Citrus maxima, or
Citrus grandis, also called pomello,
pummelo, pommelo, pumelo, pamplemousse, lusho fruit, jabong (Hawaii),
Jambola or shaddock, is a natural (non-hybrid) citrus fruit,
similar in appearance to a large grapefruit, native to South and
The pomelo is one of the original citrus species from which the rest
of cultivated citrus hybridized.
2 Description and uses
2.1 Genetic diversity
3 Drug interactions
4.1 Non-hybrid pomelos
4.2 Possible non-hybrid pomelos
7 External links
Flowering and fruiting branch with numbered fruit segment and flower
section, Chromolithograph by P. Depannemaeker, c. 1885, after B. Hoola
After a Captain Shaddock of an
East India Company
East India Company ship introduced it
to Barbados, the fruit was called "shaddock" in English. From
there the name spread to
Jamaica in 1696. It remains a common name
for the fruit among English authors.
The word "pomelo" has become the more common name, although "pomelo"
has historically been used for grapefruit. (The 1973 printing of the
American Heritage Dictionary, for example, gives grapefruit as the
only meaning of "pomelo".)
The etymology of the word "pomelo" is complex. In the Tamil language
it is called "pampa limāsu", which means big citrus. The name was
adopted by the Portuguese as "pomposos limões" and then by the Dutch
as "pompelmoes". With some deviations, the name may be found in many
European languages, for example, German (Pampelmuse), Latvian
(Pampelmūze), Ido (Pompelmuso), whereas some other languages use
"pomelo" (Turkish, Norwegian, Polish, Bulgarian).
Another origin theory proposes that "pomelo" is an alteration of a
compound of English names pomme ("apple") + melon.
Citrus maxima is native to South-East Asia, where it is known under
a wide variety of names. In large parts of South-East Asia, it is a
popular dessert, often eaten raw and sprinkled with, or dipped in, a
salt mixture. It is eaten in salads and drinks as well.
Description and uses
This section needs expansion with: description of plant and flowers,
cultivation, culinary use and nutrition; See Talk. You can help by
adding to it. (March 2017)
Closeup of pomelo petiole
Typically, the fruit is pale green to yellow when ripe, with sweet
white (or, more rarely, pink or red) flesh, and a very thick albedo
(rind pith). It is a large citrus fruit, 15–25 centimetres
(5.9–9.8 in) in diameter, usually weighing 1–2 kilograms
(2.2–4.4 lb). Leaf petioles are distinctly winged.
The fruit tastes like a sweet, mild grapefruit (believed to be a
Citrus maxima and the orange), although the typical
pomelo is much larger than the grapefruit, and also has a much thicker
rind. The pomelo has none, or very little, of the common grapefruit's
bitterness, but the enveloping membranous material around the segments
is bitter, considered inedible, and thus is usually discarded.
Sometimes, the peel is used to make marmalade, may be candied, or
dipped in chocolate. In Brazil, the thick skin is often used for
making a sweet conserve, while the spongy pith of the rind is
discarded. In Sri Lanka, it is often eaten as a dessert, either raw or
sprinkled with sugar. Occasionally, some Asian fat-heavy dishes
feature sliced pre-soaked pith to absorb the sauce and fat for eating.
Citrus maxima is usually grafted onto other citrus rootstocks, but may
be grown from seed, provided the seeds are not allowed to dry out
The fruit is said to have been introduced to Japan by a Cantonese
captain in the
An'ei era (1772–1781). There are two varieties: a
sweet kind with white flesh and a sour kind with pinkish flesh, the
latter more likely to be used as an altar decoration than eaten.
Pomelos often are eaten in Asia during the mid-autumn festival or
It is one of the ingredients of "Forbidden Fruit", a liqueur dating
back to the early twentieth century that also contains honey and
brandy. This liqueur is most famously used in the Dorchester cocktail.
A study was conducted on different pummelo accessions from Bengal,
India and a wide variability was observed in the fruit
physico-chemical characters. The result shows that the fruit skin
colour shows variation from greenish-yellow to orange, most of the
fruits are round shaped whereas some fruits are oval as well. The
placental tissues shows colour variability from whitish to pink and
even reddish as well. The taste of the juice are classified as sour in
some occasions to sweet in many occasions and very sweet in few
occasion. Accession-17 showed the maximum average weight of fruit
(1223.67 g) whereas the minimum fruit weight was observed in
accession-16 (556.33 g). The length and breadth of the fruit was found
maximum in accession 17 (13.17 cm) and Accession-20
(12.17 cm) and minimum in accession 14 (10.2 cm) and 11
(8.4 cm) respectively. The peel-pulp ratio was maximum in
accession 13 and minimum in accession 3. Juice content was found
maximum in accession 4 and minimum in accession 3. TSS was observed in
ACC-15 (13.6 Brix)and minimum in ACC-13 (10 brix). The total sugar was
maximum in ACC-22 (4.33%)and minimum in ACC-3 (4.15%).
Main article: Grapefruit–drug interactions
Some medicines may interact dangerously with pomelos and some pomelo
hybrids, including grapefruit, some limes, and some oranges.
Possible non-hybrid pomelos
The pomelo is one of the original citrus species from which the rest
of cultivated citrus hybridized, (others being citron, mandarin, and
to a lesser extent, papedas and kumquat). In particular, the common
orange and the grapefruit are presumed to be naturally occurring
hybrids between the pomelo and the mandarin, with the pomelo providing
the larger size and greater firmness.
The pomelo is employed today in artificial breeding programs:
The common sweet orange (
Citrus × sinensis) is a pomelo × mandarin
The bitter orange (
Citrus × aurantium) is another pomelo × mandarin
The tangelo is any hybrid between
Citrus maxima and a tangerine, it
generally has a thicker skin than a tangerine and is less sweet
'K–Early' ('Sunrise Tangelo')
Grapefruit is a pomelo backcross: pomelo × sweet orange (see above)
and the grapefruit is a parent to many hybrids:
'Minneola': Bowen grapefruit × Dancy tangerine
'Orlando' (formerly Take'): Bowen grapefruit × Dancy tangerine(pollen
Clementine × Orlando tangelo cross
'Seminole': Bowen grapefruit × Dancy tangerine
'Thornton': tangerine × grapefruit, unspecified
'Ugli': mandarine × grapefruit, probable (wild seedling)
Melogold grapefruits are hybrids between Citrus
maxima and the grapefruit
Mandelos: pomelo × mandarine (
Hyuganatsu is a pomelo hybrid
This white hybrid
Pomelo is cushioned with a thick mesocarp layer
Pomelo after being cut
Pink pomelo juice vesicles
Cluster of flower buds
Pomelo flowers in early April
Pomelo on tree, has fruit and blossoms at the same time
Pinghe County is famous in China for its pomelos
Pomelo in southern Vietnam
Ipoh pomelos on sale at Chinatown, Singapore
Tam som-o nam pu: spicy Thai pomelo salad with crab extract
^ "Shaddock". Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
Retrieved 1 January 2017.
^ American Heritage Dictionary, 1973.
^ “pomelo, n.” listed in the Oxford English Dictionary [Draft
revision; June 2008]
^ "Pummelo". Hort.purdue.edu. Retrieved 2012-01-07.
^ Growing the granddaddy of grapefruit, SFGate.com, December 25, 2004
^ "Grapefruit". Hort.purdue.edu. Retrieved 2012-05-12.
^ "阿久根市： 観光・特産品（ボンタン）".
City.akune.kagoshima.jp. Archived from the original on 2011-11-19.
^ Bhowmick, Nilesh; Mani, Arghya; Paul, Prodyut Kumar; Prasanna,
V.S.S.V. "PHYSIO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF PUMMELO [CITRUS GRANDIS (L.)
OSBECK] GROWN UNDER NORTHERN PARTS OF WEST BENGAL". Journal of Plant
Development Sciences. 9 (9): 887.
^ Grapefruit–medication interactions: Forbidden fruit or avoidable
consequences? CMAJ March 5, 2013 vol. 185 no. 4 First published
November 26, 2012, doi: 10.1503/cmaj.120951 David G. Bailey, George
Dresser, J. Malcolm O. Arnold, 
^ a b c d e f g Morton, J. 1987. Tangelo. p. 158–160. In: Fruits of
warm climates. Julia F. Morton, Miami, FL.
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Definitions from Wiktionary
Media from Wikimedia Commons
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Data from Wikidata
Taxonomy from Wikispecies
Pomelo Nutrition Information from USDA SR 22 database
Australian and Papuan wild limes
Indian wild orange
True and hybrid
Cara cara navel
Myrtle-leaved orange tree
Palestinian sweet lime
Rhobs el Arsa
Variegated pink lemon
Xã Đoài orange
Citrus halimii or Mountain "citron"
Australian and Papuan citrus
Australian outback lime
Australian round lime
Brown River finger lime
Mount white lime (Microcitrus)
New Guinea wild lime
Russell River lime
Orange flower water
List of citrus fruits
Mother Orange Tree
University of California
Citrus Experiment Station
University of California, Riverside
Citrus Variety Collection
Plant List: kew-2724206