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The politics of Japan
Japan
is conducted in a framework of a multi-party bicameral parliamentary representative democratic constitutional monarchy whereby the Emperor acts as the ceremonial head of state, and the Prime Minister is the head of government and the head of the Cabinet, which directs the executive branch. Legislative power
Legislative power
is vested in the National Diet, which consists of the House of Representatives and the House of Councillors. Judicial power is vested in the Supreme Court and lower courts, and sovereignty is vested in the Japanese people
Japanese people
by the Constitution. Japan
Japan
is considered a constitutional monarchy with a system of civil law. The Economist Intelligence Unit
Economist Intelligence Unit
has rated Japan
Japan
as "flawed democracy" in 2016.[1]

Contents

1 Government 2 Political parties and elections 3 Policy making

3.1 Policy development in Japan

4 Post-war political developments in Japan 5 Political developments since 1990 6 Political developments since 2000 7 Political developments since 2010 8 Foreign relations 9 See also 10 References 11 External links

Government[edit] Main article: Government of Japan

The Imperial Palace in Tokyo
Tokyo
is the primary residence of the Emperor.

The Constitution of Japan
Japan
defines the Emperor[2] to be "the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people". He performs ceremonial duties and holds no real power. Political power is held mainly by the Prime Minister and other elected members of the Diet. The Imperial Throne is succeeded by a member of the Imperial House as designated by the Imperial Household Law. The chief of the executive branch, the Prime Minister, is appointed by the Emperor as directed by the Diet. He is a member of either house of the Diet and must be a civilian. The Cabinet members are nominated by the Prime Minister, and are also required to be civilian. With the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) in power, it has been convention that the President of the party serves as the Prime Minister. Political parties and elections[edit] Several political parties exist in Japan, however, the politics of Japan
Japan
have primarily been dominated by the LDP since 1955, with the DPJ playing an important role as opposition several times.

House of Representatives Election in 2005

House of Councillors election in 2007

For other political parties, see List of political parties in Japan. An overview on elections and election results is included in Elections in Japan.

e • d Summary of the 30 August 2009 Japanese House of Representatives election results[3][4][5][6]

Alliances and parties Local constituency vote PR block vote Total seats +/−

Votes[7] % Seats Votes % Seats

(pre- election)

(last gen. election)

   Democratic Party (DPJ) 33,475,335 47.43% 221 29,844,799 42.41% 87 308 193 195

Social Democratic Party (SDP)[8] 1,376,739 1.95% 3 3,006,160 4.27% 4 7 0 0

People's New Party
People's New Party
(PNP) 730,570 1.04% 3 1,219,767 1.73% 0 3 1 1

New Party Nippon[9] 220,223 0.31% 1 528,171 0.75% 0 1 1 0

New Party Daichi no district candidates 433,122 0.62% 1 1 0 0

Ruling DPJ–SDP–PNP coalition & parliamentary allies 35,802,866 50.73% 228 35,032,019 49.78% 92 320 193 194

   Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) 27,301,982 38.68% 64 18,810,217 26.73% 55 119 181 177

New Komeito Party
New Komeito Party
(NKP) 782,984 1.11% 0 8,054,007 11.45% 21 21 10 10

Japan
Japan
Renaissance Party 36,650 0.05% 0 58,141 0.08% 0 0 1 0

Opposition LDP–NKP coalition & parliamentary allies 28,121,613 39.84% 64 26,922,365 38.26% 76 140 192 187

   Japanese Communist Party
Japanese Communist Party
(JCP) 2,978,354 4.22% 0 4,943,886 7.03% 9 9 0 0

Your Party
Your Party
(YP) 615,244 0.87% 2 3,005,199 4.27% 3 5 1 5

Others 1,077,543 1.53% 0 466,786[10] 0.66% 0 0 0 0

Independents[11] 1,986,056 2.81% 6 – 6 0 12

Totals 70,581,680 100.00% 300 70,370,255 100.00% 180 480 2* 0

Turnout 69.28% 69.27% *(vacant seats)

Main article: Japanese general election, 2009

e • d Summary of the 11 July 2010 Japanese House of Councillors election results[12]

Alliances and parties Prefectural constituency vote National PR vote Elected in 2010 Seats not up Total seats +/−[13]

Votes % Seats +/− [13] Votes % Seats +/− [13]

   Democratic Party of Japan
Japan
(DPJ) Minshutō – 民主党 ;now Democratic Party (DP) Minshintō – 民進党 22,756,000.342 38.97% 28 8 18,450,139.059 31.56% 16 2 44 62 106 10

People's New Party
People's New Party
(PNP) Kokuminshintō – 国民新党 167,555.000 0.29% 0 2 1,000,036.492 1.71% 0 1 0 3 3 3

New Party Nippon (NPN) Shintō Nippon – 新党日本 no candidate 0 1 1[14] 0

DPJ–PNP Coalition 22,923,555.342 39.25% 28 10 19,450,175.551 33.27% 16 3 44 66 110 13

   Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) Jiyū-Minshutō - 自由民主党 : Jimintō – 自民党 19,496,083.000 33.38% 39 14 14,071,671.422 24.07% 12 1 51 33 84 13

New Komeito Party
New Komeito Party
(NKP) Kōmeitō
Kōmeitō
– 公明党 2,265,818.000 3.88% 3 0 7,639,432.739 13.07% 6 2 9 10 19 2

New Renaissance Party
New Renaissance Party
(NRP) Shintō Kaikaku
Shintō Kaikaku
– 新党改革 625,431.000 1.07% 0 3 1,172,395.190 2.01% 1 1 1 1 2 4

LDP–NKP—NRP Coalition (Opposition) 22,387,332.000 38.33% 42 11 22,883,529.351 39.15% 19 4 61 44 105 7

  

Your Party
Your Party
(YP) Minna no Tō – みんなの党 5,977,391.485 10.24% 3 3 7,943,649.369 13.59% 7 7 10 1 11 10

Japanese Communist Party
Japanese Communist Party
(JCP) Kyōsantō – 共産党 4,256,400.000 7.29% 0 0 3,563,556.590 6.10% 3 1 3 3 6 1

Social Democratic Party (SDP) Shamintō – 社民党 602,684.000 1.03% 0 0 2,242,735.155 3.84% 2 0 2 2 4 0

Sunrise Party of Japan
Japan
(SPJ) Tachini – たち日 328,475.000 0.56% 0 1 1,232,207.336 2.11% 1 1 1 2 3 0

Happiness Realization Party
Happiness Realization Party
(HRP) Kōfuku – 幸福 291,810.000 0.50% 0 0 229,026.162 0.39% 0 0 0 1 1 0

Independents[15] 1,314,313.027 2.25% 0 2 — 0 2 2 2

Other parties 318,847.000 0.55% 0 0 908,582.924 1.55% 0 0 0 0 0 0

Total (turnout 57.92%) 58,400,807.899 100.0% 73 1 58,453,432.438 100.0% 48 0 121 121 242 1

Seating after the election.   LDP (294)   DPJ/Club of Independents (57)   Restoration (54)    Kōmeitō
Kōmeitō
(31)   YP (18)   Tomorrow (9)   JCP (8)   Independents (5)   SDP/Shimin Rengō (2)   PNP (1)   NPD(1)

e • d Summary of the 16 December 2012 Japanese House of Representatives election results[16]

Alliances and parties Local constituency vote PR block vote Total seats +/−

Votes[17] % Seats Votes % Seats Total % (pre- election) (last election)

   Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) Jimintō 25,643,309 43.01 237 16,624,457 27.79 57 294 61.25 176 175

New Komeito Party
New Komeito Party
(NKP) Kōmeitō 885,881 1.49 9 7,116,474 11.90 22 31 6.46 10 10

Prospective LDP–NKP Coalition 26,529,190 44.49 246 23,740,931 39.69 79 325 67.71 186 185

   Democratic Party (DPJ) Minshutō 13,598,773 22.81 27 9,268,653 15.49 30 57 11.88 173 251

Restoration Party (JRP) Ishin no Kai 6,942,353 11.64 14 12,262,228 20.50 40 54 11.25 43 —

Your Party
Your Party
(YP) Minna no Tō 2,807,244 4.71 4 5,245,586 8.77 14 18 3.75 10 10

Tomorrow Party (TPJ) Mirai no Tō 2,992,365 5.02 2 3,423,915 5.72 7 9 1.88 52 —

Communist Party (JCP) Kyōsantō 4,700,289 7.88 0 3,689,159 6.17 8 8 1.67 1 1

Social Democratic Party (SDP) Shakai Minshutō 451,762 0.76 1 1,420,790 2.38 1 2 0.42 3 5

People's New Party
People's New Party
(PNP) Kokumin Shintō 117,185 0.20 1 70,847 0.12 0 1 0.21 2 2

New Party Daichi (NPD) Shintō Daichi 315,604 0.53 0 346,848 0.58 1 1 0.21 2 0

Happiness Realization Party
Happiness Realization Party
(HRP) Kōfuku Jitsugentō 102,634 0.17 0 216,150 0.36 0 0 0.00 0 0

Others 62,697 0.11 0 134,781 0.23 0 0 0.00 0 0

Total opposition parties 32,090,906 53.82 49 36,078,957 60.31 101 150 31.25 180 249

   Independents 1,006,468 1.69 5 – 5 1.04 4 1

Totals 59,626,564 100.00% 300 59,819,888 100.00% 180 480 100.00 1* 0

Turnout 59.32% 59.31% *(vacant seats)

e • d Summary of the 14 December 2014 Japanese House of Representatives election results[18][19]

Political Party Local Constituency Vote PR Block Vote Total Seats +/−

Votes[20] % Seats Votes % Seats Total % Before Last

Government coalition 26,226,838 49.54% 232 24,973,152 46.82% 94 326 68.63% 0 +1

Liberal Democratic Party LDP 25,461,448 48.1% 223 17,658,916 33.11% 68 291 61.26% -4 -3

Komeito NKP 765,390 1.45% 9 7,314,236 13.71% 26 35 7.37% +4 +4

Democratic Party DPJ 11,916,849 22.51% 38 9,775,991 18.33% 35 73 15.37% +10 +16

Innovation Party JIP 4,319,645 8.16% 11 8,382,699 15.72% 30 41 8.63% -1 New

Japan
Japan
Communist Party JCP 7,040,130 13.3% 1 6,062,962 11.37% 20 21 4.42% +13 +13

Party for Future Generations PFG 947,395 1.79% 2 1,414,919 2.65% 0 2 0.42% -17 New

Social Democratic Party SDP 419,347 0.79% 1 1,314,441 2.46% 1 2 0.42% 0 0

People's Life Party PLP 514,575 0.97% 2 1,028,721 1.93% 0 2 0.42% -3 New

New Renaissance Party NRP - - - 16,597 0.03% 0 0 0.00% 0 0

Others

43,546 0.08% 0 364,965 0.69% 0 0 0.00% 0 0

Independents

1,511,242 2.85% 8 – – – 8 1.68% -7 +3

Total 52,939,789 100.00% 295 53,334,447 100.00% 180 475 100% -5[21] -

Policy making[edit] Despite an increasingly unpredictable domestic and international environment, policy making conforms to well established postwar patterns. The close collaboration of the ruling party, the elite bureaucracy and important interest groups often make it difficult to tell who exactly is responsible for specific policy decisions. Policy development in Japan[edit] After a largely informal process within elite circles in which ideas were discussed and developed, steps might be taken to institute more formal policy development. This process often took place in deliberation councils (shingikai). There were about 200 shingikai, each attached to a ministry; their members were both officials and prominent private individuals in business, education, and other fields. The shingikai played a large role in facilitating communication among those who ordinarily might not meet. Given the tendency for real negotiations in Japan
Japan
to be conducted privately (in the nemawashi, or root binding, process of consensus building), the shingikai often represented a fairly advanced stage in policy formulation in which relatively minor differences could be thrashed out and the resulting decisions couched in language acceptable to all. These bodies were legally established but had no authority to oblige governments to adopt their recommendations. The most important deliberation council during the 1980s was the Provisional Commission for Administrative Reform, established in March 1981 by Prime Minister Suzuki Zenko. The commission had nine members, assisted in their deliberations by six advisers, twenty-one "expert members," and around fifty "councillors" representing a wide range of groups. Its head, Keidanren
Keidanren
president Doko Toshio, insisted that government agree to take its recommendations seriously and commit itself to reforming the administrative structure and the tax system. In 1982, the commission had arrived at several recommendations that by the end of the decade had been actualized. These implementations included tax reform, a policy to limit government growth, the establishment in 1984 of the Management and Coordination Agency to replace the Administrative Management Agency in the Office of the Prime Minister, and privatization of the state-owned railroad and telephone systems. In April 1990, another deliberation council, the Election Systems Research Council, submitted proposals that included the establishment of single-seat constituencies in place of the multiple-seat system. Another significant policy-making institution in the early 1990s were the Liberal Democratic Party's Policy Research Council. It consisted of a number of committees, composed of LDP Diet members, with the committees corresponding to the different executive agencies. Committee members worked closely with their official counterparts, advancing the requests of their constituents, in one of the most effective means through which interest groups could state their case to the bureaucracy through the channel of the ruling party. See also: Industrial policy of Japan; Monetary and fiscal policy of Japan; Mass media and politics in Japan Post-war political developments in Japan[edit] Political parties had begun to revive almost immediately after the occupation began. Left-wing
Left-wing
organizations, such as the Japan
Japan
Socialist Party and the Japanese Communist Party, quickly reestablished themselves, as did various conservative parties. The old Rikken Seiyūkai and Rikken Minseitō
Rikken Minseitō
came back as, respectively, the Liberal Party (Nihon Jiyūtō) and the Japan
Japan
Progressive Party (Nihon Shimpotō). The first postwar elections were held in 1948 (women were given the franchise for the first time in 1947), and the Liberal Party's vice president, Yoshida Shigeru
Yoshida Shigeru
(1878–1967), became prime minister. For the 1947 elections, anti-Yoshida forces left the Liberal Party and joined forces with the Progressive Party to establish the new Democratic Party (Minshutō). This divisiveness in conservative ranks gave a plurality to the Japan
Japan
Socialist Party, which was allowed to form a cabinet, which lasted less than a year. Thereafter, the socialist party steadily declined in its electoral successes. After a short period of Democratic Party administration, Yoshida returned in late 1948 and continued to serve as prime minister until 1954. Even before Japan
Japan
regained full sovereignty, the government had rehabilitated nearly 80,000 people who had been purged, many of whom returned to their former political and government positions. A debate over limitations on military spending and the sovereignty of the Emperor ensued, contributing to the great reduction in the Liberal Party's majority in the first post-occupation elections (October 1952). After several reorganizations of the armed forces, in 1954 the Japan
Japan
Self-Defense Forces were established under a civilian director. Cold War
Cold War
realities and the hot war in nearby Korea also contributed significantly to the United States-influenced economic redevelopment, the suppression of communism, and the discouragement of organized labor in Japan
Japan
during this period. Continual fragmentation of parties and a succession of minority governments led conservative forces to merge the Liberal Party (Jiyūtō) with the Japan
Japan
Democratic Party (Nihon Minshutō), an offshoot of the earlier Democratic Party, to form the Liberal Democratic Party (Jiyū-Minshutō; LDP) in November 1955, called 1955 System. This party continuously held power from 1955 through 1993, except for short when it was replaced by a new minority government. LDP leadership was drawn from the elite who had seen Japan
Japan
through the defeat and occupation. It attracted former bureaucrats, local politicians, businessmen, journalists, other professionals, farmers, and university graduates. In October 1955, socialist groups reunited under the Japan
Japan
Socialist Party, which emerged as the second most powerful political force. It was followed closely in popularity by the Kōmeitō, founded in 1964 as the political arm of the Soka Gakkai
Soka Gakkai
(Value Creation Society), until 1991, a lay organization affiliated with the Nichiren Shoshu Buddhist sect. The Komeito
Komeito
emphasized the traditional Japanese beliefs and attracted urban laborers, former rural residents, and women. Like the Japan
Japan
Socialist Party, it favored the gradual modification and dissolution of the Japan-United States Mutual Security Assistance Pact. Political developments since 1990[edit] The LDP domination lasted until the Diet Lower House elections on 18 July 1993, in which LDP failed to win a majority. A coalition of new parties and existing opposition parties formed a governing majority and elected a new prime minister, Morihiro Hosokawa, in August 1993. His government's major legislative objective was political reform, consisting of a package of new political financing restrictions and major changes in the electoral system. The coalition succeeded in passing landmark political reform legislation in January 1994. In April 1994, Prime Minister Hosokawa resigned. Prime Minister Tsutomu Hata
Tsutomu Hata
formed the successor coalition government, Japan's first minority government in almost 40 years. Prime Minister Hata resigned less than two months later. Prime Minister Tomiichi Murayama
Tomiichi Murayama
formed the next government in June 1994 with the coalition of Japan
Japan
Socialist Party (JSP), the LDP, and the small New Party Sakigake. The advent of a coalition containing the JSP and LDP shocked many observers because of their previously fierce rivalry. Prime Minister Murayama served from June 1994 to January 1996. He was succeeded by Prime Minister Ryutaro Hashimoto, who served from January 1996 to July 1998. Prime Minister Hashimoto headed a loose coalition of three parties until the July 1998 Upper House election, when the two smaller parties cut ties with the LDP. Hashimoto resigned due to a poor electoral performance by the LDP in the Upper House elections. He was succeeded as party president of the LDP and prime minister by Keizo Obuchi, who took office on 30 July 1998. The LDP formed a governing coalition with the Liberal Party in January 1999, and Keizo Obuchi remained prime minister. The LDP-Liberal coalition expanded to include the New Komeito Party
New Komeito Party
in October 1999. Political developments since 2000[edit] Prime Minister Obuchi suffered a stroke in April 2000 and was replaced by Yoshirō Mori. After the Liberal Party left the coalition in April 2000, Prime Minister Mori welcomed a Liberal Party splinter group, the New Conservative Party, into the ruling coalition. The three-party coalition made up of the LDP, New Komeito, and the New Conservative Party maintained its majority in the Diet following the June 2000 Lower House elections. After a turbulent year in office in which he saw his approval ratings plummet to the single digits, Prime Minister Mori agreed to hold early elections for the LDP presidency in order to improve his party's chances in crucial July 2001 Upper House elections. On 24 April 2001, riding a wave of grassroots desire for change, maverick politician Junichiro Koizumi
Junichiro Koizumi
defeated former Prime Minister Hashimoto and other party stalwarts on a platform of economic and political reform. Koizumi was elected as Japan's 87th Prime Minister on 26 April 2001. On 11 October 2003, Prime Minister Koizumi dissolved the lower house and he was re-elected as the president of the LDP. Likewise, that year, the LDP won the election, even though it suffered setbacks from the new opposition party, the liberal and social-democratic Democratic Party (DPJ). A similar event occurred during the 2004 Upper House elections as well. In a strong move, on 8 August 2005, Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi called for a snap election to the lower house, as threatened, after LDP stalwarts and opposition DPJ parliamentarians defeated his proposal for a large-scale reform and privatization of Japan
Japan
Post, which besides being Japan's state-owned postal monopoly is arguably the world's largest financial institution, with nearly 331 trillion yen of assets. The election was scheduled for 11 September 2005, with the LDP achieving a landslide victory under Junichiro Koizumi's leadership. The ruling LDP started losing hold since 2006. No prime minister except Koizumi had good public support. On 26 September 2006, new LDP President Shinzō Abe
Shinzō Abe
was elected by a special session of the Diet to succeed Junichiro Koizumi
Junichiro Koizumi
as Prime Minister. He was the Japan's youngest post- World War II
World War II
prime minister and the first born after the war. On 12 September 2007, Abe surprised Japan
Japan
by announcing his resignation from office. He was replaced by Yasuo Fukuda, a veteran of LDP. In the meantime, on 4 November 2007, leader of the main opposition party, Ichirō Ozawa
Ichirō Ozawa
announced his resignation from the post of party president, after controversy over an offer to the DPJ to join the ruling coalition in a grand coalition,[22] but has since, with some embarrassment, rescinded his resignation. On 11 January 2008, Prime Minister Yasuo Fukuda
Yasuo Fukuda
forced a bill allowing ships to continue a refueling mission in the Indian Ocean in support of US-led operations in Afghanistan. To do so, PM Fukuda used the LDP's overwhelming majority in the Lower House to ignore a previous "no-vote" of the opposition-controlled Upper House. This was the first time in 50 years that the Lower House voted to ignore the opinion of the Upper House. Fukuda resigned suddenly on 1 September 2008, just a few weeks after reshuffling his cabinet. On 1 September 2008, Fukuda's resignation was designed so that the LDP did not suffer a "power vacuum". It thus caused a leadership election within the LDP, and the winner, Tarō Asō
Tarō Asō
was chosen as the new party president and on 24 September 2008, he was appointed as 92nd Prime Minister after the House of Representatives voted in his favor in the extraordinary session of Diet.[23] Later, on 21 July 2009, Prime Minister Asō dissolved the House of Representatives and elections were held on 30 August.[24] The election results for the House of Representatives were announced on 30 and 31 August 2009. The opposition party DPJ led by Yukio Hatoyama, won a majority by gaining 308 seats (10 seats were won by its allies the Social Democratic Party and the People's New Party). On 16 September 2009, president of DPJ, Hatoyama was elected by the House of Representatives as the 93rd Prime Minister of Japan. Political developments since 2010[edit] On 2 June 2010, Hatoyama resigned due to lack of fulfillments of his policies, both domestically and internationally[25] and soon after, on 8 June, Akihito, Emperor of Japan
Japan
ceremonially swore in the newly elected DPJ's president, Naoto Kan
Naoto Kan
as prime minister.[26] Kan suffered an early setback in the Japanese House of Councillors election, 2010. In a routine political change in Japan, DPJ’s new president and former finance minister of Naoto Kan’s cabinet, Yoshihiko Noda
Yoshihiko Noda
was cleared and elected by the Diet as 95th prime minister on 30 August 2011. He was officially appointed as prime minister in the attestation ceremony at imperial palace on 2 September 2011.[27] In an undesired move, Noda dissolved the lower house on 16 November 2012 (as he fails to get support outside the Diet on various domestic issues i.e. tax, nuclear energy) and elections were held on 16 December. The results were in the favor of LDP, which won absolute majority in the leadership of former Prime Minister Shinzō Abe.[28] He was appointed as the 96th Prime Minister of Japan
Japan
on 26 December 2012.[29] With the changing political situation, earlier in November 2014, Prime Minister Abe called for fresh mandate for the Lower House. In an opinion poll the government failed to win the public trust due to bad economic achievements in the two consecutive quarters and on the tax reforms.[30] The election was held on 14 December 2014, and the results were in the favor of LDP and its ally New Komeito. Together they managed to secure a huge majority by winning 325 seats for the Lower House. The opposition, DPJ, could not manage to provide the alternatives to the voters with its policies and programs. "Abenomics", the ambitious self-titled fiscal policy of the current prime minister, managed to attract more voters in this election, many Japanese voters supported the policies. Shinzō Abe
Shinzō Abe
was sworn as the 97th prime minister on 24 December 2014 and would like go ahead with his agenda of economic revitalization and structural reforms in Japan.[30] Foreign relations[edit] Main article: Foreign relations of Japan Japan
Japan
is a member state of the United Nations
United Nations
and pursues a permanent membership of the Security Council - Japan
Japan
is one of the "G4 nations" seeking permanent membership. Japan
Japan
plays an important role in East Asia. The Japanese Constitution prohibits the use of military forces to wage war against other countries. The government maintains a "Self-Defense Force", which include air, land and sea components. Japan's deployment of non-combat troops to Iraq marked the first overseas use of its military since World War II. As an economic power, Japan
Japan
is a member of the G8 and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), and has developed relations with ASEAN
ASEAN
as a member of " ASEAN
ASEAN
plus three" and the East Asia
East Asia
Summit. Japan
Japan
is a major donor in international aid and development efforts, donating 0.19% of its Gross National Income in 2004.[31] Japan
Japan
has territorial disputes with Russia
Russia
over the Kuril Islands (Northern Territories), with South Korea
South Korea
over Liancourt Rocks
Liancourt Rocks
(known as "Dokdo" in Korea, "Takeshima" in Japan), with China and Taiwan
Taiwan
over the Senkaku Islands
Senkaku Islands
and with China over the status of Okinotorishima. These disputes are in part about the control of marine and natural resources, such as possible reserves of crude oil and natural gas. Japan
Japan
has an ongoing dispute with North Korea
North Korea
over its abduction of Japanese citizens and nuclear weapons program. See also[edit]

Government of Japan Law of Japan Honebuto no hōshin

References[edit]

 This article incorporates public domain material from the Library of Congress Country Studies website http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/. - Japan

^ solutions, EIU digital. "Democracy Index 2016 - The Economist Intelligence Unit". www.eiu.com. Retrieved 2017-11-30.  ^ Professor Yasuhiro Okudaira notes a misnomer in the use of the word "Emperor" to describe the nation's living state symbol. In Okudaira's view, the word "Emperor" ceased to be applicable when Japan
Japan
ceased to be an empire under the 1947 Constitution. "Thus, for example, Imperial University of Tokyo
Tokyo
became merely University of Tokyo" after World War II. He would apparently have the word tennō directly taken for English use (just as there is no common English word for "sushi". Yasuhiro Okudaira, "Forty Years of the Constitution and its Various Influences: Japanese, American, and European" in Luney and Takahashi, Japanese Constitutional Law (Univ. Tokyo
Tokyo
Press, 1993), pp. 1–38, at 4. ^ General election results final breakdown. Kyodo News. August 31, 2009. ^ Psephos - Adam Carr. August 31, 2009. ^ Nihon Keizai Shimbun. August 31, 2009. ^ Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, Home Office, Election Department (総務省自治行政局選挙部): Results of the 45th House of Representatives election, complete edition (45衆結果調全体版) ^ Decimals from fractional votes (anbunhyō) rounded to full numbers ^ The Social Democratic Party withdrew from the ruling coalition on May 30, 2010 http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/10193171 ^ The New Party Nippon (Yasuo Tanaka) withdrew support for the cabinet in April 2012 http://www.kobe-np.co.jp/news/shakai/0004951857.shtml ^ Happiness Realization Party
Happiness Realization Party
(kōfuku-jitsugen-tō) 459,387, Essential Party (shintō honshitsu) 7,399 ^ includes 3 members of the Hiranuma Group; 2 independents joined the DPJ parliamentary group immediately after the election ^ Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications: Results of the 22nd House of Councillors election ^ a b c compared to the seats held before the election ^ independent member of the DPJ parliamentary group, not a member of New Party Nippon by the time he took his seat as replacement for Yasuo Tanaka: [1] ^ includes one OSMP member (not up), and one independent member of the SDP parliamentary group (seat lost in this election) ^ General election results final. Yomiuri Shimbun. 17 December 2012. ^ Decimals from fractional votes (ambunhyō) rounded to full numbers ^ "Ruling coalition wins over 2/3 of seats in lower house election". mainichi.jp. The Mainichi Newspaper (Mainichi Shimbun). Retrieved 14 December 2014.  ^ " Japan
Japan
Election / New balance of power in House of Representatives". the-japan-news.com. The Japan
Japan
News (Yomiuri Shimbun). Retrieved 14 December 2014.  ^ Decimals from fractional votes (按分票 ambunhyo) rounded to full numbers ^ The number of seats reduced from 480 to 475 compared with the last election. ^ "DPJ leader Ozawa hands in resignation over grand coalition controversy – Japan
Japan
News Review". japannewsreview.com. Archived from the original on 9 November 2007. Retrieved 17 March 2018.  ^ "Page not found". The Japan
Japan
Times. Retrieved 17 March 2018.  ^ "Critical election to come - The Japan
Japan
Times". japantimes.co.jp. Retrieved 17 March 2018.  ^ [2] Archived 5 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Japan's new PM Naoto Kan
Naoto Kan
names cabinet". 8 June 2010. Retrieved 17 March 2018 – via www.telegraph.co.uk.  ^ "Page not found". The Japan
Japan
Times. Retrieved 17 March 2018.  ^ http://www3.nhk.or.jp/daily/english/20121216_39.html[permanent dead link] ^ http://www.japantimes.co.jp/text/nn20121226x1.html ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 24 December 2014. Retrieved 24 December 2014.  ^ "Net Official Development Assistance In 2004" (PDF).  (32.9 KiB), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 11 April 2005. Retrieved 14 May 2006.

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