POLITICS (from Greek: Politiká: Politika, definition "affairs of the cities") is the process of making decisions applying to all members of each group. More narrowly, it refers to achieving and exercising positions of governance — organized control over a human community, particularly a state . Furthermore, politics is the study or practice of the distribution of power and resources within a given community (this is usually a hierarchically organized population) as well as the interrelationship(s) between communities.
A variety of methods are deployed in politics, which include
promoting or forcing one's own political views among people,
negotiation with other political subjects, making laws , and
exercising force , including warfare against adversaries.
It is very often said that politics is about power. A political
system is a framework which defines acceptable political methods
within a given society.
History of political thought
* 1 Etymology
* 1.1 Classifications
* 2.1 The state
* 3 Themes
* 4 Political values
* 4.1 Left–right * 4.2 Authoritarian–libertarian
* 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References
The word comes from the same Greek word from which the title of
HISTORY OF STATE POLITICS
The history of politics is reflected in the origin, development, and economics of the institutions of government .
Main article: State (polity)
The origin of the state is to be found in the development of the art of warfare . Historically speaking, all political communities of the modern type owe their existence to successful warfare.
Kings, emperors and other types of monarchs in many countries including China and Japan, were considered divine. Of the institutions that ruled states, that of kingship stood at the forefront until the French Revolution put an end to the "divine right of kings ". Nevertheless, the monarchy is among the longest-lasting political institutions, dating as early as 2100 BC in Sumeria to the 21st century AD British Monarchy. Kingship becomes an institution through the institution of Hereditary monarchy .
The king often, even in absolute monarchies , ruled his kingdom with the aid of an elite group of advisors, a council without which he could not maintain power. As these advisors and others outside the monarchy negotiated for power, constitutional monarchies emerged, which may be considered the germ of constitutional government .
The greatest of the king's subordinates, the earls and dukes in England and Scotland, the dukes and counts in the Continent, always sat as a right on the council. A conqueror wages war upon the vanquished for vengeance or for plunder but an established kingdom exacts tribute . One of the functions of the council is to keep the coffers of the king full. Another is the satisfaction of military service and the establishment of lordships by the king to satisfy the task of collecting taxes and soldiers.
FORMS OF POLITICAL ORGANIZATION
There are many forms of political organization, including states,
non-government organizations (NGOs) and international organizations
such as the
According to Aristotle, states are classified into monarchies , aristocracies , timocracies , democracies , oligarchies , and tyrannies . Due to changes across the history of politics, this classification has been abandoned. Generally speaking, no form of government could be considered the absolute best, as it would have to be the perfect form under all circumstances, for all people and in all ways. As an institution created by human nature to govern society , it is vulnerable to abuse by people for their own gain , no matter what form of government a state utilizes, thus suggesting there is no 'best' form of government.
All states are varieties of a single organizational form, the
sovereign state. All the great powers of the modern world rule on the
principle of sovereignty .
There are many forms of government. One form is a strong central
government as in
According to professor
A. V. Dicey in An Introduction to the Study of
Main article: Global politics
GLOBAL POLITICS include different PRACTICES of political
globalization in relation to questions of social power: from global
patterns of governance to issues of globalizing conflict. The 20th
century witnessed the outcome of two world wars and not only the rise
and fall of the
Global politics also concerns the rise of global and international
According to political science professor Paul James , global politics is affected by values: norms of human rights , ideas of human development , and beliefs such as cosmopolitanism about how we should relate to each:
Cosmopolitanism can be defined as a global politics that, firstly, projects a sociality of common political engagement among all human beings across the globe, and, secondly, suggests that this sociality should be either ethically or organizationally privileged over other forms of sociality.
William Pitt the Elder , speaking before the British House of Lords , 9 January 1770, observed: "Unlimited power is apt to corrupt the minds of those who possess it." This was echoed more famously by John Dalberg-Acton over a century later: "Power tends to corrupt, and absolute power corrupts absolutely."
POLITICAL CORRUPTION is the use of legislated powers by government officials for illegitimate private gain. Misuse of government power for other purposes, such as repression of political opponents and general police brutality , is not considered political corruption. Neither are illegal acts by private persons or corporations not directly involved with the government. An illegal act by an officeholder constitutes political corruption only if the act is directly related to their official duties and/or power.
Forms of corruption vary, but include corruption , extortion , cronyism , nepotism , patronage , graft , and embezzlement . While corruption may facilitate criminal enterprise such as drug trafficking , money laundering , and trafficking , it is not restricted to these activities. The activities that constitute illegal corruption differ depending on the country or jurisdiction. For instance, certain political funding practices that are legal in one place may be illegal in another. In some cases, government officials have broad or poorly defined powers, which make it difficult to distinguish between legal and illegal actions. Worldwide, bribery alone is estimated to involve over 1 trillion US dollars annually. A state of unrestrained political corruption is known as a kleptocracy , literally meaning "rule by thieves".
Main article: political party
A POLITICAL PARTY is a political organization that typically seeks to attain and maintain political power within government , usually by participating in electoral campaigns , educational outreach or protest actions. Parties often espouse an expressed ideology or vision bolstered by a written platform with specific goals, forming a coalition among disparate interests.
POLITICS AS AN ACADEMIC DISCIPLINE
Political science , the study of politics, examines the acquisition and application of power . Political scientist Harold Lasswell defined politics as "who gets what, when, and how". Related areas of study include political philosophy , which seeks a rationale for politics and an ethic of public behaviour, political economy , which attempts to develop understandings of the relationships between politics and the economy and the governance of the two, and public administration , which examines the practices of governance. The philosopher Charles Blattberg , who has defined politics as "responding to conflict with dialogue," offers an account which distinguishes political philosophies from political ideologies.
The first academic chair devoted to politics in the United States was
the chair of history and political science at
Political views differ on average across nations. A recreation
of the Inglehart –Welzel Cultural Map of the World based on the
World Values Survey . Main article:
Several different political spectra have been proposed.
Political analysts and politicians divide politics into left wing and
right wing politics, often also using the idea of center politics as a
middle path of policy between the right and left. This classification
is comparatively recent (it was not used by
The meanings behind the labels have become more complicated over the
years. A particularly influential event was the publication of the
Communist Manifesto by
The meaning of left-wing and right-wing varies considerably between different countries and at different times, but generally speaking, it can be said that the right wing often values tradition and social stratification while the left wing often values reform and egalitarianism , with the center seeking a balance between the two such as with social democracy or regulated capitalism .
According to Norberto Bobbio , one of the major exponents of this distinction, the Left believes in attempting to eradicate social inequality, while the Right regards most social inequality as the result of ineradicable natural inequalities, and sees attempts to enforce social equality as utopian or authoritarian.
Some ideologies, notably Christian
Authoritarianism and libertarianism refer to the amount of individual freedom each person possesses in that society relative to the state. One author describes authoritarian political systems as those where "individual rights and goals are subjugated to group goals, expectations and conformities", while libertarians generally oppose the state and hold the individual as sovereign . In their purest form, libertarians are anarchists , who argue for the total abolition of the state, of political parties and of other political entities , while the purest authoritarians are, theoretically, totalitarians who support state control over all aspects of society .
For instance, classical liberalism (also known as laissez-faire
liberalism, ) is a doctrine stressing individual freedom and limited
government . This includes the importance of human rationality,
individual property rights , free markets , natural rights , the
protection of civil liberties , constitutional limitation of
government, and individual freedom from restraint as exemplified in
the writings of
* Index of law articles * Index of politics articles - alphabetical list of political subjects * List of years in politics * Outline of law * Outline of political science - structured list of political topics, arranged by subject area * Political lists - lists of political topics * Politics of present-day states * Political organisation * List of political ideologies
* ^ A B C D E F Painter, Joe; Jeffrey, Alex. "Political Geography".
* ^ The Diets and Sayings of the Philosophers (Early English Text
Society, Original Series No. 211, 1941; reprinted 1961), p. 154: "the
book of Etiques and of Polettiques".
* ^ Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short. "A
* Connolly, William (1981). Appearance and Reality in Politics.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
* James, Paul ; Soguk, Nevzat (2014).
Globalization and Politics,
Vol. 1: Global Political and Legal Governance. London: Sage
Publications. Retrieved 2016-02-19.
* Ryan, Alan: On Politics: A
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