Polymer banknote


Polymer banknotes are
banknote A banknote (often known as a bill (in the US and Canada), paper money, or simply a note) is a type of negotiable instrument, negotiable promissory note, made by a bank or other licensed authority, payable to the bearer on demand. Banknotes we ...
s made from a synthetic
polymer A polymer (; Greek ''wikt:poly-, poly-'', "many" + ''wikt:-mer, -mer'', "part") is a Chemical substance, substance or material consisting of very large molecules, or macromolecules, composed of many Repeat unit, repeating subunits. Due to their ...

such as biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP). Such notes incorporate many security features not available in paper banknotes, including the use of metameric inks. Polymer banknotes last significantly longer than paper notes, causing a decrease in environmental impact and a reduced cost of production and replacement. Modern polymer banknotes were first developed by the Reserve Bank of Australia, Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA), Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) and The University of Melbourne. They were first issued as currency in Australia during 1988 (coinciding with Australia's bicentennial year); by 1996, the Australian dollar was switched completely to polymer banknotes. Romania was the first country in Europe to issue a plastic note in 1999 and became the third country after Australia and New Zealand to fully convert to polymer by 2003. Other currencies that have been switched completely to polymer banknotes include: the Vietnamese đồng (2006) although this is only applied to banknotes with denominations above 10,000 đồng, the Brunei dollar (2006), Nigerian naira, the Nigerian Naira (2007), the Papua New Guinean kina (2008), the Canadian dollar (2013), the Maldivian rufiyaa (2017), the Mauritanian ouguiya (2017), the Nicaraguan córdoba (2017), the Vanuatu vatu (2017), the Eastern Caribbean dollar (2019) and the Pound sterling (2021). Several countries have now introduced polymer banknotes into commemorative or general circulation, including: Nigerian naira, Nigeria, Cape Verdean escudo, Cape Verde, Chilean peso, Chile, Gambian dalasi, The Gambia, Trinidad and Tobago dollar, Trinidad and Tobago, Vietnamese đồng, Vietnam, Mexican peso, Mexico, Singapore dollar, Singapore, Malaysian ringgit, Malaysia, Botswana pula, Botswana, São Tomé and Príncipe dobra, São Tomé and Príncipe, Macedonian denar, North Macedonia, the Russian ruble, Russian Federation, Solomon Islands dollar, Solomon Islands, Samoan tālā, Samoa, Moroccan dirham, Morocco, Albanian lek, Albania, Sri Lankan rupee, Sri Lanka, Hong Kong dollar, Hong Kong, Israeli new shekel, Israel, Renminbi, China, Kuwaiti dinar, Kuwait, Mozambican metical, Mozambique, Saudi riyal, Saudi Arabia, Isle of Man pound, Isle of Man, Guatemalan quetzal, Guatemala, Haitian gourde, Haiti, Libyan dinar, Libya, Mauritian rupee, Mauritius, Costa Rican colón, Costa Rica, Honduran lempira, Honduras, Angolan kwanza, Angola, Namibian dollar, Namibia, Lebanese pound, Lebanon and the Philippine peso, Philippines. Costa Rica is supposed to have changed to polymer by the introduction of the new banknote series which omits the 50,000 colón banknote due to the denomination being too high.


In the 1980s, Canadian engineering company AGRA Vadeko and US chemical company US Mobil Chemical Company developed a polymer substrate trademarked as DuraNote. It had been tested by the Bank of Canada in the 1980s and 1990s; test Canadian dollar, C$ Canadian twenty-dollar note, 20 and Canadian dollar, C$ Canadian fifty-dollar note, 50 banknotes were auctioned in October 2012. It was also tested by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing of the United States Department of the Treasury in 1997 and 1998, when 40,000 test banknotes were printed and evaluated; and was evaluated by the central banks of 28 countries.

Security features

Polymer banknotes usually have three levels of security devices. Primary security devices are easily recognisable by consumers and may include Intaglio (printmaking), intaglio, metal strips, and the clear areas of the banknote. Secondary security devices are detectable by a machine. Tertiary security devices may only be detectable by the issuing authority when a banknote is returned.


Modern polymer banknotes were first developed by the Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA) and the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation or CSIRO and first issued as currency in Australia during 1988, to coincide with Australia's bicentennial year. In August 2012, Central Bank of Nigeria, Nigeria's Central Bank attempted the switch back from polymer to paper banknotes, saying there were "significant difficulties associated with the processing and destruction of the polymer banknotes" which had "constrained the realisation of the benefits expected from polymer banknotes over paper notes". However, President Goodluck Jonathan halted the process in September 2012. The polymer notes in the Mauritius, Republic of Mauritius are available in values of Rs 25, Rs 50, Rs 500 and Rs 2,000 Mauritian rupee, rupees. The Fiji Fijian dollar, $5 was issued in April 2013. In the United Kingdom, the first polymer banknotes were issued by the Northern Bank in Northern Ireland in 2000; these were a special commemorative issue bearing an image of the space shuttle.Although the £5 Northern Bank polymer banknote was a one-off commemorative issued, unconventionally, in portrait orientation to mark the year 2000, it was in general circulation, with normal serial numbers (the commemorative version has serial numbers beginning with "Y2K", normal versions with "MM"). It is the only Northern Bank note currently in circulation which was not affected by the recall of all the bank's notes as a result of the Northern Bank robbery, 26.5 million pound raid on its Belfast headquarters on 20 December 2004. In March 2015, the Clydesdale Bank in Scotland began to issue polymer Sterling £5 notes marking the 125th anniversary of the building of the Forth Bridge. These were the first polymer notes to enter general circulation in the UK. The Royal Bank of Scotland followed in 2016 with a new issue of plastic £5 notes illustrated with a picture of author Nan Shepherd. In September 2016, the Bank of England began to issue £5 polymer notes with a picture of Winston Churchill; and in 2017 a polymer £10 began replacing its paper equivalent, featuring a picture of the author Jane Austen. A polymer £20 was issued in 2020 with a picture of J. M. W. Turner, J.M.W. Turner. The Bank of England has said it plans to change the final note, £50, to a polymer note. Although the new Bank of England notes will be 15% smaller than the older, paper issue, they will bear a similar design. Some businesses operating in the UK cash industry have opposed the switch to polymer, citing a lack of research into the cost impact of its introduction. In the Philippines, it was proposed in 2009 to shift to the usage of polymer for Philippine peso banknotes. This did not push through due to concern the shift would have over the impact to country's abaca industry. The proposal was revived in 2021 during the COVID-19 pandemic since the polymer banknotes can be sanitized with less damage compared to paper banknotes, as well as other reasons such as durability, lesser average issue cost, and lesser susceptibility to counterfeiting.

Timeline of adoptions and withdrawals


An alternative polymer of polyethylene fibres marketed as Tyvek by DuPont was developed for use as currency by the American Bank Note Company in the early 1980s: * Around 1982, Haiti released Tyvek-made Gourde banknotes in denominations of 1, 2, 50, 100, 250 & 500. The same denominations and a 5 Gourdes banknote were also released on paper. * In 1983, Costa Rica issued a 20 Costa Rican colón, Colones Tyvek banknote. That year also the Isle of Man issued a 1 Isle of Man Pound, Pound banknote, this time called Bradvek and printed by Bradbury Wilkinson. Tyvek did not perform well in trials; smudging of ink and fragility were reported as problems, so production of Tyvek banknotes was discontinued. * In 1988, Australia introduced the Australian ten-dollar note, 10 Australian dollar, dollars world's first non-Tyvek polymer banknote to celebrate the bicentennial years of Australia.


* In 1991, Papua New Guinea issued its first 2 Kinas Banknote in polymer substrate to commemorate the 9th South Pacific Games held in the country. * In 1993, Indonesia issued a commemorative banknote in conjunction with the 25th Years of Development by President Soeharto which is the first polymer banknote issued by Bank Indonesia. * In 1996, Brunei introduced its first polymer banknotes in denominations of 1, 5, 10 Brunei dollar, dollars. * On 4 February 1998, Sri Lanka issued a commemorative banknote in conjunction with the 50th Anniversary of Sri Lankan independence movement, Independence which is so far the only polymer banknote issued by Central Bank of Sri Lanka. *By 1996, Australia had converted all of its denominations into polymer banknotes and became the first country in the world to do so. * On 18 August 1997, Thailand issued its first polymer banknote, a 50 Baht denomination. On 1 October 2004 it was replaced by a redesigned version printed on paper. * In 1998, Malaysia issued a commemorative banknote in conjunction with the 1998 Commonwealth Games, XVI Commonwealth Games, the first polymer banknote ever issued by Bank Negara Malaysia. * In May 1999, New Zealand converted all of its banknotes into polymer banknotes. *In June 1999, Taiwan issued its first polymer banknote to commemorate New Taiwan dollar, NT$50 years of New Taiwan dollar. *In August 1999, In celebration of the Solar eclipse of August 11, 1999, total solar eclipse of August 11, 1999, the National Bank of Romania (BNR) decided to issue a commemorative Two thousand lei, two thousand Romanian lei
banknote A banknote (often known as a bill (in the US and Canada), paper money, or simply a note) is a type of negotiable instrument, negotiable promissory note, made by a bank or other licensed authority, payable to the bearer on demand. Banknotes we ...
. Since it was the last eclipse of the millennium, the denomination was chosen to be ''2000'' in respect to the upcoming year. These notes were issued as legal tender. * On November 1, 1999, Indonesia introduced a polymer banknote in circulation, this is the first banknote issued by Bank Indonesia.


* In April, Brazil introduced Brazilian real, R$10 polymer banknote were released as a special edition commemorating the country's 500th anniversary.


* In January, Bangladesh introduced the 10 taka polymer banknote, originally they were due to be issued in Victory day of Bangladesh, Victory day, a day big for Bangladeshis, but were delayed.


* In February, Kingdom of Nepal introduced a commemorative 10 rupees polymer banknote, on the occasion of King Gyanendra accession to throne after the Nepalese royal massacre. It was rendered obsolete when the 2006 Nepalese revolution, Kingdom fell and replaced by 2008. *In September, Mexico switched the Mexican 20-peso note, 20 Mexican peso, peso denomination from paper to polymer banknotes. Two more new polymer notes issued in 2006, for Mexican 20-peso note, 20-pesos (new design) and the Mexican 50-peso note, 50-pesos and they issued a Mexican 100 pesos, 100 peso with vertical design polymer banknote in 2020.


*By 2003, Romania converted all of its denominations of the leu to polymer, becoming the first European country to do so.


* In October, Bank Negara Malaysia introduces a 5 Malaysian ringgit, ringgit polymer banknote into circulation, with the same design as the paper version. This was the first non-commemorative polymer banknote to be issued. Both polymer and paper versions were in circulation concurrently. * In November, Bank Indonesia switched Indonesian rupiah, IDR 100000 polymer banknote into paper banknote with different design than polymer version.


* In July, Romania redenominated the leu, removing four zeroes and issuing a series of new denominations in polymer.


* On 1 December, the National Bank of Romania issued a new denomination, Two hundred lei, 200 Romanian leu, lei. * From December 2003 to August 2006, Vietnam adopted polymer banknote in 10,000, 20,000, 50,000, 100,000, 200,000 and 500,000 Vietnamese đồng, đồng for general circulation. * By 2006, Brunei had adopted polymer banknotes for all its banknote denominations. * The Australian Government agency Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, CSIRO issued a non-legal tender polymer note to celebrate the 80th year of the formation of CSIRO. These notes were issued and distributed to staff members and at selected public events.


* In February, as part of a Nigerian economic reforms, the 20 naira note was issued for the first time in polymer substrate. *The Government of Hong Kong, Government of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region issued polymer banknotes for the first time. The banknotes are in Hong Kong dollar, $ Hong Kong ten-dollar note, 10 denomination. *In August, Guatemala introduced polymer banknotes in denomination of 1 Guatemalan quetzal, quetzal and a 5 Guatemalan quetzal, quetzal.


* On 13 April, Israel started to issue 20 Israeli new sheqel, ILS Banknotes, due to the high deterioration of 20 ILS paper banknotes. The Israeli polymer notes are printed by Orell Füssli, Orell Füssli Security Printing of Zürich, Switzerland. * on 1 December, the National Bank of Romania issued a revised Ten lei, 10 lei banknote.


* On 15 May, Nicaragua released new polymer ten and twenty Nicaraguan córdoba, Nicaragua córdoba banknotes to replace their paper counterparts. After an announcement from the Central Bank of Nicaragua in 2008 stated that a new 200 Córdoba banknote would be in circulation, it took the country an additional year to prepare its new set of banknotes. A new polymer two hundred and a hundred córdoba banknote was first issued on the first of June 2009. In December 2009, a new 50 banknote was released, later followed by a new 500 banknote that was issued on 12 January 2010. * In September, the Reserve Bank of India announced that it will introduce 1 billion 10-Indian rupee, rupee notes. * In September, the Central Bank of Chile introduced the new series of the Chilean Peso, starting with the redesigned 5000 Pesos banknote. *On 30th September, three Nigerian bank notes (₦50, ₦10 and ₦5) were converted to polymer substrate following the successful performance of the 20 naira (polymer) banknote.


* In June, The Central Bank of the Dominican Republic announced the introduction of a new polymer based 20 Dominican peso, pesos bill. * In October, The Central Bank of Chile announced the redesigned 2000 Chilean peso, Pesos that went into circulation on 20 November, as a program to change the old designs and make them more secure.


* In November, the Bank of Canada introduced the Frontier Series Canadian dollar, $100 polymer banknote to modernise its currency and reduce counterfeiting. $50 banknotes were put into circulation in March 2012; the $20 note was put into circulation on 7 November 2012 with the $10 and $5 denominations released on 7 November 2013. *In November, Guatemala introduced new polymer banknote in denomination of 5 Guatemalan quetzal, quetzal.


* On 16 July, the Bank Negara Malaysia put new Malaysian ringgit, RM1 and Malaysian ringgit, RM5 polymer banknotes into circulation as part of a new banknote series.


*In April, the Reserve Bank of India introduce plastic/polymer currency note of 10 on a field trial basis in five cities in India. *On 22 August, th
Bank of Mauritius
issued new 25-, 50-, and 500-Mauritian rupee, rupee polymer banknotes which will circulate in parallel with the existing paper notes of the same denominations. The new polymer notes have almost the same design as the preceding paper banknotes, but contain numerous new security features such as transparent windows showing the image of the dodo, numbers printed with magnetic ink which become fluorescent under ultra violet light, and swing features printed in iridescent ink, which change to a different colour when observed in transparency or when tilted. The 25-, and 50-rupee notes are printed by Oberthur Technologies on Innovia Security's Guardian substrate and the 500-rupee note is printed by De La Rue on its Safeguard (formerly Flexycoin) substrate. *On 22 November, ''Banque du Liban, Banque de Liban i''ssued a 50,000 Lebanese pound, pounds banknote in polymer to commemorate the country's 70th anniversary of Independence of Lebanon, independence. *In 2013,the Bank of England announced that it would adopt polymer notes.


*In 2014, the ''Banque du Liban i''ssued a 50,000 Lebanese pound, pounds banknote in polymer to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the founding of the Banque du Liban. *The Reserve Bank of Vanuatu introduced polymer banknotes in denominations of 200, 1,000 and 2,000 Vanuatu vatu, vatu. * On 5 August, the National Bank of Poland issued 50,000 20 Polish złoty, złotych polymer banknotes to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the formation of the Polish Legions in World War I, Polish Legions. * On 20 July, the Central Bank of the Gambia issued a 20 Gambian dalasi, Dalasis banknote printed on De La Rue's Safeguard polymer substrate. It commemorates "20 Years of Progress and Self-Reliance", coinciding with President Yahya Jammeh's 20 years in office as president. * On 28 November, the Central Bank of Mauritania issued a 1,000 Mauritanian ouguiya, Ouguiya banknote on Innovia Security's Guardian substrate. * On 15 December, the Central Bank of Trinidad and Tobago, Central Bank of Trinidad & Tobago issued a Trinidad and Tobago dollar, TT$50 note printed on polymer to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the establishment of the Central Bank of Trinidad and Tobago, Central Bank of Trinidad & Tobago. * On 23 December, the Bank of Cape Verde, Banco de Cabo Verde issued a new family of Cape Verdean escudo, escudo banknotes that honour Cape Verdean figures in the fields of literature, music, and politics. One note in the new series is the 200 Cape Verdean escudo, escudos banknote, now printed on polymer.


* The Reserve Bank of New Zealand introduced a new family of notes with improved security features, with the 5 and 10 in October 2015, and the 20, 50 and 100 New Zealand dollar, dollar banknotes in April 2016. * Clydesdale Bank issued two million 5 Banknotes of Scotland, pound notes, printed in polymer. It features a portrait of Sir William Arrol and an image of the Forth Bridge. * The Reserve Bank of India announced plans to introduce polymer banknotes on a pilot basis and improve security features to defeat the efforts of Counterfeit money, counterfeiter * The Banque du Liban issued a 50,000 Lebanese pound, pounds banknote in polymer to commemorate the 70th Anniversary of the Lebanese Armed Forces, Lebanese Army. * The Bank of Papua New Guinea issued 10 and 20 Papua New Guinean kina, kina notes in polymer, one to commemorate the 2015 Pacific Games, XV Pacific Games and the other to commemorate the 40th Anniversary of Papua New Guinea independence, Papua New Guinean independence. * The Maldives Monetary Authority, Maldives Authority Monetary introduced a new family of banknotes printed on De La Rue's "Safeguard" polymer substrate. A commemorative 5,000 Maldivian rufiyaa, Rufiyaa banknote was issued in July 2015, and followed by the 5-,10-, 20-, 50-, 100-, 500 and a new denomination of 1,000 Maldivian rufiyaa, Rufiyaa in October 2015. * The Monetary Authority of Singapore issued a set of polymer banknotes to commemorate the nation's 50th Anniversary of Independence of Singapore, independence. It consists of five Singapore dollar, S$10 notes and a commemorative Singapore dollar, S$50 note. * On 9 September, the Bank of Canada, Bank of Canada (Banque du Canada) issued a Canadian dollar, C$ Canadian twenty-dollar note, 20 polymer banknote to commemorate Elizabeth II, Queen Elizabeth II's milestone as the List of longest-reigning monarchs, longest-reigning monarch in Canada's modern era. It is similar to the regular issue 20-dollar ''Frontier Series'' polymer note, but the notable features for the commemorative note are the metallic portrait of the Elizabeth II, queen, based on a photograph taken by renowned Canadian photographer Yousuf Karsh, the metallic symbol including the Queen's monogram surmounted by the St Edward's Crown, St. Edward's crown, surrounded by a garland of maple leaves and the text "A HISTORIC REIGN • UN RÈGNE HISTORIQUE" repeated at the top, center and bottom of the large window. * The Central Bank of Nicaragua, Banco Central de Nicaragua issued a new family of notes on 26 October 2015. They are printed in polymer, except for the 500 Nicaraguan córdoba, cordobas banknote, which is printed on cotton paper substrate.


* The Government of Gibraltar issued a Gibraltar pound, £100 polymer banknote to commemorate Joshua Hassan, Sir Joshua Hassan's 22 years as Chief Minister of Gibraltar, Chief Minister in the first half of 2016. * The Royal Bank of Scotland issued 5 and 10 Pound sterling, pounds banknotes in 2016 and 2017, respectively. The notes were printed on De La Rue's Safeguard polymer substrate. * On 1 September, the Reserve Bank of Australia issued a Australian dollar, A$ Australian five-dollar note, 5 polymer note with improved security features and a tactile feature to assist those with visual impairments. *On 13 September 2016 the Bank of England began issuing the new polymer Pound sterling, £ Bank of England £5 note, 5 note, the first to be issued in England and Wales.


* On 17 March, the Reserve Bank of India announced that it will do trials of polymer 10 Indian rupee, rupees notes at five locations in India. * The Bank of Canada, Bank of Canada (Banque du Canada) unveiled a Canadian dollar, C$ Canadian ten-dollar note, 10 polymer banknote to commemorate the 150th anniversary of Canadian Confederation, confederation. It was issued on 1 June. * In September, The Bank of England issued a new polymer Pound sterling, £ Bank of England £10 note, 10 note.


* starting 1 January, the National Bank of Romania issued all denominations fith the new (revised) coat of arms of Romania. All the other features remained unchanged for all the denominations. * Central Bank of São Tomé and Príncipe, Banco Central de Sao Tome and Principe issued polymer banknote in denominations of 5 and 10 São Tomé and Príncipe dobra, dobra. *The National Bank of North Macedonia, National Bank of the Republic of North Macedonia issued 10- and 50-Macedonian denar, denari polymer banknotes as part of a new series. * The Bank of Mauritius has issued a 2,000-Mauritian rupee, rupees banknote printed on polymer substrate and with revised security features, while at the same time all previous versions of the 2,000-rupees paper banknote will cease to be legal tender by the end of January 2019. * In September 2018 the Central Bank of Uruguay (BCU) printed a special and experimental edition of polymer banknotes with a value of 50 Uruguayan peso, UYU to test reception and to celebrate the bank 50th anniversary, that was in 2017, producing 10,000,000 units.


*The Central Bank of Libya has issued a 1 Libyan dinar, Dinar banknote on 17 February 2019, in commemoration of the 8th Anniversary of the Libyan Civil War (2011), Libyan Revolution of 2011. * Bank of Ireland, Danske Bank (Northern Ireland), Danske Bank and Ulster Bank, commercial banks in Northern Ireland, each issued a Banknotes of Northern Ireland, new series of pound banknotes on polymer substrate for general use in Northern Ireland on 27 February 2019. *The Central Bank of Samoa announced the release of a new 10 Samoan tālā, Tala polymer banknote in June 2019, to commemorate the 2019 Pacific Games, XVI Pacific Games 2019 which were held in Samoa from 7 July 2019. The 10 Samoan tālā, Tala banknote will be the second polymer banknote issued in Samoa and the first carbon offset banknote created from the polymer substrate. The new banknote is one of a kind for Samoa as it will have a horizontal front and a vertical back. The Banknote will feature a see through window depicting the Pacific Games logo, and a tactile embossed feature to assist the visually impaired, both are unique features of polymer banknotes. The standard banknote prefix has been replaced with the special Pacific Games, PG/2019 Pacific Games, XVI prefix denoting "2019 Pacific Games, XVI Pacific Game". Issuance of the new 10 Samoan tālā, Tala note will commence the last week of June 2019, and will co-circulate together with the existing 10 Samoan tālā, tala banknotes which will remain legal tender. *Bank Al-Maghrib, Central bank of Morocco introduced 20 Moroccan dirham, dirham polymer banknote to mark years of enthronement of Mohammed VI of Morocco, Mohammed VI's. * Bank of Albania introduced a new 200 Albanian lek, Lek polymer banknote on 30 September 2019. * The Central Bank of Trinidad and Tobago issued a Trinidad and Tobago dollar, TT$100 polymer banknote for circulation on 9 December 2019, while announcing that all versions of the paper Trinidad and Tobago dollar, TT$100 banknotes will be demonetized and withdrawn from circulation on 31 December 2019.


* On 20 February, Bank of England issued a Bank of England £20 note, 20 Pound sterling, pounds polymer banknote. This the third banknote in the new series. *On 25 March, Bank of Namibia issued a 30 Namibian dollar, dollar polymer banknote to commemorate 30 years of Independence of Namibia, independence. *On 7 July, National Bank of Angola issued a 200, 500, 1000, 2000 Angolan kwanza, Kwanzas to be issued in polymer substrate. *On 25 July, Banco de Costa Rica, Bank of Costa Rica issued a new family of polymer banknote in denominations of 1000, 2000, 5000, 10000, 20000 Costa Rican colón, colons. *On 30 September, Central Bank of Trinidad and Tobago issued a new polymer banknote family in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 20, 50 Trinidad and Tobago dollar, dollar as the 100 polymer dollar banknote in 2019. *On 4 October, Saudi Arabian Monetary Authority has announced the five Saudi riyal, riyals banknote will be switched to polymer, replacing the current paper banknote, without any announcement on the other banknotes. The banknote was said to feature more environmentally friendly materials and additional security features, in addition to a much longer lifespan. *On 21 November, Bank of Mexico, Banco de Mexico released a 100 Mexican peso, peso Polymer Banknote as a part of new series. *On 5 December, Banque du Liban released a 100000 Lebanese pound, pounds polymer banknote in circulation to commemorate the centenary of the establishment of Greater Lebanon.


*On 8 January, Bank of Cape Verde introduced a new 200-escudo note like the preceding issue printed in polymer, but printed on cotton paper. * On 23 June, The Bank of England issued a Bank of England £50 note, 50 Pound sterling, pounds polymer banknote, completing the currency's transition from paper to polymer notes. This the forth and final Series G banknote to be issued. * On 1 December, the National bank of Romania introduced a new 20 lei banknote, depicting World War I hero Ecaterina Teodoroiu. * On 7 December, The Central Bank of the United Arab Emirates introduced the country's first polymer banknote - a redesigned 50 dirham note to commemorate the golden jubliee of the country on 02 December 2021.


See also

* Banknotes of the Australian dollar * Banknotes of the Canadian dollar * CSIRO * Hybrid paper-polymer banknote, Hybrid Paper Polymer Banknote * Polymers



External links

{{commons category, Polymer banknotes
by Stane Štraus

from the University of Melbourne
Professor David Solomon – Inventor of Plastic Bank Note Wins 2006 Victoria Prize
from the University of Melbourne
Polymer banknotes
from Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation
Note Printing Australia


(in German) by Thomas Krause
New Kuwaiti Dinar notes released
by Kuwait News Agency.
Costs of introducing polymer notes in the UK
by CMS Payments Intelligence. Australian inventions Banknotes Polymers