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Cephalomyrma Karavaiev, 1935 Dolichorhachis Mann, 1919 Evelyna Donisthorpe, 1937 Florencea Donisthorpe, 1937 Irenea Donisthorpe, 1938 Johnia Karavaiev, 1927 Morleyidris Donisthorpe, 1944

Polyrhachis
Polyrhachis
is a genus of formicine ants found in the Old World
Old World
with a large number of species (over 600).[2] The genus is yet to be comprehensively resolved and contains many varied species including nest weavers (e.g. Polyrhachis
Polyrhachis
dives), swimming workers (e.g. Polyrhachis
Polyrhachis
sokolova), soil (e.g. Polyrhachis
Polyrhachis
proxima) and tree dwellers (e.g. Polyrhachis
Polyrhachis
bicolor).[citation needed]

Contents

1 General morphology 2 Ecology 3 Selected Species 4 References 5 External links

General morphology[edit] Size: Workers range in size approx 5-10mm in length. Eyes developed, no ocelli. Antennae have 12-segments. Antennal insertions situated far from posterior margin of clypeus. Mesosoma of most species have spines on one or more of its pronotal, mesonotal or propodeal components. Petiole armed with spines or teeth. First gastral tergite well developed, longer in dorsal view than exposed parts of the following terga together. Opening at gastral apex for release of venom lacking a radial fringe of hairs.[3] Ecology[edit] Polyrhachis
Polyrhachis
species include an array of nesting types ranging from terrestrial, soil based nests to arboreal nests. As a result, the nest architectures also vary with some species displaying a high level of complexity to next building, utilising larval silk to weave nest materials together. Such nest weaving is more commonly associated (and indeed more complex) in ants of the genus Oecophylla.[citation needed] Polyrhachis
Polyrhachis
do not have a sting but with an acidipore can spray formic acid. When attacking, this is often sprayed in combination with biting thus making the acid more effective against the subject of the attack. Polyrhachis
Polyrhachis
that do not possess a metapleural gland seem to utilise the antibiotic properties of their formic acid and when it cannot be used, ants are more likely to succumb to parasite infection [4] Some species are social parasites and Polyrachis lemalidens is a good example. They live in Korean Peninsula, China and other parts of northeastern Asia. Their nuptial flight occurs at late September to late November depending on the climate. After flight queen dealates search for host colonies. Usually Camponotus japonicus is the host but especially in Korea, their main host is Camponotus atrox. Korean antkeepers say that they even take on to Formica japonica
Formica japonica
and Camponotus quadrinotatus. Once they find a host colony, they attack small workers hanging out and 'copying' their pheromones. After doing that multiple times to multiple ants, they sneak into the nest and keep 'copying.' Then whether they hibernate or not, they eventually go to the Host Queen's chamber. Then they become tiny vampires, literally. They take onto the queen, bites its neck subduing it, sucks blood, 'Copy' pheromone. And eventually and literally cuts the neck of the host queen. This process usually lasts for 2~4 days but can last over 2 weeks. After that is pretty much same to other social parasites. Selected Species[edit]

Polyrhachis
Polyrhachis
bugnioni Polyrhachis
Polyrhachis
convexa Polyrhachis
Polyrhachis
curvispina Polyrhachis
Polyrhachis
dives Polyrhachis
Polyrhachis
exercita Polyrhachis
Polyrhachis
gibbosa Polyrhachis
Polyrhachis
gracilior Polyrhachis
Polyrhachis
hippomanes Polyrhachis
Polyrhachis
horni Polyrhachis
Polyrhachis
illaudata Polyrhachis
Polyrhachis
jerdonii Polyrhachis
Polyrhachis
nigra Polyrhachis
Polyrhachis
punctillata Polyrhachis
Polyrhachis
rastellata Polyrhachis
Polyrhachis
rupicapra Polyrhachis
Polyrhachis
scissa Polyrhachis
Polyrhachis
sokolova Polyrhachis
Polyrhachis
sophocles Polyrhachis
Polyrhachis
thrinax Polyrhachis
Polyrhachis
tibialis Polyrhachis
Polyrhachis
xanthippe Polyrhachis
Polyrhachis
yerburyi Polyrhachis
Polyrhachis
semiinermis

References[edit]

^ Bolton, B. (2014). "Polyrhachis". AntCat. Retrieved 17 July 2014.  ^ "Genus: Polyrhachis". antweb.org. AntWeb. Retrieved 29 September 2013.  ^ Hung, ACF (1967). "A Revision of the Ant
Ant
Genus Polyrhachis
Polyrhachis
at the Subgeneric Level (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)". Transactions of the American Entomological Society. 93 (4): 395–422.  ^ Graystock, Peter; Hughes, William O. H. (2011). "Disease resistance in a weaver ant, Polyrhachis
Polyrhachis
dives, and the role of antibiotic-producing glands". Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. doi:10.1007/s00265-011-1242-y. 

External links[edit]

Media related to Polyrhachis
Polyrhachis
at Wikimedia Commons

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q4370012 EoL: 34568 Fossilworks: 247351 GBIF: 1317959 iNaturalist: 122321 ITIS:

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