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The Polynesian people consist of various ethnic groups that speak Polynesian languages, a branch of the Oceanic languages, and inhabit Polynesia. The native Polynesian people of New Zealand
New Zealand
and Hawaii
Hawaii
are minorities in their homelands.

Contents

1 Origins 2 People 3 Physical characteristics 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

Origins[edit] See also: Austronesian peoples
Austronesian peoples
and Polynesia
Polynesia
§ History of the Polynesian people

The Polynesian spread of colonization of the Pacific throughout the so-called Polynesian Triangle.

Polynesian warrior canoes

Polynesians, including Samoans, Tongans, Niueans, Cook Islands
Cook Islands
Māori, Tahitian Mā'ohi, Hawaiian Māoli, Marquesans and New Zealand
New Zealand
Māori, are a subset of the Austronesian peoples. They share the same origins as the indigenous peoples of maritime Southeast Asia, Madagascar, and Taiwan. This is supported by genetic,[5] linguistic,[6] and archaeological evidence. The origins of the Polynesian people are addressed in the theories regarding human migration into the Pacific, which began about 3,000 years ago. These are outlined well by Kayser et al. (2000).[7] The most widely accepted theory is that modern Austronesians originated from migrations out of Taiwan
Taiwan
between 3000 and 1000 BC; travelling via the Philippines
Philippines
and eastern Indonesia
Indonesia
and from the northwest ("Bird's Head") of New Guinea, on to Island Melanesia by roughly 1400 BC, reaching the western Polynesian islands right about 900 BC. However, Soares et al. (2008) have argued for an older pre- Holocene
Holocene
Sundaland origin within Island Southeast Asia (ISEA) based on mitochondrial DNA.[8] Paternal Y chromosome
Y chromosome
analysis by Kayser et al. (2000) also showed that Polynesians
Polynesians
have significant Melanesian genetic admixture.[9] However, a follow-up study by Kayser et al. (2008) discovered that only 21% of the Polynesian autosomal gene pool is of Melanesian origin, with the rest (79%) being of East Asian origin.[10] Another study by Friedlaender et al. (2008) also confirmed that Polynesians are closer genetically to Micronesians, Taiwanese Aborigines, and East Asians, than to Melanesians. The study concluded that Polynesians moved through Melanesia
Melanesia
fairly rapidly, allowing only limited admixture between Austronesians and Melanesians.[11] Thus the high frequencies of mtDNA B4a1a1 in the Polynesians
Polynesians
are the result of drift and represent the descendants of a few East Asian females who mixed with Papuan males.[12] The Polynesian population experienced a founder effect and genetic drift.[13] [14]A popular theory among scholars and native Royal Polynesian Monarchy (Tongan, Tahitian, Hawaiian; Monarchies) is that the genesis point from which Polynesia
Polynesia
was finally populated was through the Polynesian Island archipelagos of Samoa
Samoa
(Sacred Center)[15]. The Islands of Samoa
Samoa
are theorized to have been the gestation point from where which the initial roots of Polynesia
Polynesia
patiently formulated over time, religion, philosophy, spirituality, language, Arts, culture and then spread forth through eastern Polynesia
Polynesia
through the spreading of Samoa's Religion (Aitu, Kahuna, Tafuna). Through their Polynesian Aitu religion, the worship of animal, human deities and a pantheon of Gods and Demi-Gods which would grow exponentially in Eastern Polynesia, with the construction of monolithic Tiki Deities in Tahiti, Rapanui and the spread of the spiritual belief of Mana; a Polynesian spiritual life force which governs all living beings. The last place to be settled by Polynesians
Polynesians
was Aotearoa
Aotearoa
(New Zealand) estimated at around 1300AD. Recent DNA studies show that the Atayal people
Atayal people
from Taiwan
Taiwan
and the Kankanaey people
Kankanaey people
of the northern Philippines, who later mixed with Melanesians, were most probably among the original ancestors of modern Polynesians.[16][17] The results of research at the Teouma Lapita site (Efate Island, Vanuatu) and the Talasiu Lapita site (near Nuku'alofa, Tonga) published in 2016 supports the 'out of Taiwan' theory although with the qualification that the migration bypassed New Guinea
New Guinea
and Island Melanesia. The conclusion from the research published in 2016 is that the initial population of those two sites appears to come directly from Taiwan
Taiwan
or the northern Philippines
Philippines
and did not mix with the ‘AustraloPapuans’ of New Guinea
New Guinea
and the Solomon Islands.[18] DNA analysis of modern Polynesians
Polynesians
indicates that there has been intermarriage that results in a mixed Asian-Papuan ancestry of the Polynesians. The research at the Teouma and Talasiu Lapita sites implies that the migration and intermarriage, which resulted in the mixed Asian-Papuan ancestry of the Polynesians,[19] occurred after the first initial migration to Vanuatu
Vanuatu
and Tonga.[18][20] The preliminary analysis of skulls found at the Teouma and Talasiu Lapita sites is that the skulls lack Australian or Papuan affinities and instead have affinities to mainland Asian populations.[21] People[edit]

Female dancers of the Hawaii
Hawaii
Islands depicted by Louis Choris, c. 1816

A portrait of Māori man, by Gottfried Lindauer.

Kava
Kava
('ava) makers (aumaga) of Samoa. A woman seated between two men with the round tanoa (or laulau) wooden bowl in front. Standing is a third man, distributor of the 'ava, holding the coconut shell cup (tauau) used for distributing the beverage.

There are an estimated 2 million ethnic Polynesians
Polynesians
and people of Polynesian descent worldwide, the majority of whom live in Polynesia, the United States, Australia
Australia
and New Zealand.[1] The Polynesian peoples are shown below in their distinctive ethnic and cultural groupings (estimates of the larger groups are shown): Polynesia

Native Hawaiians: Hawaii
Hawaii
– c. 140,000 (including multiracial: 400,000) Tahitians
Tahitians
(Maohi): Tahiti
Tahiti
– c. 178,000 (including multiracial: 250,000+) Cook Islands
Cook Islands
Māori: Cook Islands
Cook Islands
– 98,000+ (including New Zealand and Australian residents) Māori: New Zealand
New Zealand
Aotearoa
Aotearoa
– c. 790,000 (including multiracial) Moriori: Rēkohu
Rēkohu
Chatham Islands
Chatham Islands
– c. 738 (2013 New Zealand
New Zealand
Census) Rapanui: Easter Island
Easter Island
– c. 5,000 (including mixtures and those living in Chile) Austral Islanders: Austral Islands
Austral Islands
– ~7,000 Mangareva: Gambier Islands
Gambier Islands
– c. 1,600 Tuamotu: Tuamotu Archipelago – c. 16,000 Marquesas Islanders: Marquesas Islands
Marquesas Islands
– c. 11,000

Samoan: Samoa, American Samoa
Samoa
– c. 249,000 (worldwide: 500,000–650,000) Tongan: Tonga
Tonga
– c. 104,000 (from all countries: 150,000+) Tuvaluan: Tuvalu
Tuvalu
– c. 10,000 Tokelauan: Tokelau
Tokelau
– c. 1,500 Niuean: Niue
Niue
– c. 20,000–25,000 (vast majority live in New Zealand) Uvea and Futuna: Wallis and Futuna

Polynesian outliers

Kapingamarangi
Kapingamarangi
and Nukuoro: The Federated States of Micronesia Nuguria, Nukumanu
Nukumanu
and Takuu: Papua New Guinea Anuta, Bellona, Ontong Java, Rennel, Sikaiana, Tikopia
Tikopia
and Vaeakau-Taumako: Solomon Islands Emae, Makata, Mele (Erakoro, Eratapu), Aniwa, and Futuna: Vanuatu Fagauvea: Ouvéa
Ouvéa
(New Caledonia)

Physical characteristics[edit] See also: Obesity
Obesity
in the Pacific Polynesian bodies typically have larger bone and muscle mass than Caucasian bodies,[22] which has implications for BMI comparability in measuring obesity.[23][24] Polynesians
Polynesians
physical characteristics help them perform well in some physical sports, including American football[25] and rugby union.[26] See also[edit]

History of the Polynesian people List of Polynesians Polynesia Polynesian culture Polynesian languages Polynesian mythology Polynesian Society Polynesian American Pacific Islander Taiwanese Aborigines Micronesians Austronesian peoples Melanesians

References[edit]

^ a b Polynesian men a global sports commodity - Stuff.co.nz ^ Population Movement in the Pacific: A Perspective on Future Prospects. Wellington: New Zealand
New Zealand
Department of Labour Archived 2013-02-07 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Christianity
Christianity
in its Global Context, 1970–2020 Society, Religion, and Mission, Center for the Study of Global Christianity ^ Victoria University of Wellington, New view of Polynesian conversion to Christianity, 4 Apr 2014 ^ " Mitochondrial DNA
Mitochondrial DNA
Provides a Link between Polynesians
Polynesians
and Indigenous Taiwanese". PLoS Biology. 3 (8): e281. 2005. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0030281.  ^ "Pacific People Spread From Taiwan, Language Evolution Study Shows". ScienceDaily. 27 January 2009. Retrieved 29 April 2010.  ^ Kayser, M.; Brauer, S.; Weiss, G.; Underhill, P.; Roewer, L.; Schiefenhövel, W.; Stoneking, M. (2000). "Melanesian origin of Polynesian Y chromosomes". Current Biology. 10 (20): 1237–46. doi:10.1016/S0960-9822(00)00734-X. PMID 11069104.  ^ Dr. Martin Richards. "Climate Change and Postglacial Human Dispersals in Southeast Asia". Oxford Journals. Retrieved 1 January 2010.  ^ M. Kayser, S. Brauer, G. Weiss, P.A. Underhill, L. Roewer, W. Schiefenhövel, and M. Stoneking, "Melanesian origin of Polynesian Y chromosomes," Current Biology, vol. 10, no. 20, pages 1237-1246 (19 Oct. 2000). See also correction in: Current Biology, vol. 11, no. 2, pages 141-142 (23 Jan. 2001). ^ Kayser, Manfred; Lao, Oscar; Saar, Kathrin; Brauer, Silke; Wang, Xingyu; Nürnberg, Peter; Trent, Ronald J.; Stoneking, Mark (2008). "Genome-wide analysis indicates more Asian than Melanesian ancestry of Polynesians". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 82 (1): 194–198. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2007.09.010. PMC 2253960 . PMID 18179899.  ^ Friedlaender, Jonathan S.; Friedlaender, Françoise R.; Reed, Floyd A.; Kidd, Kenneth K.; Kidd, Judith R.; Chambers, Geoffrey K.; Lea, Rodney A.; et al. (2008). "The genetic structure of Pacific Islanders". PLoS Genetics. 4 (1): e19. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.0040019. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ^ Assessing Y-chromosome Variation in the South Pacific Using Newly Detected, By Krista Erin Latham [1] Archived 2015-07-13 at the Wayback Machine. ^ http://www.pnas.org/content/95/15/9047.full.pdf ^ Kallen, Evelyn (1982-01-01). The Western Samoan Kinship Bridge: A Study in Migration, Social Change, and the New Ethnicity. Brill Archive. ISBN 9004065423.  ^ Kuykendall, Ralph S. (1967). The Hawaiian Kingdom: 1874-1893, the Kalakaua dinasty. University of Hawaii
Hawaii
Press. ISBN 9780870224331.  ^ http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2016/10/game-changing-study-suggests-first-polynesians-voyaged-all-way-east-asia ^ http://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-10-04/dna-reveals-lapita-ancestors-of-pacific-islanders-came-from-asia/7893100 ^ a b Pontus Skoglund; et al. (27 October 2016). "Genomic insights into the peopling of the Southwest Pacific". Nature. 538 (7626): 510–513. doi:10.1038/nature19844. PMC 5515717 . PMID 27698418. Retrieved 11 January 2017. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ^ Kayser, M.; Brauer, S; Cordaux, R; Casto, A; Lao, O; Zhivotovsky, L. A.; Moyse-Faurie, C; Rutledge, R. B.; Schiefenhoevel, W; Gil, D; Lin, A. A.; Underhill, P. A.; Oefner, P. J.; Trent, R. J.; Stoneking, M (2006). "Melanesian and Asian Origins of Polynesians: MtDNA and Y Chromosome Gradients Across the Pacific" (PDF). Molecular Biology and Evolution. 23 (11): 2234–44. doi:10.1093/molbev/msl093. PMID 16923821.  ^ "First ancestry of Ni- Vanuatu
Vanuatu
is Asian: New DNA Discoveries recently published". Island Business. December 2016. Retrieved 11 January 2017.  ^ Skoglund, P; Posth, C; Sirak, K; Spriggs, M; Valentin, F; Bedford, S; Clark, GR; Reepmeyer, C; Petchey, F; Fernandes, D; Fu, Q; Harney, E; Lipson, M; Mallick, S; Novak, M; Rohland, N; Stewardson, K; Abdullah, S; Cox, MP; Friedlaender, FR; Friedlaender, JS; Kivisild, T; Koki, G; Kusuma, P; Merriwether, DA; Ricaut, FX; Wee, JT; Patterson, N; Krause, J; Pinhasi, R; Reich, D (3 October 2016). "Genomic insights into the peopling of the Southwest Pacific - Supplementary Note 1: The Teouma site / Supplementary Note 2: The Talasiu site". Nature. 538 (7626): 510–513. doi:10.1038/nature19844. PMC 5515717 . PMID 27698418. Retrieved 11 January 2017.  ^ https://www.researchgate.net/publication/304572609_Polynesian_Bones ^ https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424127887324695104578417043182612254[full citation needed] ^ Snowdon, Wendy; Malakellis, Mary; Millar, Lynne; Swinburn, Boyd (2014). "Ability of body mass index and waist circumference to identify risk factors for non-communicable disease in the Pacific Islands". Obesity
Obesity
Research & Clinical Practice. 8 (1): e36–45. doi:10.1016/j.orcp.2012.06.005. PMID 24548575.  ^ https://www.elitedaily.com/sports/polynesians-genetically-engineered-best-football-players/778724 ^ https://www.economist.com/blogs/gametheory/2016/08/punching-above-their-weight

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