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The pomelo, Citrus
Citrus
maxima, or Citrus
Citrus
grandis, also called pomello, pummelo, pommelo, pumelo, pamplemousse, lusho fruit, jabong (Hawaii), Jambola or shaddock,[1] is a natural (non-hybrid) citrus fruit, similar in appearance to a large grapefruit, native to South and Southeast Asia. The pomelo is one of the original citrus species from which the rest of cultivated citrus hybridized.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Description and uses

2.1 Genetic diversity

3 Drug interactions 4 Varieties

4.1 Non-hybrid pomelos 4.2 Possible non-hybrid pomelos 4.3 Hybrids

5 Gallery 6 References 7 External links

Etymology[edit]

Flowering and fruiting branch with numbered fruit segment and flower section, Chromolithograph by P. Depannemaeker, c. 1885, after B. Hoola van Nooten

After a Captain Shaddock of an East India Company
East India Company
ship introduced it to Barbados, the fruit was called "shaddock" in English.[2][3] From there the name spread to Jamaica
Jamaica
in 1696.[4] It remains a common name for the fruit among English authors. The word "pomelo" has become the more common name, although "pomelo" has historically been used for grapefruit. (The 1973 printing of the American Heritage Dictionary, for example, gives grapefruit as the only meaning of "pomelo".) The etymology of the word "pomelo" is complex. In the Tamil language it is called "pampa limāsu", which means big citrus. The name was adopted by the Portuguese as "pomposos limões" and then by the Dutch as "pompelmoes". With some deviations, the name may be found in many European languages, for example, German (Pampelmuse), Latvian (Pampelmūze), Ido (Pompelmuso), whereas some other languages use "pomelo" (Turkish, Norwegian, Polish, Bulgarian). Another origin theory proposes that "pomelo" is an alteration of a compound of English names pomme ("apple") + melon.[5] Citrus
Citrus
maxima is native to South-East Asia,[6] where it is known under a wide variety of names. In large parts of South-East Asia, it is a popular dessert, often eaten raw and sprinkled with, or dipped in, a salt mixture. It is eaten in salads and drinks as well. Description and uses[edit]

This section needs expansion with: description of plant and flowers, cultivation, culinary use and nutrition; See Talk. You can help by adding to it. (March 2017)

Closeup of pomelo petiole

Typically, the fruit is pale green to yellow when ripe, with sweet white (or, more rarely, pink or red) flesh, and a very thick albedo (rind pith). It is a large citrus fruit, 15–25 centimetres (5.9–9.8 in) in diameter,[7] usually weighing 1–2 kilograms (2.2–4.4 lb). Leaf petioles are distinctly winged. The fruit tastes like a sweet, mild grapefruit (believed to be a hybrid of Citrus
Citrus
maxima and the orange),[8] although the typical pomelo is much larger than the grapefruit, and also has a much thicker rind. The pomelo has none, or very little, of the common grapefruit's bitterness, but the enveloping membranous material around the segments is bitter, considered inedible, and thus is usually discarded. Sometimes, the peel is used to make marmalade, may be candied, or dipped in chocolate. In Brazil, the thick skin is often used for making a sweet conserve, while the spongy pith of the rind is discarded. In Sri Lanka, it is often eaten as a dessert, either raw or sprinkled with sugar. Occasionally, some Asian fat-heavy dishes feature sliced pre-soaked pith to absorb the sauce and fat for eating. Citrus
Citrus
maxima is usually grafted onto other citrus rootstocks, but may be grown from seed, provided the seeds are not allowed to dry out before planting. The fruit is said to have been introduced to Japan by a Cantonese captain in the An'ei
An'ei
era (1772–1781).[9] There are two varieties: a sweet kind with white flesh and a sour kind with pinkish flesh, the latter more likely to be used as an altar decoration than eaten. Pomelos
Pomelos
often are eaten in Asia during the mid-autumn festival or mooncake festival. It is one of the ingredients of "Forbidden Fruit", a liqueur dating back to the early twentieth century that also contains honey and brandy. This liqueur is most famously used in the Dorchester cocktail. Genetic diversity[edit] A study was conducted on different pummelo accessions from Bengal, India and a wide variability was observed in the fruit physico-chemical characters. The result shows that the fruit skin colour shows variation from greenish-yellow to orange, most of the fruits are round shaped whereas some fruits are oval as well. The placental tissues shows colour variability from whitish to pink and even reddish as well. The taste of the juice are classified as sour in some occasions to sweet in many occasions and very sweet in few occasion. Accession-17 showed the maximum average weight of fruit (1223.67 g) whereas the minimum fruit weight was observed in accession-16 (556.33 g). The length and breadth of the fruit was found maximum in accession 17 (13.17 cm) and Accession-20 (12.17 cm) and minimum in accession 14 (10.2 cm) and 11 (8.4 cm) respectively. The peel-pulp ratio was maximum in accession 13 and minimum in accession 3. Juice content was found maximum in accession 4 and minimum in accession 3. TSS was observed in ACC-15 (13.6 Brix)and minimum in ACC-13 (10 brix). The total sugar was maximum in ACC-22 (4.33%)and minimum in ACC-3 (4.15%).[10] Drug interactions[edit] Main article: Grapefruit–drug interactions Some medicines may interact dangerously with pomelos and some pomelo hybrids, including grapefruit, some limes, and some oranges.[11] Varieties[edit] Non-hybrid pomelos[edit]

Dangyuja

Possible non-hybrid pomelos[edit]

Banpeiyu

Hybrids[edit] Main article: Citrus
Citrus
taxonomy The pomelo is one of the original citrus species from which the rest of cultivated citrus hybridized, (others being citron, mandarin, and to a lesser extent, papedas and kumquat). In particular, the common orange and the grapefruit are presumed to be naturally occurring hybrids between the pomelo and the mandarin, with the pomelo providing the larger size and greater firmness. The pomelo is employed today in artificial breeding programs:

The common sweet orange ( Citrus
Citrus
× sinensis) is a pomelo × mandarin hybrid The bitter orange ( Citrus
Citrus
× aurantium) is another pomelo × mandarin hybrid The tangelo is any hybrid between Citrus
Citrus
maxima and a tangerine, it generally has a thicker skin than a tangerine and is less sweet

'K–Early' ('Sunrise Tangelo')[12]

Grapefruit
Grapefruit
is a pomelo backcross: pomelo × sweet orange (see above) and the grapefruit is a parent to many hybrids:

'Minneola': Bowen grapefruit × Dancy tangerine[12] 'Orlando' (formerly Take'): Bowen grapefruit × Dancy tangerine(pollen parent)[12] 'Nova': Clementine
Clementine
× Orlando tangelo cross[12] 'Seminole': Bowen grapefruit × Dancy tangerine[12] 'Thornton': tangerine × grapefruit, unspecified[12] 'Ugli': mandarine × grapefruit, probable (wild seedling)[12]

The Oroblanco
Oroblanco
and Melogold
Melogold
grapefruits are hybrids between Citrus maxima and the grapefruit Mandelos: pomelo × mandarine ( Citrus
Citrus
maxima) Hyuganatsu
Hyuganatsu
is a pomelo hybrid

Gallery[edit]

This white hybrid Pomelo
Pomelo
is cushioned with a thick mesocarp layer

Pomelos

Pomelo
Pomelo
after being cut

Pink pomelo juice vesicles

Cluster of flower buds

Pomelo
Pomelo
blossom

Pomelo
Pomelo
flowers in early April

Pomelo
Pomelo
on tree, has fruit and blossoms at the same time

Fujian's Pinghe County
Pinghe County
is famous in China for its pomelos

Pomelo
Pomelo
orchard

Pink pomelo

Pomelo
Pomelo
in southern Vietnam

Pomelo
Pomelo
seedling

Ipoh
Ipoh
pomelos on sale at Chinatown, Singapore

Tam som-o nam pu: spicy Thai pomelo salad with crab extract

References[edit]

^ "Shaddock". Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 1 January 2017.  ^ Pomelo
Pomelo
(Pummelo) Citrus
Citrus
maxima ^ fruitInfo-trdLevel2021.html ^ American Heritage Dictionary, 1973. ^ “pomelo, n.” listed in the Oxford English Dictionary [Draft revision; June 2008] ^ "Pummelo". Hort.purdue.edu. Retrieved 2012-01-07.  ^ Growing the granddaddy of grapefruit, SFGate.com, December 25, 2004 ^ "Grapefruit". Hort.purdue.edu. Retrieved 2012-05-12.  ^ "阿久根市: 観光・特産品(ボンタン)". City.akune.kagoshima.jp. Archived from the original on 2011-11-19. Retrieved 2012-01-07.  ^ Bhowmick, Nilesh; Mani, Arghya; Paul, Prodyut Kumar; Prasanna, V.S.S.V. "PHYSIO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF PUMMELO [CITRUS GRANDIS (L.) OSBECK] GROWN UNDER NORTHERN PARTS OF WEST BENGAL". Journal of Plant Development Sciences. 9 (9): 887.  ^ Grapefruit–medication interactions: Forbidden fruit or avoidable consequences? CMAJ March 5, 2013 vol. 185 no. 4 First published November 26, 2012, doi: 10.1503/cmaj.120951 David G. Bailey, George Dresser, J. Malcolm O. Arnold, [1] ^ a b c d e f g Morton, J. 1987. Tangelo. p. 158–160. In: Fruits of warm climates. Julia F. Morton, Miami, FL. http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/tangelo.html

External links[edit]

Find more aboutPomeloat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons Textbooks from Wikibooks Data from Wikidata Taxonomy from Wikispecies

Pomelo
Pomelo
Nutrition Information from USDA SR 22 database

v t e

Citrus

True species

Australian and Papuan wild limes Byeonggyul Citron Clymenia Indian wild orange Ichang papeda Kumquat Mandarin Mangshanyegan Micrantha Pomelo

Major hybrids

Grapefruit Lemon Lime Orange

True and hybrid cultivars

Alemow Amanatsu Bergamot orange Bizzaria Bitter orange Blood lime Blood orange Buddha's hand Cam sành Cara cara navel Cherry orange Citrange Citrumelo Clementine Daidai Dekopon Fairchild tangerine Florentine citron Hassaku orange Hebesu Hyuganatsu Imperial lemon Iyokan Jabara Jaffa orange Kabbad Kabosu Kaffir lime Kakadu lime Kalpi Key lime Khasi papeda Kinnow Kishumikan Kiyomi Komikan Laraha Lumia Mandelo Mandora Melanesian papeda Melogold Meyer lemon Murcott Myrtle-leaved orange tree Ōgonkan Orangelo/Chironja Oroblanco Palestinian sweet lime Persian lime Pixie mandarin Ponderosa lemon Ponkan Rangpur Reikou Rhobs el Arsa Rough lemon Sanboken Satsuma mandarin Setoka Shangjuan Shonan Gold Sudachi Sweet lemon Sweet limetta Tangelo Tangerine Tangor Ugli fruit Valencia orange Variegated pink lemon Winged lime Xã Đoài orange Yuukou mandarin Yuzu

Citrons

Balady citron Corsican citron Diamante citron Fingered citron Greek citron Moroccan citron Yemenite citron

Mandarin oranges

Cleopatra mandarin Shīkwāsā Nanfengmiju

Papedas

Citrus
Citrus
halimii or Mountain "citron" Ichang papeda

Pomelos

Banpeiyu Dangyuja

Australian and Papuan citrus (Microcitrus, Eromocitrus, Clymenia and Oxanthera subgenera)

Australian outback lime Australian round lime Brown River finger lime Desert lime Mount white lime (Microcitrus) New Guinea wild lime Russell River lime Clymenia Oxanthera

Kumquat
Kumquat
hybrids (×Citrofortunella)

Calamondin Citrangequat Limequat Orangequat Procimequat Sunquat Yuzuquat

Related genus

Poncirus/Trifoliate orange

Drinks

Chūhai Curaçao Grapefruit
Grapefruit
juice Lemonade Limeade Orange juice Yuja-hwachae Yuja tea

Products

Calcium citrate Citric acid Lemonene Limonene Neroli Orange flower water Orange oil Orangeat Succade Zest

Diseases

Black spot CTV/Tristeza Exocortis Greening Mal secco Phytophthora

citricola

Related topics

The Citrus
Citrus
Industry Citrus
Citrus
production Citrus
Citrus
rootstock Citrus
Citrus
taxonomy Cold-hardy citrus Hesperidium Japanese citrus List of citrus fruits Mother Orange Tree Orangery University of California Citrus
Citrus
Experiment Station University of California, Riverside Citrus
Citrus
Variety Collection

Book Category Production Commons

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q80024 APDB: 90373 EoL: 488254 EPPO: CIDGR FoC: 242412666 GBIF: 3190160 GRIN: 10744 iNaturalist: 54299 IPNI: 30075266-2 ITIS: 501574 NCBI: 37334 Plant
Plant
List: kew-2724206 PLANTS: CIMA5

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