HOME
The Info List - Polymerase


--- Advertisement ---



A polymerase is an enzyme (EC 2.7.7.6/7/19/48/49) that synthesizes long chains or polymers of nucleic acids. DNA polymerase
DNA polymerase
and RNA polymerase are used to assemble DNA
DNA
and RNA
RNA
molecules, respectively, by copying a DNA
DNA
template strand using base-pairing interactions or RNA
RNA
by half ladder replication. A polymerase from the thermophilic bacterium, Thermus aquaticus
Thermus aquaticus
(Taq) (PDB 1BGX, EC 2.7.7.7) is used in the polymerase chain reaction, an important technique of molecular biology. Other well-known polymerases include:

Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl Transferase
Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl Transferase
(TDT), which lends diversity to antibody heavy chains.[1] Reverse Transcriptase, an enzyme used by RNA
RNA
retroviruses like HIV, which is used to create a complementary strand to the preexisting strand of viral RNA
RNA
before it can be integrated into the DNA
DNA
of the host cell. It is also a major target for antiviral drugs.

See also[edit]

DNA
DNA
polymerase

DNA polymerase
DNA polymerase
I DNA polymerase
DNA polymerase
II DNA polymerase
DNA polymerase
III holoenzyme DNA polymerase
DNA polymerase
IV (DinB) – SOS repair polymerase DNA polymerase
DNA polymerase
V (UmuD'2C) - SOS repair polymerase

RNA
RNA
polymerase

RNA polymerase
RNA polymerase
I RNA polymerase
RNA polymerase
II RNA polymerase
RNA polymerase
III T7 RNA
RNA
polymerase

References[edit]

^ Loc'h, Jérôme. "Structural Basis for a New Templated Activity by Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl Transferase: Implications for V(D)J Recombination". Structure. 24: 1452–1463. doi:10.1016/j.str.2016.06.014. Retrieved 2017-06-24. 

v t e

DNA
DNA
replication (comparing Prokaryotic to Eukaryotic)

Initiation

Prokaryotic (initiation)

Pre-replication complex

dnaC

Cdc6

Helicase

dnaA dnaB T7

Primase

dnaG

Eukaryotic (preparation in G1 phase)

Pre-replication complex

Origin recognition complex

ORC1 ORC2 ORC3 ORC4 ORC5 ORC6

Cdc6

Cdt1

Minichromosome maintenance

MCM2 MCM3 MCM4 MCM5 MCM6 MCM7

Licensing factor

Autonomously replicating sequence

Single-strand binding protein

SSBP2 SSBP3 SSBP4

RNase H

RNASEH1 RNASEH2A

Helicase: HFM1

Primase: PRIM1 PRIM2

Both

Origin of replication/Ori/Replicon

Replication fork

Lagging and leading strands

Okazaki fragments Primer

Replication

Prokaryotic (elongation)

DNA polymerase
DNA polymerase
III holoenzyme

dnaC dnaE dnaH dnaN dnaQ dnaT dnaX holA holB holC holD holE

Replisome DNA
DNA
ligase DNA
DNA
clamp Topoisomerase

DNA
DNA
gyrase

Prokaryotic DNA
DNA
polymerase: DNA polymerase
DNA polymerase
I

Klenow fragment

Eukaryotic (synthesis in S phase)

Replication factor C

RFC1

Flap endonuclease

FEN1

Topoisomerase Replication protein A

RPA1

Eukaryotic DNA
DNA
polymerase: alpha

POLA1 POLA2 PRIM1 PRIM2

delta

POLD1 POLD2 POLD3 POLD4

epsilon

POLE POLE2 POLE3 POLE4

DNA
DNA
clamp

PCNA

Control of chromosome duplication

Both

Movement: Processivity DNA
DNA
ligase

Termination

Telomere: Telomerase

TERT TERC DKC1

v t e

Transferases: phosphorus-containing groups (EC 2.7)

2.7.1-2.7.4: phosphotransferase/kinase (PO4)

2.7.1: OH acceptor

Hexo- Gluco- Fructo-

Hepatic

Galacto- Phosphofructo-

1 Liver Muscle Platelet 2

Riboflavin Shikimate Thymidine

ADP-thymidine

NAD+ Glycerol Pantothenate Mevalonate Pyruvate Deoxycytidine PFP Diacylglycerol Phosphoinositide 3

Class I PI 3 Class II PI 3

Sphingosine Glucose-1,6-bisphosphate synthase

2.7.2: COOH acceptor

Phosphoglycerate Aspartate kinase

2.7.3: N acceptor

Creatine

2.7.4: PO4 acceptor

Phosphomevalonate Adenylate Nucleoside-diphosphate Uridylate Guanylate Thiamine-diphosphate

2.7.6: diphosphotransferase (P2O7)

Ribose-phosphate diphosphokinase Thiamine diphosphokinase

2.7.7: nucleotidyltransferase (PO4-nucleoside)

Polymerase

DNA
DNA
polymerase

DNA-directed DNA
DNA
polymerase I II III IV V

RNA-directed DNA
DNA
polymerase Reverse transcriptase

Telomerase

DNA
DNA
nucleotidylexotransferase/Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase

RNA
RNA
nucleotidyltransferase

RNA
RNA
polymerase/DNA-directed RNA
RNA
polymerase RNA polymerase
RNA polymerase
I II III IV V Primase RNA-dependent RNA
RNA
polymerase

PNPase

Phosphorolytic 3' to 5' exoribonuclease

RNase PH PNPase

Nucleotidyltransferase

UTP—glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase Galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase

Guanylyltransferase

m RNA
RNA
capping enzyme

Other

Recombinase (Integrase) Transposase

2.7.8: miscellaneous

Phosphatidyltransferases

CDP-diacylglycerol—glycerol-3-phosphate 3-phosphatidyltransferase CDP-diacylglycerol—serine O-phosphatidyltransferase CDP-diacylglycerol—inositol 3-phosphatidyltransferase CDP-diacylglycerol—choline O-phosphatidyltransferase

Glycosyl-1-phosphotransferase

N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate transferase

2.7.10-2.7.13: protein kinase (PO4; protein acceptor)

2.7.10: protein-tyrosine

see tyrosine kinases

2.7.11: protein-serine/threonine

see serine/threonine-specific protein kinases

2.7.12: protein-dual-specificity

see serine/threonine-specific protein kinases

2.7.13: protein-histidine

Protein-histidine pros-kinase Protein-histidine tele-kinase Histidine kinase

v t e

Enzymes

Activity

Active site Binding site Catalytic triad Oxyanion hole Enzyme
Enzyme
promiscuity Catalytically perfect enzyme Coenzyme Cofactor Enzyme
Enzyme
catalysis

Regulation

Allosteric regulation Cooperativity Enzyme
Enzyme
inhibitor

Classification

EC number Enzyme
Enzyme
superfamily Enzyme
Enzyme
family List of enzymes

Kinetics

Enzyme
Enzyme
kinetics Eadie–Hofstee diagram Hanes–Woolf plot Lineweaver–Burk plot Michaelis–Menten kinetics

Types

EC1 Oxidoreductases (list) EC2 Transferases (list) EC3 Hydrolases (list) EC4 Lyases (list) EC5 Isomerases (list) EC6 Ligases (list)

Molecular and Cellu

.