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The Info List - Politics Of Vietnam


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The politics of Vietnam
Vietnam
are defined by a single-party socialist republic framework, where the President of Vietnam
Vietnam
is the head of state and the Prime Minister of Vietnam
Vietnam
is the head of government, in a one-party system led by the Communist Party of Vietnam. Executive power is exercised by the government and the President of Vietnam. Legislative power
Legislative power
is vested in the National Assembly of Vietnam (Vietnamese: Quốc hội Việt Nam). The Judiciary
Judiciary
is independent of the executive. The parliament adopted the current Constitution of Vietnam; its fifth, on 28 November 2013. The President (Chủ tịch nước) is elected by the National Assembly for a five-year term and acts as the commander-in-chief of the Vietnam
Vietnam
People's Armed Forces and Chairman of the Council for Defence and Security. Moreover, the president has the right to decide on executive brands. The government (Chính phủ), the main executive state power of Vietnam, is headed by the Prime Minister, who has several Deputy Prime Ministers and several ministers in charge of particular activities. The executive branch is responsible for the implementation of political, economic, cultural, social, national defence, security and external activities of the state. The National Assembly is a unicameral legislative body. The National Assembly has 500 members, elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms. The legislature is, according to the constitution, the highest organ of the state. Its powers includes the enactment and amendment of the constitution and laws; the adoption of the government budget; supervising the Government of Vietnam
Vietnam
and other holders of public powers responsible to the National Assembly; and appointing members of the judiciary. The Vietnamese constitution and legislation provide for regular elections for the office of the President of the Socialist Republic, the National Assembly and the People's Councils. Vietnam
Vietnam
has, officially at least, an independent judicial system governed by the Constitution of Vietnam
Vietnam
and national legislation enacted by National Assembly. The Supreme People's Court (Tòa án Nhân dân Tối cao) is the highest court of appeal in Vietnam. There are other specialised courts in Vietnam, including the Central Military Court, the Criminal Court, the Civil Court and the Appeal Court. The Supreme People's Procuracy observes the implementation of state organs and makes sure that Vietnamese citizens follow the law.

Contents

1 Legal framework 2 State ideology 3 Communist Party of Vietnam

3.1 Congress 3.2 Central Committee

4 Fatherland Front 5 Executive 6 Legislative 7 Judiciary 8 Elections

8.1 Latest parliamentary election 8.2 Latest presidential election

9 Local government

9.1 List of provinces

10 References 11 Bibliography 12 External links

Legal framework[edit] Main article: Constitution of Vietnam Vietnam
Vietnam
is a one-party socialist republic.[1] The current Vietnamese state traces its direct lineage back to the Democratic Republic of Vietnam
Vietnam
(North Vietnam) and the 1945 August Revolution
August Revolution
led by Hồ Chí Minh. The current constitution was adopted on 15 April 1992 by the National Assembly of Vietnam. There have been three other constitutions in Vietnamese history: the 1946, 1959 and 1980 constitutions.[2] The current constitution has been amended once, during the 10th session of the National Assembly on 25 December 2001.[1] The Communist Party of Vietnam, the leading non-State organ, operates in accordance with the laws. Government powers in Vietnam
Vietnam
are divided into legislative, executive and judiciary powers. Vietnam's legal system is based upon socialist legality according to Article 12 of the constitution.[3] State ideology[edit] Vietnam
Vietnam
is a socialist republic with a one-party system led by the Communist Party of Vietnam
Vietnam
(CPV). The CPV espouses Marxism–Leninism and Hồ Chí Minh Thought, the thoughts of the late Hồ Chí Minh. The two ideologies function as a firm ideological basis and serve as guidance for the activities of the Party and state.[2] According to the Constitution, Vietnam
Vietnam
is "in the period of transition to socialism".[1] Marxism–Leninism
Marxism–Leninism
was introduced to Vietnam
Vietnam
in the 1920s and 1930s, and Vietnamese culture has been led under the banner of patriotism and Marxism–Leninism.[4] Hồ Chí Minh's beliefs were not systematised during his life, nor quickly following his death. Trường Chinh's biography of "Chairman Hồ" in 1973 emphasised his revolutionary policies. The thoughts of Hồ Chí Minh were systematised in 1989, under the leadership of Nguyễn Văn Linh.[5] Hồ Chí Minh Thought, alongside Marxism–Leninism, became the official ideology of the CPV and the state in 1991.[6] The CPV's claim to legitimacy was retained following the collapse of communism in 1989 and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 by its commitment to the thoughts of Hồ Chí Minh, according to Sophie Quinn-Judge.[7] According to Pierre Brocheux, the author of Ho Chi Minh: a Biography, the current state ideology is Hồ Chí Minh Thought, with Marxism–Leninism
Marxism–Leninism
playing a secondary role.[8] While some claim that Hồ Chí Minh Thought is used as a veil for the Party leadership since they, according to this version, have stopped believing in communism, however this is false when considering that Hồ Chí Minh was an avid supporter of Vladimir Lenin
Vladimir Lenin
and the dictatorship of the proletariat. Others see Hồ Chí Minh Thought as a political umbrella term whose main function is to smuggle in non-socialist ideas and policies without challenging socialist legality.[6] Since its foundation, the key ideology has been Marxism–Leninism, but since the introduction of a mixed economy in the late 1980s and 1990s, it has lost its monopolistic ideological and moral legitimacy.[9] Marxism–Leninism, which is a class-based ideology, lost its legitimacy because of the mixed economy. As became clear because of the Đổi Mới reforms, the Party could not base its rule on defending only the workers and the peasants, which was officially referred to as the "working class-peasant alliance".[10] In the constitution introduced in 1992, the State represented the "workers, peasants and intellectuals".[9] In recent years, the Party has stopped representing a specific class, but instead the "interests of the entire people", which includes entrepreneurs.[9] The final class barrier was removed in 2002, when party members were allowed to engage in private activities. In the face of de-emphasising the role of Marxism–Leninism, the Party has acquired a broader ideology, laying more emphasis on nationalism, developmentalism and becoming the protector of tradition.[11] Communist Party of Vietnam[edit] Main article: Communist Party of Vietnam

The flag of the Communist Party of Vietnam

According to the official version, the Communist Party of Vietnam (Vietnamese: Đảng Cộng sản Việt Nam) is leading the Vietnamese people "in carrying out the country's renovation, modernisation and industrialisation."[2] According to the Party's statute, amended at the 9th National Congress on 22 April 2001, the CPV was "established and trained by President Hồ Chí Minh, has led the Vietnamese people to carry out successfully the August Revolution, establishing the Democratic Republic of Việt Nam, now the Socialist Republic of Việt Nam, to defeat foreign invaders, to abolish the colonial and feudalist regime, to liberate and reunify the country, and then carry out the cause of renovation and socialist construction and firmly defend national independence."[2] It believes in socialist internationalism of the working class, and supports the "struggle for peace, national independence, democracy and social progress of the world's people."[2] The CPV acts as the vanguard of the working people and the whole nation by representing their interests. Its aim is to create "a strong, independent, prosperous and democratic country with an equitable and civilized society, to realise socialism and ultimately, communism." The Party's ideological foundation is Marxism–Leninism
Marxism–Leninism
and Hồ Chí Minh Thoughts. These ideologies guide the activities of the Party, while promoting "the nation's traditions, and absorbing other nations' essential ideas."[2] The CPV is organised on the principles of democratic centralism. It practices "criticism, self-criticism, and strict discipline" and pursues "collective leadership and individual responsibility, and promoting comradeship and solidarity in line with the Party's political programs and statutes."[2] The CPV is subject to Vietnamese laws and the Constitution. It is the country's ruling party, and promotes the "mastery of the people over the country". The Party is under the supervision of the people. It is dependent on having the people contributing the party, by strengthening, uniting and leading the people in the revolutionary cause. The political system in Vietnam is led by the CPV, and it "leads, respects and promotes the role of the State, the Vietnamese Fatherland Front
Vietnamese Fatherland Front
(VFF) and other socio-political organisations."[2] Congress[edit] Main article: National Congress of the Communist Party of Vietnam The National Congress is the party's highest organ.[12] The direction of the Party and the Government is decided at the National Congress, held every fifth year. The Central Committee is elected by the National Congress.[13] Delegates vote on policies and candidates posts within the central party leadership. Following ratification of the decisions taken at the National Congress, the National Congress dissolves itself. The Central Committee, which is elected by the National Congress every fifth year, implements the decisions of the National Congress in the five-year period. Since the Central Committee only meets twice a year, the Politburo implements the policies of the National Congress.[12] Central Committee[edit]

Communist Party of Vietnam
Vietnam
billboard marking the 30th Anniversary of the reunification of the country in 1975.

Main article: Central Committee of the Communist Party of Vietnam The Central Committee (CC) is the CPV's most powerful institution.[14] It delegates some of its powers to the Secretariat and the Politburo when it is not in session.[15] When the Vietnam
Vietnam
War ended in 1975, the Vietnamese leadership, led by Lê Duẩn, began to centralise power. This policy continued until the 6th National Congress, when Nguyễn Văn Linh took power. Linh pursued a policy of economic and political decentralisation.[16] The party and state bureaucracy opposed Linh's reform initiatives; because of this, Linh tried to win the support of provincial leaders. This caused the powers of the provincial chapters of the CPV to increase in the 1990s. The CPV lost its power to appoint or dismiss provincial-level officials in the 1990s; this is proven by the fact that Võ Văn Kiệt
Võ Văn Kiệt
tried to wrestle this power back to the centre during the 1990s without success. These developments led to the provincialisation of the Central Committee; for example, more and more CC members have a background in provincial party work. Because of these changes, power in Vietnam
Vietnam
has become increasingly devolved.[17] The number of Central Committee members with a provincial background increased from a low of 15.6 percent in 1982 to a high of 41 percent in 2000. The former President of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam Trương Tấn Sang
Trương Tấn Sang
(2001-2016) was directly elected from the provinces at the 8th Party Congress, held 1996.[18] Because of the devolution of power, the powers of the Central Committee have increased substantially; for instance, when a two-thirds majority of the Politburo voted in favour of retaining Lê Khả Phiêu
Lê Khả Phiêu
as General Secretary (the leader of Vietnam), the Central Committee voted against the Politburo's motion and voted unanimously in favour of removing Lê Khả Phiêu from his post of General Secretary.[19] The Central Committee did this because the majority of its members were of provincial background, or were working in the provinces; because of this, these members were the first to feel the pinch when the economy began to stagnate during Lê Khả Phiêu's rule.[20] The Central Committee elects the Politburo in the aftermath of the Party Congress. Since the full Central Committee meets only once a year, the Politburo functions as the Party's leading collective decision-making body.[21] The Secretariat is also elected by the Central Committee, and is headed by the General Secretary (Vietnamese: Tổng Bí thư Ban Chấp hành Trung ương Đảng Cộng sản Việt Nam). It is responsible for solving organisational problems and implementing the demands of the Central Committee. The Secretariat oversees the work of the Commissions of the Central Committee. The General Secretary is the de facto leader of Vietnam.

Main office holders

Office Name Party Since

General Secretary of the Central Committee Nguyễn Phú Trọng Communist Party 19 January 2011

Secretary of the Central Military Commission Communist Party

Secretary of the Central Public Security Commission Tô Lâm Communist party May 2016

Executive Secretary of the Secretariat Đinh Thế Huynh Communist Party 4 February 2015

Head of the Central Commission of Organization Phạm Minh Chính Communist Party 4 February 2016

Chairman of the Central Commission for Inspection Trần Quốc Vượng Communist Party 28 January 2016

Head of the Central Commission of Propaganda Võ Văn Thưởng Communist Party 4 February 2016

Chairman of the Central Theoretical Council Đinh Thế Huynh Communist Party 28 March 2011

Head of the Central Commission of Popularization Trương Thị Mai Communist Party 4 February 2016

Head of the Central Office Nguyễn Văn Nên Communist Party 4 February 2016

Head of the Central Commission of External Affairs Hoàng Bình Quân Communist Party 2009

Head of the Central Commission of Economy Nguyễn Văn Bình Communist Party 11 April 2016

Head of the Central Commission of Internal Affairs Phan Đình Trạc Communist Party 26 February 2016 (Acting Head since 2015)

The following is the official order of precedence of the Politburo according to the 12th National Party Congress.[22]

1st Nguyễn Phú Trọng
Nguyễn Phú Trọng
–General Secretary of the Central Committee and Secretary of the Central Military Commission 2nd Trần Đại Quang
Trần Đại Quang
– President of Vietnam 3rd Nguyễn Thị Kim Ngân
Nguyễn Thị Kim Ngân
– Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National Assembly 4th Ngô Xuân Lịch
Ngô Xuân Lịch
– General, Minister of National Defense 5th General Tô Lâm
Tô Lâm
– Senior Lieutenant, Minister of Public Security 6th Nguyễn Xuân Phúc
Nguyễn Xuân Phúc
– Prime Minister 7th Nguyễn Thiện Nhân
Nguyễn Thiện Nhân
– President of the Vietnam
Vietnam
Fatherland Front 8th Đinh Thế Huynh- Executive Secretary of the Secretariat, Chairman of the Theoretical Council and member of the Secretariat 9th Phạm Minh Chính – Head of the PCC Commission on Organization 10th Tòng Thị Phóng
Tòng Thị Phóng
- Deputy Chairwoman of the National Assembly and Deputy Secretary of the National Assembly Party Caucus 11th Vương Đình Huệ
Vương Đình Huệ
– Deputy Prime Minister 12th Trần Quốc Vượng – Head of the PCC Commission on Inspection and member of the Secretariat 13th Phạm Bình Minh
Phạm Bình Minh
– Deputy Prime Minister, Minister of Foreign Affairs 14th Trương Thị Mai – Head of the Central Commission of Popularization 15th Trương Hòa Bình – Deputy Prime Minister, Deputy Secretary of the Government–Party Committee 16th Nguyễn Văn Bình – Head of the PCC Commission on Economics 17th Võ Văn Thưởng - Head of the Central Commission of Propaganda 18th Đinh La Thăng - Secretary of the Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh
city Party Committee 19th Hoàng Trung Hải
Hoàng Trung Hải
- Secretary of the Ha Noi city Party Committee

Secretariat:

1st Nguyễn Phú Trọng
Nguyễn Phú Trọng
–General Secretary of the Central Committee and Secretary of the Central Military Commission 2nd Đinh Thế Huynh - permanent member of the Party Central Committee’s Secretariat 3rd Trần Quốc Vượng - Head of the PCC Commission on Inspection 4th Phạm Minh Chính -Head of the PCC Commission on Organization 5th Võ Văn Thưởng - Head of the Central Commission of Propaganda of the Communist Party of Vietnam 6th Trương Thị Mai - Head of the Central Commission of Popularization of the Communist Party of Vietnam 7th Nguyễn Văn Bình – Head of the PCC Commission on Economics 8th Lương Cường - Senior Lieutenant, Chief of the General Department of Politics under the Vietnam
Vietnam
People's Army 9th Nguyễn Văn Nên - Head of the Central Office of the Communist Party of Vietnam 10th Nguyễn Hòa Bình
Hòa Bình
- Chief Justice of the Supreme People's Court 11th Phan Đình Trạc - Head of the Central Commission of Internal Affairs of the Communist Party of Vietnam
Vietnam
(since 6 October 2017) 12th Nguyễn Xuân Thắng - Director of the Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh
National Academy of Politics (since 6 October 2017)

Fatherland Front[edit] Main article: Vietnamese Fatherland Front The Vietnamese Fatherland Front
Vietnamese Fatherland Front
(VFF) (Vietnamese: Mặt trận Tổ quốc Việt Nam) is an umbrella group of pro-communist movements. According to Article 9 of the Constitution, the VFF and its members constitute "the political base of people's power".[23] The state must create a favorable environment for the VFF and its member organisations.[23] The VFF is a voluntary mass organisation of political, socio-political and social organisations and "individuals from all classes, social strata, ethnic groups, and religions, including overseas Vietnamese."[2] Its main objectives are to gather and build a people unity bloc, "strengthen the people's political and spiritual consensus, encourage the people to promote their mastership, to implement the CPV's guidelines and policies, and to abide by the Constitution and laws."[2] The VFF is governed on the principles of "democratic consensus, coordinated and united action."[2] Its organisation has been modelled after the state structure, and the VFF has its own independent statute.[2] Notable member organisations of the VFF include the General Confederation of Labour, the Hồ Chí Minh Communist Youth Union and the Veteran Association, among others.[24]

Main office holders

Office Name Party Since

Chairman of the Central Committee Nguyễn Thiện Nhân Communist Party 5 September 2013

Deputy Chairman of the Central Committee Trần Thanh Mẫn Communist Party 14 April 2016

General Secretary of the Central Committee Communist Party

Executive[edit] Main articles: President of Vietnam, Prime Minister of Vietnam, and Government of Vietnam The President of the Republic (Vietnamese: Chủ tịch nước Việt Nam) is the head of state, elected to a five-year term by the National Assembly, and is limited by the Constitution to a maximum tenure of 3 terms.[25] In addition to being the Chairman of the Council for Defence and Security and commander-in-chief of the Vietnam
Vietnam
People's Armed Forces, the president has the procedural duty of appointing or dismissing of the Vice Presidents, Prime Minister, Deputy Chief Judge of the Supreme People's Court and Head of the Supreme People's Procuracy, with the consent of the National Assembly through a simple majority vote. The President has influence on foreign policy, and has the right to declare a state of emergency and to declare war.[26] The most recent presidential elections were held on 25 July 2011, when Trương Tấn Sang, the incumbent, was re-elected by the deputies (members) of the National Assembly.[27] The Government (Vietnamese: Chính phủ) is the executive arm of the National Assembly and the highest administrative body of the Vietnamese state. It is headed by the president, prime minister and consists of deputy prime ministers, ministers and other members. The Government is a unified administration responsible for the implementation of political, economic, cultural, social, national defence, security and external activities of the state. It is also responsible for the effectiveness of the state apparatus itself from the top down, stabilisation in the country and the observance of the constitution.[28] As with the President, the Government is elected by the deputies of the National Assembly for a five-year term.[29] The Prime Minister of the Government (Vietnamese: Thủ tướng Chính phủ) is the head of government and is elected or dismissed by the National Assembly, at the request of the president. Since 7 April 2016, the prime minister of the government has been Nguyễn Xuân Phúc.

Main office holders

Office Name Party Since

President Trần Đại Quang Communist Party 2 April 2016

Vice President Đặng Thị Ngọc Thịnh Communist Party 8 April 2016

Prime Minister Nguyễn Xuân Phúc Communist Party 7 April 2016

Deputy Prime Minister Vương Đình Huệ Communist Party 9 April 2016

Deputy Prime Minister Phạm Bình Minh Communist Party 2013

Deputy Prime Minister Trương Hòa Bình Communist Party 9 April 2016

Deputy Prime Minister Vũ Đức Đam Communist Party 2013

Deputy Prime Minister Trịnh Đình Dũng Communist Party 9 April 2016

Legislative[edit] Main articles: Standing Committee of the National Assembly
Standing Committee of the National Assembly
and National Assembly of Vietnam

The National Assembly convened at the Ba Đình Hall until 2007, when the building was demolished

The National Assembly (Vietnamese: Quốc hội) is a unicameral legislative body, and is governed on the basis of democratic centralism.[30] It is the highest representative organ and the highest state organ. The National Assembly is the only organ vested with constitutional and legislative powers. It is responsible for fundamental domestic and foreign policies, socio-economic policies, defence and security issues, and it exercises supreme control over all state activities.[31] Delegates (or members) of the National Assembly are elected through secret ballots in democratic elections[32] which are held every fifth year.[33] The National Assembly is convened twice a year,[33] and its Standing Committee represents it between sessions.[2] The membership of the Standing Committee consists of the Chairman (Vietnamese: Chủ tịch Quốc hội), deputy chairmen and other members; these members are elected by the National Assembly.[34] Standing Committee members cannot simultaneously be members of the Government. Members work on a full-time basis, and their terms of office correspond with the term of the National Assembly. The Standing Committee continues to function until a new National Assembly is elected. According to the constitution, the Standing Committee is responsible for 12 duties. Of these, the most important are the powers to announce, convene and chair the National Assembly sessions, to interpret the constitution, laws and ordinances, and to issue ordinances on those matters assigned by the National Assembly. It supervises and guides the People's Councils and their activities, and directs, regulates and coordinates the activities of the Ethnic Council and the committees of the National Assembly.[35] There are seven committees of the National Assembly. Committee membership is determined by the National Assembly. They are responsible for the studying and examination of bills, legislative initiatives, drafts of ordinances and other drafts of legal documents and reports assigned by the National Assembly or the Standing Committee. The committees provide the National Assembly and its Standing Committee with their opinions on the legislative programme. The committees supervise and conduct investigations within their respective competency and exercise powers which are stipulated by law.[36] The National Assembly elects the Ethnic Council, which consists of a Chairman, Deputy Chairmen and other members. The Ethnic Council studies and recommends actions to the National Assembly; the National Assembly has to consult with the Ethnic Council before issuing any decisions on ethnic policy. The Chairman of the Ethnic Council has to attend meetings of the Government which concern ethnic policy. The powers of the Ethnic Council are comparable to those of the committees.[37]

Main office holders

Office Name Party Since

Chairman Nguyễn Thị Kim Ngân Communist Party 31 March 2016

Deputy Chairman Tòng Thị Phóng Communist Party 23 July 2007

Deputy Chairman Phùng Quốc Hiển Communist Party 5 April 2016

Deputy Chairman Uông Chu Lưu Communist Party 23 July 2011

Deputy Chairman General Đỗ Bá Tỵ Communist Party 5 April 2016

Chairman of the Ethnic Council Hà Ngọc Chiến Communist Party 5 April 2016

Judiciary[edit] Main article: Judiciary
Judiciary
of Vietnam

The emblem of the Vietnam
Vietnam
People's Army Military Court

The Vietnamese judicial system is based upon Socialist legality. The country's highest judicial organ is the Supreme People's Court (SPC) (Vietnamese: Tòa án Nhân dân Tối cao). The composition of the SCP includes the Chief Justice (Vietnamese: Chánh án Tòa án Nhân dân Tối cao), Deputy Chief Judge, jurors and court secretaries. The structure of the SCP (from the top down) is as follows: Council of Judges, Commission of Judges, Central Military Court, Criminal Court, Civil Court, Appeal Court, and assisting staff. The Chief Judge of the SCP is elected by the National Assembly, while the President of the Socialist Republic has the power to nominate and dismiss the Deputy Chief Judge and judges at the Chief Judge's request. The Central Committee of the Vietnamese Fatherland Front
Vietnamese Fatherland Front
introduces People's Jurors, which are in turn appointed by the Standing Committee of the National Assembly. According to the Government Web Portal, the operating principles of the courts are, during hearings, that the "judges and jurors are independent and only obey the laws." Justice and democracy within the system is supposedly ensured because legal decision-making is an open process. Jurors play an essential role, and defenders have the right of defence and to hire a lawyer.[2] The Supreme People's Prosecutor (SPP) (Vietnamese: Viện Kiểm sát Nhân dân Tối cao), the Vietnamese equivalent to an attorney general, observes the implementation process of the Ministries, ministerial-level agencies, government organs, local authorities, social and economic organisations, the armed forces, security forces and the Vietnamese citizens in general. The SPP respects the Constitution and state laws, practices public prosecution as stated by the law and ensures law enforcement. The head of the SPP is elected, dismissed, or removed from office by a proposal of the President. The Deputy Heads, prosecutors and inspectors appointed by the SPP head can be dismissed by the President on the Head's request.[2] The SPC is the highest court for appeal and review, and it reports to the National Assembly, which controls the judiciary's budget and confirms the president's nominees to the SPC and SPP. The SPP issues arrest warrants, sometimes retroactively. Below the SPC are district and provincial people's courts, military tribunals, and administrative, economic and labor courts. The people's courts are the courts of first instance. The Ministry of Defence (MOD) has military tribunals, which have the same rules as civil courts. Military judges and assessors are selected by the MOD and the SPC, but the SPC has supervisory responsibility. Although the constitution provides for independent judges and lay assessors (who lack administrative training), the United States Department of State
United States Department of State
maintains that Vietnam
Vietnam
lacks an independent judiciary, in part because the Communist Party selects judges and vets them for political reliability. Moreover, the party seeks to influence the outcome of cases involving perceived threats to the state or the party's dominant position. In an effort to increase judicial independence, the government transferred local courts from the Ministry of Justice to the SPC in September 2002. However, the Department of State saw no evidence that the move actually achieved the stated goal. Vietnam's judiciary is also hampered by a shortage of lawyers and by rudimentary trial procedures. The death penalty often is imposed in cases of corruption and drug trafficking.[38]

Main office holders

Office Name Party Since

Head of the Steering Committee of the Central Judicial Reform Trần Đại Quang Communist Party 13 August 2016

Chief Justice of the Supreme People's Court Nguyễn Hòa Bình Communist Party 8 April 2016

Director of the Supreme People's Prosecutor Lê Minh Trí Communist Party 8 April 2016

Elections[edit] Main article: Elections in Vietnam Article 6 of the Constitution states that "The people make use of state power through the agency of the National Assembly and the People's Councils, which represent the will and aspirations of the people, are elected by them and responsible to them".[30] Deputies (members) of the National Assembly are directly elected on a democratic basis through secret ballots. All citizens who are 18 or older, regardless of ethnic group, gender, social position, belief, religion, level of education, occupation or length of residency have the right to vote, the exceptions being the mentally disabled and those people who have been deprived of the right to vote by law. People aged 21 or older have the right to stand as a candidate at elections. Three election commissions have been established to manage elections; at the central level is the Election Council, at the provincial level and in centrally-run cities the Election Committee is responsible for election monitoring and the Election Commission is responsible for election monitoring at constituencies.[39] The current 500 members of the National Assembly were elected during the 2016 parliamentary election, and they have a five-year term. Despite foreign criticism, it is generally believed that the National Assembly has become more powerful in recent years.[40] The last election was held, according to the authorities, in a democratic, fair, lawful and safe manner and was considered a success. Voter turnout was 99.51 percent; nearly 62 million people voted. In their respective constituencies, Nguyễn Phú Trọng, the General Secretary, was elected to the National Assembly with 85.63 percent of the votes, Prime Minister Nguyễn Tấn Dũng was elected with 95.38 percent and President Trương Tấn Sang
Trương Tấn Sang
was elected with 80.19 percent. Outside the ruling troika, it was Nguyễn Xuân Phúc, the Chairman of the Government Office, who was elected with the highest margin, with 94.59 percent of the votes. The number of self-nominated candidates was four times higher than the previous election.[41] Fifteen out of the 182 candidates nominated by the central government and the central party leadership were defeated in the elections. Lê Thị Thu Ba, a member of the Party's Central Committee and Chairman of the Committee of Law during the 12th National Assembly (2007–2011), was not re-elected to the National Assembly. Several capitalists were elected to the assembly, but due to the socialist ideology of the state, they are not allowed to sit on the assembly's Committee on Economy and Budget.[42] Nguyễn Sinh Hùng, the Chairman of the National Assembly, nominated Trương Tấn Sang
Trương Tấn Sang
for the Presidency.[43] 487 deputies of the National Assembly,[44] meaning 97.4 percent, voted in favour of Trương Tấn Sang.[45] In his victory speech, Trương Tấn Sang said, "I pledge to improve my moral quality and study the example of the late President Hồ Chí Minh to cooperate with the government to bring Vietnam
Vietnam
to become a fully industrialized country by 2015."[46] Latest parliamentary election[edit] Main article: Vietnamese parliamentary election, 2011

e • d  Summary of the 22 May 2011 National Assembly (Quoc hoi) election results

Parties and coalitions Seats +/–

Vietnamese Fatherland Front
Vietnamese Fatherland Front
(Mặt Trận Tổ Quốc Việt Nam) Communist Party of Vietnam
Vietnam
(Đảng Cộng sản Việt Nam) 458 +8

Independent 38 -4

Independents 4 +3

Overall statistics

Total parliamentary seats 500 +7

Sources: Central Election Council[47]

Latest presidential election[edit] Main article: Vietnamese presidential election, 2011

Vietnamese presidential election, 2011

Choice Votes %

Yes 488 97.6

No 12 2.4

Total votes 500 100.00

Local government[edit] Main article: Provinces of Vietnam Provinces and municipalities are subdivided into towns, districts and villages. Provinces and municipalities are centrally controlled by the national government. Towns, districts and villages are locally accountable to some degree through elected people's councils.[38] Certain cities and provinces are under direct control of the central government. The provinces are divided into districts, provincial cities and towns; cities under direct rule are divided into towns, urban and rural districts. In turn, the district is divided into communes and townlets. In the words of Article 118 of the Constitution, the "provincial city and the town are divided into wards and communes; the urban district is divided into wards."[48] The establishment of People's Council and People's Committees is determined by law.[48] In the provinces, the People's Council is the "local organ of State power", and it represents the "aspirations, and mastery of the people". The People's Council is democratically elected, and is accountable to the people and to superior organs of the state.[49] It must pass resolutions which are formal orders of superior organs of state, and it acts on behalf of the constitution. The People's Council decides the plans for socio-economic development, decides the budget and is responsible for national defence and security at the local level.[50] The deputy (member) of the People's Council acts on the behalf of the people,[51] and has the right to make proposals to the People's Council and other local State organs. In turn, officials of these local organs have the responsibility to receive and to examine them.[52] The People's Council have to elect a People's Committee, the executive organ of the People's Council. It is the People's Committee which has the responsibility to implement "the Constitution, the law, the formal written orders of superior State organs and the resolutions of the People's Council."[53] The People's Committee is headed by a Chairman, who acts as the body's leader. All decisions of the People's Committee are taken through a collegial decision-making process, and have to "conform to the will of the majority."[54] The chairman has the power to annul decisions of lower standing organs.[54] Local officials of the Vietnamese Fatherland Front, its local head, and officials from other mass organisations in the locality have the right to attend the meetings of the People's Council and the People's Committee if relevant problems are discussed.[54] According to Article 125 of the constitution, "The People's Council and the People's Committee shall make regular reports on the local situation in all fields to the Fatherland Front and the mass organisations; shall listen to their opinions and proposals on local power building and socio-economic development; shall cooperate with them in urging the people to work together with the State for the implementation of socio-economic, national-defence, and security tasks in the locality."[55] List of provinces[edit]

Province/City Capital Area (km²) [56] Population [56] Density (/km²) [56] % Urban [56] HDI [56] Region

Hà Tĩnh
Hà Tĩnh
Province Hà Tĩnh 6,026.5 1,227,038 203.6 14.9 0.543 North Central Coast

Nghệ An Province Vinh 16,498.5 2,912,041 176.5 12.9 0.547 North Central Coast

Quảng Bình Province Đồng Hới 8,065.3 844,893 104.8 15.0 0.553 North Central Coast

Quảng Trị Province Đông Hà 4,760.1 598,324 125.7 27.4 0.529 North Central Coast

Thanh Hóa
Thanh Hóa
Province Thanh Hóa 11,136.3 3,400,595 305.4 10.4 0.579 North Central Coast

Thừa Thiên– Huế
Huế
Province Huế 5,065.3 1,087,420 214.7 36.0 0.565 North Central Coast

Hà Giang
Hà Giang
Province Hà Giang 7,945.8 724,537 91.2 11.6 0.600 Northeast

Cao Bằng
Cao Bằng
Province Cao Bằng 6,724.6 507,183 75.4 16.9 0.527 Northeast

Bắc Kạn
Bắc Kạn
Province Bắc Kạn 4,868.4 293,826 60.4 16.1 0.602 Northeast

Tuyên Quang
Tuyên Quang
Province Tuyên Quang 5,870.4 724,821 123.5 13.0 0.664 Northeast

Thái Nguyên
Thái Nguyên
Province Thái Nguyên 3,546.6 1,123,116 316.7 25.6 0.656 Northeast

Lạng Sơn
Lạng Sơn
Province Lạng Sơn 8,331.2 732,515 87.9 19.2 0.648 Northeast

Quảng Ninh Province Hạ Long 6,099.0 1,144,988 187.7 51.9 0.668 Northeast

Bắc Giang
Bắc Giang
Province Bắc Giang 3,827.4 1,554,131 406.1 9.4 0.602 Northeast

Phú Thọ Province Việt Trì 3,528.4 1,316,389 373.1 15.8 0.513 Northeast

Lào Cai
Lào Cai
Province Lào Cai 6,383.9 614,595 96.3 21.0 0.665 Northeast

Yên Bái
Yên Bái
Province Yên Bái 6,899.5 740,397 107.3 18.8 0.533 Northeast

Hòa Bình
Hòa Bình
Province Hòa Bình 4,684.2 785,217 167.6 15.0 0.595 Northwest

Điện Biên Province Điện Biên Phủ 9,562.5 490,306 51.3 15.0 0.545 Northwest

Lai Châu
Lai Châu
Province Lai Châu 9,112.3 370,502 40.7 14.2 0.542 Northwest

Sơn La
Sơn La
Province Sơn La 14,174.4 1,076,055 75.9 13.8 0.497 Northwest

Bắc Ninh
Bắc Ninh
Province Bắc Ninh 823.1 1,024,472 1,244.7 23.5 0.484 Red River Delta

Hà Nam Province Phủ Lý 859.7 784,045 912.0 9.5 0.499 Red River Delta

Hải Dương
Hải Dương
Province Hải Dương 1,652.8 1,705,059 1,031.6 19.0 0.502 Red River Delta

Hưng Yên
Hưng Yên
Province Hưng Yên 923.5 1,127,903 1,221.3 12.1 0.501 Red River Delta

Nam Định
Nam Định
Province Nam Định 1,650.8 1,828,111 1,107.4 17.6 0.539 Red River Delta

Ninh Bình
Ninh Bình
Province Ninh Bình 1,392.4 898,999 645.6 17.9 0.601 Red River Delta

Thái Bình
Thái Bình
Province Thái Bình 1,546.5 1,781,842 1,152.1 9.7 0.585 Red River Delta

Vĩnh Phúc Province Vĩnh Yên 1,373.2 999,786 728.1 22.4 0.523 Red River Delta

Hà Nội City 3,119.0 6,451,909 2,068.6 41.0 0.768 Red River Delta

Hải Phòng City 1,520.7 1,837,173 1,208.1 46.1 0.595 Red River Delta

Đắk Lắk Province Buôn Ma Thuột 13,139.2 1,733,624 131.9 24.0 0.596 Central Highlands

Đắk Nông Province Gia Nghĩa 6,516.9 489,382 75.1 14.7 0.563 Central Highlands

Gia Lai Province Pleiku 15,536.9 1,274,412 82.0 28.6 0.697 Central Highlands

Kon Tum
Kon Tum
Province Kon Tum 9,690.5 430,133 44.4 33.5 0.593 Central Highlands

Lâm Đồng Province Đà Lạt 9,776.1 1,187,574 121.5 37.8 0.545 Central Highlands

Bình Định Province Qui Nhơn 6,039.6 1,486,465 246.1 27.7 0.591 South Central Coast

Khánh Hòa Province Nha Trang 5,217.6 1,157,604 221.9 39.9 0.555 South Central Coast

Phú Yên Province Tuy Hòa 5,060.6 862,231 170.4 21.8 0.594 South Central Coast

Quảng Nam Province Tam Kỳ 10,438.3 1,422,319 136.3 18.6 0.548 South Central Coast

Quảng Ngãi
Quảng Ngãi
Province Quảng Ngãi 5,152.7 1,216,773 236.1 14.6 0.618 South Central Coast

Đà Nẵng City 1,257.3 887,435 705.8 86.9 0.689 South Central Coast

Bình Thuận Province Phan Thiết 7,836.9 1,167,023 148.9 39.3 0.637 South Central Coast

Ninh Thuận Province Phan Rang–Tháp Chàm 3,363.1 564,993 168.0 36.1 0.556 South Central Coast

Bà Rịa– Vũng Tàu
Vũng Tàu
Province Vũng Tàu 1,989.6 996,682 500.9 49.9 0.700 Southeast

Bình Dương Province Thủ Dầu Một 2,696.2 1,481,550 549.5 29.9 0.643 Southeast

Bình Phước Province Đồng Xoài 6,883.4 873,598 126.9 16.5 0.665 Southeast

Đồng Nai Province Biên Hòa 5,903.9 2,486,154 421.1 33.2 0.489 Southeast

Tây Ninh
Tây Ninh
Province Tây Ninh 4,035.9 1,066,513 264.3 15.6 0.537 Southeast

Hồ Chí Minh City 2,297.6 7,162,864 3,528.9 83.3 0.798 Southeast

An Giang Province Long Xuyên 3,536.8 2,142,709 605.8 28.4 0.596 Mekong Delta

Bạc Liêu
Bạc Liêu
Province Bạc Liêu 2,584.1 856,518 331.5 26.1 0.586 Mekong Delta

Bến Tre
Bến Tre
Province Bến Tre 2,360.2 1,255,946 532.1 9.9 0.607 Mekong Delta

Cà Mau
Cà Mau
Province Cà Mau 5,331.7 1,206,938 226.4 20.4 0.494 Mekong Delta

Đồng Tháp Province Cao Lãnh 3,376.4 1,666,467 493.9 17.8 0.483 Mekong Delta

Hậu Giang Province Vị Thanh 1,601.1 757,300 473.0 19.6 0.666 Mekong Delta

Kiên Giang Province Rạch Giá 6,348.3 1,688,248 265.9 27.0 0.708 Mekong Delta

Long An Province Tân An 4,493.8 1,436,066 319.6 17.4 0.435 Mekong Delta

Sóc Trăng
Sóc Trăng
Province Sóc Trăng 3,312.3 1,292,853 390.3 19.4 0.554 Mekong Delta

Tiền Giang Province Mỹ Tho 2,484.2 1,672,271 673.2 13.7 0.811 Mekong Delta

Trà Vinh
Vinh
Province Trà Vinh 2,295.1 1,003,012 437.0 15.3 0.676 Mekong Delta

Vĩnh Long
Vĩnh Long
Province Vĩnh Long 1,479.1 1,024,707 692.8 15.3 0.503 Mekong Delta

Cần Thơ
Cần Thơ
City 1,401.6 1,188,435 847.9 65.9 0.389 Mekong Delta

References[edit]

^ a b c "Preamble of the Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam". Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Retrieved 20 April 2012.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "Political system". Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Retrieved 20 April 2012.  ^ "Article 12 of the Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam". Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.  Missing or empty title= (help); access-date= requires url= (help) ^ " Vietnam
Vietnam
culture overview". Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Retrieved 16 April 2012.  ^ Quinn-Judge 2002, p. 2. ^ a b Gillespie 2006, p. 90. ^ Quinn-Judge 2002, p. 256. ^ Brocheux 2007, p. 186. ^ a b c Gillespie 2006, p. 91. ^ Gillespie 2006, p. 92. ^ Gillespie 2006, pp. 91–92. ^ a b Van & Cooper 1983, p. 56. ^ Ashwill & Thai 2005, p. 47. ^ East & Thomas 2003, p. 574. ^ Rowley 2008, p. 187. ^ Abuza, Zachary (16 November 2001). "The Lessons of Le Kha Phieu: Changing Rules in Vietnamese politics". Vietnamese Professionals of America. The Catholic University of America. p. 9.  Missing or empty url= (help); access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Abuza, Zachary (16 November 2001). "The Lessons of Le Kha Phieu: Changing Rules in Vietnamese politics". Vietnamese Professionals of America. The Catholic University of America. p. 10.  Missing or empty url= (help); access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Abuza, Zachary (16 November 2001). "The Lessons of Le Kha Phieu: Changing Rules in Vietnamese politics". Vietnamese Professionals of America. The Catholic University of America. p. 11.  Missing or empty url= (help); access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Abuza, Zachary (16 November 2001). "The Lessons of Le Kha Phieu: Changing Rules in Vietnamese politics". Vietnamese Professionals of America. The Catholic University of America. p. 12.  Missing or empty url= (help); access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Abuza, Zachary (16 November 2001). "The Lessons of Le Kha Phieu: Changing Rules in Vietnamese politics". Vietnamese Professionals of America. The Catholic University of America. pp. 11–12.  Missing or empty url= (help); access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Van & Cooper 1983, p. 69. ^ Nguyen Phu Trong re-elected Party General Secretary ^ a b Hasan & Onyx 2008, p. 42. ^ Staff writer. "TIN HOẠT ĐỘNG CỦA CÁC TỔ CHỨC THÀNH VIÊN" [Activities of member organisations] (in Vietnamese). Vietnamese Fatherland Front. Retrieved 8 May 2012.  ^ "Article 102 of the Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam". Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.  Missing or empty title= (help); access-date= requires url= (help) ^ "Article 103 of the Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam". Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.  Missing or empty title= (help); access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Staff writer (25 July 2011). "Truong Tan Sang elected Vietnamese state president". People's Daily. Communist Party of China. Retrieved 10 April 2012.  ^ "Article 110 of the Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam". Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.  Missing or empty title= (help); access-date= requires url= (help) ^ "Article 113 of the Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam". Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.  Missing or empty title= (help); access-date= requires url= (help) ^ a b "Article 6 of the Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam". Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.  Missing or empty title= (help); access-date= requires url= (help) ^ "Article 83 of the Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam". Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.  Missing or empty title= (help); access-date= requires url= (help) ^ "Article 7 of the Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam". Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.  Missing or empty title= (help); access-date= requires url= (help) ^ a b "Article 85 of the Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam". Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.  Missing or empty title= (help); access-date= requires url= (help) ^ "Article 90 of the Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam". Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.  Missing or empty title= (help); access-date= requires url= (help) ^ "Standing Committee". National Assembly of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Retrieved 11 April 2012.  ^ "Committees". National Assembly of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Retrieved 11 April 2012.  ^ "Ethnic council". National Assembly of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Retrieved 11 April 2012.  ^ a b "Country Profile: Vietnam" (PDF). Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. December 2005. p. 16. Retrieved 12 April 2012.  ^ "Election". National Assembly of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Retrieved 11 April 2012.  ^ Timberlake, Ian (21 May 2011). "One-party Vietnam
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Bibliography[edit]

Ashwill, Mark; Thai, Ngoc Diep (2005). Vietnam
Vietnam
Today: A Guide To A Nation At A Crossroads. Intercultural Press. ISBN 9781931930093.  Brocheux, Pierre (2007). Ho Chi Minh: a Biography. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521850629.  East, Roger; Thomas, Richard (2003). Profiles of People in Power: The World's Government Leaders. Routledge. ISBN 9781857431261.  Porter, Gareth (1993). Vietnam: The Politics of Bureaucratic Socialism. Cornell University Press. ISBN 9780801421686.  Gillespie, John Stanley (2006). Transplanting Commercial Law Reform: Developing a 'Rule of Law' in Vietnam. Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 9780754647041.  Hasan, Samiul; Onyx, Jenny (2008). Comparative Third Sector Governance in Asia: Structure, Process, and Political Economy. Springer. ISBN 9780387755663.  Napier, Nancy K.; Vuong, Quan Hoang (2013). What We See, Why We Worry, Why We Hope: Vietnam
Vietnam
Going Forward. Boise State University CCI Press. ISBN 9780985530587.  Quinn-Judge, Sophie (2002). Ho Chi Minh: The Missing Years, 1919–1941. University of California Press. ISBN 9780520235335.  Rowley, Chris (2008). The Changing Face of Management in South East Asia. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9780415405447.  Van, Canh Nguyen; Cooper, Earle (1983). Vietnam
Vietnam
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External links[edit]

Active Citizens under Political Wraps: Experiences from Myanmar/Burma and Vietnam
Vietnam
pub. by the Heinrich Böll Vietnam
Vietnam
Government Foundation, Chiang Mai, Thailand, November 2006, pp 201 VUFO-NGO, Directory of Vietnam
Vietnam
government ministry and agency websites

 This article incorporates public domain material from the Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Country Studies website http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/.

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