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The Info List - Polymerase


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(i)

A POLYMERASE is an enzyme (EC 2.7.7.6/7/19/48/49) that synthesizes long chains or polymers of nucleic acids . DNA polymerase and RNA polymerase are used to assemble DNA
DNA
and RNA
RNA
molecules, respectively, by copying a DNA
DNA
or RNA
RNA
template strand using base-pairing interactions.

A polymerase from the thermophilic bacterium , Thermus aquaticus (Taq) (PDB 1BGX, EC 2.7.7.7) is used in the polymerase chain reaction , an important technique of molecular biology .

Other well-known polymerases include:

* Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl Transferase
Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl Transferase
(TDT), which lends diversity to antibody heavy chains. * Reverse Transcriptase
Reverse Transcriptase
, an enzyme used by RNA
RNA
retroviruses like HIV
HIV
, which is used to create a complementary strand to the preexisting strand of viral RNA
RNA
before it can be integrated into the DNA
DNA
of the host cell . It is also a major target for antiviral drugs.

SEE ALSO

* DNA polymerase

* DNA polymerase I * DNA polymerase II * DNA polymerase III holoenzyme * DNA polymerase IV (DinB) – SOS repair polymerase * DNA polymerase V (UmuD'2C) - SOS repair polymerase

* RNA polymerase

* RNA polymerase I * RNA polymerase II * RNA polymerase III * T7 RNA polymerase

REFERENCES

* ^ "Structural Basis for a New Templated Activity by Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl Transferase: Implications for V(D)J Recombination". www.sciencedirect.com. Retrieved 2017-06-24.

* v * t * e

DNA
DNA
replication (comparing Prokaryotic to Eukaryotic )

INITIATION

Prokaryotic (initiation )

* Pre-replication complex
Pre-replication complex

* dnaC

* Cdc6

* Helicase
Helicase

* dnaA * dnaB * T7

* Primase
Primase

* dnaG

Eukaryotic (preparation in G1 phase)

* Pre-replication complex
Pre-replication complex

* Origin recognition complex

* ORC1 * ORC2 * ORC3 * ORC4 * ORC5 * ORC6

* Cdc6

* Cdt1

* Minichromosome maintenance

* MCM2 * MCM3 * MCM4
MCM4
* MCM5 * MCM6 * MCM7

* Licensing factor

* Autonomously replicating sequence

* Single-strand binding protein
Single-strand binding protein

* SSBP2
SSBP2
* SSBP3 * SSBP4

* RNase H

* RNASEH1 * RNASEH2A

* Helicase
Helicase
: HFM1

* Primase
Primase
: PRIM1 * PRIM2
PRIM2

BOTH

* Origin of replication
Origin of replication
/Ori /Replicon

* Replication fork

* Lagging and leading strands

* Okazaki fragments
Okazaki fragments
* Primer

REPLICATION

Prokaryotic (elongation )

* DNA polymerase III holoenzyme

* dnaC * dnaE * dnaH * dnaN * dnaQ * dnaT * dnaX * holA * holB * holC * holD * holE *

* Replisome * DNA
DNA
ligase * DNA
DNA
clamp

* Topoisomerase

* DNA
DNA
gyrase

* Prokaryotic DNA polymerase : DNA polymerase I

* Klenow fragment
Klenow fragment

Eukaryotic (synthesis in S phase)

* Replication factor C

* RFC1
RFC1

* Flap endonuclease

* FEN1

* Topoisomerase

* Replication protein A

* RPA1

* Eukaryotic DNA polymerase :

* alpha

* POLA1 * POLA2 * PRIM1 * PRIM2
PRIM2

* delta

* POLD1 * POLD2 * POLD3
POLD3
* POLD4

* epsilon

* POLE * POLE2 * POLE3
POLE3
* POLE4

* DNA
DNA
clamp

* PCNA

* Control of chromosome duplication
Control of chromosome duplication

BOTH

* Movement: Processivity * DNA
DNA
ligase

TERMINATION

* Telomere : Telomerase

* TERT * TERC * DKC1

* v * t * e

Transferases : phosphorus -containing groups (EC 2.7)

2.7.1-2.7.4: phosphotransferase /kinase (PO4 )

2.7.1 : OH ACCEPTOR

* Hexo- * Gluco-

* Fructo-

* Hepatic

* Galacto-

* Phosphofructo-

* 1 * Liver * Muscle * Platelet * 2

* Riboflavin * Shikimate

* Thymidine

* ADP-thymidine

* NAD+ * Glycerol * Pantothenate * Mevalonate * Pyruvate * Deoxycytidine * PFP * Diacylglycerol

* Phosphoinositide 3

* Class I PI 3 * Class II PI 3

* Sphingosine * Glucose-1,6-bisphosphate synthase

2.7.2 : COOH ACCEPTOR

* Phosphoglycerate * Aspartate kinase

2.7.3 : N ACCEPTOR

* Creatine

2.7.4 : PO4 ACCEPTOR

* Phosphomevalonate * Adenylate * Nucleoside-diphosphate * Uridylate * Guanylate * Thiamine-diphosphate

2.7.6 : diphosphotransferase (P2O7 )

* Ribose-phosphate diphosphokinase
Ribose-phosphate diphosphokinase
* Thiamine diphosphokinase

2.7.7 : nucleotidyltransferase (PO4-nucleoside )

POLYMERASE

DNA
DNA
POLYMERASE DNA-directed DNA polymerase I II III IV V RNA-directed DNA polymerase Reverse transcriptase
Reverse transcriptase
Telomerase DNA nucleotidylexotransferase / Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase
Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase

RNA
RNA
NUCLEOTIDYLTRANSFERASE RNA
RNA
polymerase/DNA-directed RNA polymerase RNA polymerase I RNA polymerase II RNA polymerase III RNA polymerase IV Primase
Primase
RNA-dependent RNA polymerase PNPase

Phosphorolytic 3' to 5' exoribonuclease

* RNase PH * PNPase

NUCLEOTIDYLTRANSFERASE

* UTP—glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase * Galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase

GUANYLYLTRANSFERASE

* m RNA
RNA
capping enzyme

OTHER

* Recombinase ( Integrase ) * Transposase

2.7.8 : MISCELLANEOUS

PHOSPHATIDYLTRANSFERASES

* CDP-diacylglycerol—glycerol-3-phosphate 3-phosphatidyltransferase * CDP-diacylglycerol—serine O-phosphatidyltransferase * CDP-diacylglycerol—inositol 3-phosphatidyltransferase * CDP-diacylglycerol—choline O-phosphatidyltransferase

GLYCOSYL-1-PHOSPHOTRANSFERASE

* N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate transferase

2.7.10-2.7.13: protein kinase (PO4 ; protein acceptor)

2.7.10 : PROTEIN-TYROSINE

* see tyrosine kinases

2.7.11 : PROTEIN-SERINE/THREONINE

* see serine/threonine-specific protein kinases

2.7.12 : PROTEIN-DUAL-SPECIFICITY

* see serine/threonine-specific protein kinases

2.7.13 : PROTEIN-HISTIDINE

* Protein-histidine pros-kinase * Protein-histidine tele-kinase * Histidine kinase

* v * t * e

Enzymes

ACTIVITY

* Active site * Binding site * Catalytic triad
Catalytic triad
* Oxyanion hole
Oxyanion hole
* Enzyme promiscuity * Catalytically perfect enzyme * Coenzyme
Coenzyme
* Cofactor * Enzyme catalysis

REGULATION

* Allosteric regulation
Allosteric regulation
* Cooperativity
Cooperativity
* Enzyme inhibitor

CLASSIFICATION

* EC number * Enzyme superfamily * Enzyme family * List of enzymes

KINETICS

*