HOME
        TheInfoList






Albania is a unitary parliamentary constitutional republic, where the President of Albania is the head of state and the Prime Minister of Albania the head of government in a multi-party system. The executive power is exercised by the Government and the Prime Minister with its Cabinet. Legislative power is vested in the Parliament of Albania. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. The political system of Albania is laid out in the 1998 constitution.[1] The Parliament adopted the current constitution on 28 November 1998. Due to political instability, the country has had many constitutions during its history. Albania was initially constituted as a monarchy in 1913, briefly a republic in 1925, then it returned to a democratic monarchy in 1928. It later became a socialist republic until the restoration of capitalism and democracy in 1992.[2]

The President represents the unity of the Albanian people in the country and abroad as the head of state and is also the commander-in-chief of the military.[3] The President is nominated through a secret vote and without debate by the Parliament of Albania by a majority of three-fifths of all its members and is in every case elected for 5 years.[4] The President maintains regular and coordinated operation and stability of the national government system, safeguards the independence and territorial integrity of Albania and appoints Prime Ministers on the basis of the balance of power in the Parliament. The Prime Minister is appointed by the president after each parliamentary election and must have the confidence of the Parliament stay in office. The Prime Minister is elected on the basis of universal suffrage, through a secret ballot, for a four-year term. The constitution sets no limit as to office terms of the prime minister. The Prime Minister is de facto the most powerful and influential person in Albanian politics. However, in the absence of the prime minister, the Deputy Prime Minister takes over his functions, such as chairing the cabinet and the council of ministers of Albania.

The Parliament is a unicameral legislative body of Albania. It is vested in both the government as well as in the parliament. The number of representatives is 140, which are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms. The oldest parliament with extant records was held on 2 March 1444, forged in Lezhë under Gjergj Kastrioti Skënderbeu as the leader against the Ottoman Empire.[5] Since 1991, the introduction of pluralism, the party system is dominated by the Democratic and the post-communist Socialist. Parliamentary elections are held every four years, the most recent in 2017.

Albania is a member state of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation and also an official candidate for membership in the European Union.[6]

The Economist Intelligence Unit rated Albania a "hybrid regime" in 2019,[7] with "some form of democratic government" in place.[8]

With a total area of 28,748 square kilometres (11,100 square miles), Albania is divided into twelve administrative counties (Albanian: Qarqe). The counties are further subdivided into 61 municipalities (Bashkia). In addition, the counties were further subdivided in 36 districts (Rrethe), which became defunct in 2000.[28]

The counties were created on 31 July 2000 to replace the thirty-six former districts.[29] The government introduced a new administrative division to be implemented in 2015, whereby municipalities were reduced to 61, while rural ones called (Komuna) are abolished. The defunct municipalities are known as Neighborhoods or Villages (Lagje or Fshat).[30][31] There are overall 2980 villages or communities in the entire country, formerly known as localities (lokalitete). The municipalities are the first level of local governance, responsible for local needs and collapse of Communism in 1990, the country has extended its responsibilities and position in European and international affairs, supporting and establishing friendly relations with other nations. The main objectives are the Accession of Albania to the European Union, the International recognition of Kosovo, the recognition of Expulsion of Cham Albanians,[26] helping and protecting of the rights the Albanians in Montenegro, Macedonia, Greece, southern Serbia, Italy and the Albanian diaspora.

Furthermore, the country became one the first eastern European countries to join the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Politicians of Albania considered admission to NATO as a top priority for the country. Since 1992, it has been extensively engaged with NATO, and has maintained its position as a stability factor and a strong ally of the United States and European Union in the troubled and divided region of the Balkans. At the April 2008 summit in Bucharest, NATO agreed to the accession of Albania and Croatia. One year later in April 2009, both countries joined the alliance. Although, the country received candidate status for the European Union membership in 2014, based on its 2009 application.[27] Today, Albania plays a central role in the negotiation of the Berlin Process.

With a total area of 28,748 square kilometres (11,100 square miles), Albania is divided into twelve administrative counties (Albanian: Qarqe). The counties are further subdivided into 61 municipalities (Bashkia). In addition, the counties were further subdivided in 36 districts (Rrethe), which became defunct in 2000.[28]

The counties were created on 31 July 2000 to replace the thirty-six former districts.[29] The government introduced a new administrative division to be implemented in 2015, whereby municipalities were reduced to 61, while rural ones called (Komuna) are abolished. The defunct municipalities are known as Neighborhoods or Villages (Lagje or Fshat).districts.[29] The government introduced a new administrative division to be implemented in 2015, whereby municipalities were reduced to 61, while rural ones called (Komuna) are abolished. The defunct municipalities are known as Neighborhoods or Villages (Lagje or Fshat).[30][31] There are overall 2980 villages or communities in the entire country, formerly known as localities (lokalitete). The municipalities are the first level of local governance, responsible for local needs and law enforcement.[32] As part of the reform, major town centers in the country were physically redesigned and façades painted to reflect a more Mediterranean look.[33][34]