16 September 2012.  ^ http://thinkbusiness.nus.edu/articles/item/126

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pondicherry.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Pondicherry.

(in English) Official website of the Government of the Union Territory of Puducherry (in English) Events & Happenings in and around Puducherry (in English) Pondicherry
Pondicherry
Media

v t e

State of Puducherry

Capital: Pondicherry

Districts

Pondicherry Karaikal Mahé Yanam

Municipalities

Karaikal Mahé Ozhukarai Pondicherry Yanam

Languages

French Tamil Malayalam Telugu

Education

Pondicherry
Pondicherry
University Pondicherry
Pondicherry
Engineering College JIPMER National Institute of Technology, Puducherry

History

History of Pondicherry

Places of interest

Beach Manakula Vinayagar Temple Matrimandir Sri Aurobindo
Sri Aurobindo
Ashram Sacred Heart Basilica

Transport

Rail

Puducherry Karaikal Mahe

Air

Puducherry
Puducherry
Airport Karaikal
Karaikal
Airport

Sports

Yanam
Yanam
Tigers Pondicherry
Pondicherry
Cricket Association Indira Gandhi Sports Stadium Rajiv Gandhi Cricket Stadium YSR Indoor Stadium

v t e

State and Union Territory capitals of India

Agartala Aizawl Amaravati
Amaravati
(de facto) Bangalore Bhopal Bhubaneswar Chandigarh Chennai Daman Dehradun
Dehradun
(interim) New Delhi Dispur Gandhinagar Gangtok Hyderabad Imphal Itanagar Jaipur Jammu
Jammu
(in winter) Kavaratti Kohima Kolkata Lucknow Mumbai Panaji Patna Pondicherry Port Blair Raipur Ranchi Shillong Shimla Silvassa Srinagar
Srinagar
(in summer) Thiruvananthapuram

Authority control

GND: 4103204-4 BNF:

.