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Languages

English ( American English
American English
dialects), Polish

Religion

Predominantly Roman Catholicism[2]

Related ethnic groups

Poles, Other West Slavic Americans
Americans
(Czech Americans, Kashubian Americans, Silesian Americans, Slovak Americans, & Sorbian Americans)

Polish Americans
Americans
are Americans
Americans
who have total or partial Polish ancestry. There are an estimated 9.5 million Polish Americans, representing about 3% of the U.S. population.[1][3] Polish Americans
Americans
are the largest Slavic ethnic group in the United States, second largest Central European group and the eighth largest immigrant group overall. The first Polish settlers arrived at Walter Raleigh's failed Roanoke Colony in 1585.[4][5] In 1608 Polish settlers came to the Virginia Colony as skilled craftsmen. Two early immigrants, Casimir Pulaski
Casimir Pulaski
and Tadeusz Kościuszko, led armies in the Revolutionary War and are remembered as national heroes. Overall, more than one million Poles
Poles
and Polish subjects have immigrated to the United States, primarily during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Exact immigration numbers are unknown. Many immigrants were classified as "Russian", "German", and "Austrian" by the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service
U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service
as the Polish state did not exist from 1795 to 1918, and thus the former territories of Poland
Poland
at this time were under Prussian, Austrian-Hungarian and Russian control. Complicating the U.S. Census figures further are the high proportion of Polish Americans
Americans
who marry outside their ethnicity; in 1940, about 50 percent married other American ethnics, and a study in 1988 found that 54 percent of Polish Americans
Americans
three generations or higher had been of mixed ancestry. The Polish American Cultural Center places a figure of Americans
Americans
who have some Polish ancestry at 19-20 million. In 2000, 667,414 Americans
Americans
over 5 years old reported Polish as the language spoken at home, which is about 1.4% of the census groups who speak a language other than English or 0.25% of the U.S. population.

Contents

1 History 2 Family names 3 Demographics

3.1 Occupations 3.2 U.S. Census 3.3 Income

4 Communities

4.1 Chicago 4.2 New York City Metropolitan Area
New York City Metropolitan Area
/ Northern New Jersey

4.2.1 Linden New Jersey 4.2.2 Other areas

4.3 Wisconsin
Wisconsin
and Minnesota 4.4 Michigan 4.5 Ohio 4.6 Texas 4.7 Others 4.8 By state totals 4.9 By percentage of total population

5 Religion 6 Politics

6.1 Anti-Polonism

7 Culture

7.1 Media 7.2 Cultural identity 7.3 Museums 7.4 Festivals 7.5 Holidays

8 Contributions to American culture

8.1 Architectural influence 8.2 Military

9 Notable people 10 See also 11 References 12 Bibliography

12.1 Memory and historiography

13 External links

History[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (March 2013)

Main article: History of the Poles
Poles
in the United States Their history is divided into three stages:

From the colonial era down to 1870, small numbers of Poles
Poles
and Polish subjects came to America as individuals or in small family groups, and they quickly assimilated and did not form separate communities. Some Jews from Poland
Poland
even assimilated into cities which were Polish (and also other Slavic, and sometimes additionally Jewish) bastions in order to conceal their Jewish
Jewish
identities.[6]

From 1870 to 1914, Poles
Poles
and Polish subjects formed a significant part of the wave of immigration from Germany, Imperial Russia, and Austria Hungary. The Ethnic Poles
Poles
and Jews in particular came in family groups, settled in and/or blended into largely Polish neighborhoods and other Slavic bastions, and aspired to earn relatively high wages compared to what they could earn back in Europe (thus why many took the ample job opportunities for unskilled manual labor in industry and mining). The main Ethnically-Polish-American organizations were founded because of high Polish interest in the Catholic
Catholic
church, parochial schools, and local community affairs. Relatively few were politically active.

Since 1914, the United States
United States
has seen a small amount of emigration from Poland, and the coming of age of numerous generations of fully assimilated Polish Americans. The income levels have gone up from well below average, to above average. Poles
Poles
became active members of the liberal New Deal Coalition from the 1930s to the 1960s, but since then they have moved to the suburbs and have become more conservative and vote less heavily Democratic.[7] Outside of Republican and Democratic politics, politics such as those of Agudath Israel of America have heavily involved Polish- Jewish
Jewish
Americans.

Family names[edit]

Name Number of Americans
Americans
- 2000[8] Rank in Poland
Poland
- 2010

Nowak 18,515 1 Nowak

Kowalski 18,134 2 Kowalski

Kaminski 14,190 3 Wiśniewski

Wisniewski 14,190 4 Wójcik

Zielinski 11,019 5 Kowalczyk

Kozlowski 10,373 6 Kamiński

Jankowski 9,060 7 Lewandowski

Grabowski 8,975 8 Zieliński

Szymanski 8,813 9 Woźniak

Wozniak 8,563 10 Szymański

Demographics[edit]

Number of Polish Americans (self-reported) as per U.S. Census

Year Number

1900[9]

1,903,000

1970[10]

5,105,000

1980[11]

8,228,037

1990[12]

9,366,106

2000[13]

8,977,444

2010[14]

9,569,207

Occupations[edit]

Polish-American grocery, 1922, Detroit, Michigan.

Lopata (1976) argues that Poles
Poles
differed from most ethnics in America, in several ways. First, they did not plan to remain permanently and become "Americanized". Instead, they came temporarily, to earn money, invest, and wait for the right opportunity to return. Their intention was to ensure for themselves a desirable social status in the old world. However, many of the temporary migrants had decided to become permanent Americans. Many found manual labor jobs in the coal mines of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
and the heavy industries (steel mills, iron foundries, slaughterhouses, oil and sugar refineries), of the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
cities of Chicago, Pittsburgh, Detroit, Buffalo, Milwaukee, Cleveland, and Toledo. U.S. Census[edit] The U.S. Census asked Polish immigrants to specify Polish as their native language beginning in Chicago
Chicago
in 1900, allowing the government to enumerate them as an individual nationality when there was no Polish nation-state.[15] No distinction is made in the American census between ethnically Polish Americans
Americans
and descendants of non-ethnic Poles, such as Jews or Ukrainians, who were born in the territory of Poland
Poland
and considered themselves Polish nationals. Therefore, some say, of the 10 million Polish Americans, only a certain portion are of Polish ethnic descent. On the other hand, many ethnic Poles
Poles
when entering the US from 1795 to 1917, when Poland
Poland
did not exist, did not identify themselves as ethnic Poles
Poles
and instead identified themselves as either German, Austrian or Russian (this pertained to the nations occupying Poland
Poland
from 1795 to 1917). Therefore, the actual number of Americans
Americans
of at least partial Polish ancestry, could be well over 10 million. In the 2011 United States
United States
Census Bureau's Population Estimates, there are between 9,365,239 and 9,530,571 Americans
Americans
of Polish descent, with over 500,000 being foreign-born.[16] Historically, Polish- Americans
Americans
have assimilated very quickly to American society. Between 1940 and 1960, only 20 percent of the children of Polish-American ethnic leaders spoke Polish regularly, compared to 50 percent for Ukrainians.[17] In the early 1960s, 3,000 of Detroit's 300,000 Polish- Americans
Americans
changed their names each year. Language proficiency in Polish is rare in Polish-Americans, as 91.3% speak "English only".[16] In 1979, the 8 million respondents of Polish ancestry reported that only 41.5 percent had single ancestry, whereas 57.3% of Greeks, 52% of Italians and Sicilians, and 44% of Ukrainians had done so. Polish- Americans
Americans
tended to marry exogamously in the postwar era in high numbers, and tended to marry within the Catholic population, often to persons of German (17%), Italian (10%), East European (8%), Irish (5%), French-Canadian (4%), Spanish-speaking (2%), Lithuanian (2%), and English (1%) ancestry.[18] Income[edit] By educational attainment, the U.S. Census estimates that 37.6% have bachelor's degrees or higher, whereas the American population as a whole is 28.5%.[19] The median household income for Americans
Americans
of Polish descent is estimated by the U.S. Census as $61,846, with no statistically significant differences from other Slavic-American groups, Czech, Slovak, and Ukrainian. The median household income for those of Russian ancestry has been reported as higher on the U.S. Census, at $70,310.[16]

Socioeconomic indicators: 2011[16]

Ethnicity Household Income College degrees (%)

Russian $70,310 57.5

Polish $61,846 37.6

Czech $61,758 40.4

Slovak $61,389 38.9

Ukrainian $60,332 47.4

White non-Hispanic $55,305 31.9

Total US Population $50,502 28.5

Communities[edit] The vast majority of Polish immigrants settled in metropolitan areas, attracted by jobs in industry. The minority, by some estimates, only ten percent, settled in rural areas. Historian John Bukowczyk noted that Polish immigrants in America were highly mobile, and 40 to 60 percent were likely to move from any given urban neighborhood within 10 years.[20] The reasons for this are very individualistic; Bukowczyk's theory is that many immigrants with agricultural backgrounds were eager to migrate because they were finally freed from local plots of land as they had been in Poland. Others ventured into business and entrepreneurship, and the majority of them opened small retail shops such as bakeries, butcher shops, saloons, and print shops.[21] Chicago[edit] Main article: Poles
Poles
in Chicago

The Gateway Theatre, seat of the Copernicus Foundation, in Jefferson Park, Chicago. The Baroque spire is modeled on the Royal Castle, Warsaw.

The deli counter at the former Bobak's Polish supermarket in Chicago.

One of the most notable in size of the urban Polish American communities is in Chicago
Chicago
and its surrounding suburbs. The Almanac of American Politics 2004 states that "Even today, in Archer Heights (a neighborhood of Chicago), you can scarcely go a block without hearing someone speaking Polish." Chicago
Chicago
bills itself as the largest Polish city outside of Poland, with approximately 185,000 Polish language
Polish language
speakers,[22] making Polish the third most spoken language in Chicago. The influence of Chicago's Polish community is demonstrated by the numerous Polish-American organizations: the Polish Museum of America, Polish Roman Catholic Union of America (the oldest Polish American fraternal organization in the United States), Polish American Association, Polish American Congress, Polish National Alliance, Polish Falcons and the Polish Highlanders Alliance of North America. In addition, Illinois
Illinois
has more than one million people that are of Polish descent, the third largest ethnic group after the German and Irish Americans. Chicago's Polish community is concentrated along the city's Northwest and Southwest Sides, along Milwaukee
Milwaukee
and Archer Avenues, respectively. Chicago's Taste of Polonia festival is celebrated at the Copernicus Foundation, in Jefferson Park, every Labor Day
Labor Day
weekend. Nearly 3 million people of Polish descent live in the area between Chicago
Chicago
and Detroit, including Northern Indiana, a part of the Chicago metropolitan area. The community has played a role as a staunch supporter of the Democratic machine, and has been rewarded with several congressional seats. The leading representative has been Congressman Dan Rostenkowski, one of the most powerful members of Congress (1959 to 1995), especially on issues of taxation, before he went to prison.[23] New York City Metropolitan Area
New York City Metropolitan Area
/ Northern New Jersey[edit]

Greenpoint, Brooklyn, considered the center of New York City's Little Poland.

Greenpoint, Brooklyn.

The New York City
New York City
Metropolitan Area, including the borough of Brooklyn in New York City
New York City
as well as Northern New Jersey, is home to the second largest community of Polish Americans[24] and is now closely behind the Chicago
Chicago
area's Polish population. Greenpoint, New York in Brooklyn is home to the Little Poland
Poland
of New York City, while Williamsburg, Maspeth and Ridgewood also contain vibrant Polish communities. In 2014, the New York metropolitan area surpassed Chicago
Chicago
as the metropolitan area attracting the most new legal immigrants to the United States
United States
from Poland.[25][26][27] Linden New Jersey[edit] Linden, New Jersey
New Jersey
in Union County, near Newark Liberty International Airport, has become heavily first-generation Polish in recent years[when?]. 15.6% of the residents five years old and above in the city of Linden primarily speak the Polish language
Polish language
at home and a variety of Polish-speaking establishments may be found by the Linden station, which is a direct line to Manhattan. St. Theresa's Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
offers Polish-language Mass. Other areas[edit] In Hudson County, New Jersey, Bayonne houses New Jersey's largest Polish American community, while Wallington in Bergen County, New Jersey contains the state's highest percentage of Polish Americans
Americans
and one of the highest percentages in the United States, at over 40%. However, within New Jersey, Polish populations are additionally increasing rapidly in Clifton, Passaic County
Passaic County
as well as in Garfield, Bergen County. Riverhead, New York, located on eastern Long Island, contains a neighborhood known as Polish Town, where many Polish immigrants have continued to settle since the World War II
World War II
era; the town has Polish architecture, stores, and St. Isidore's R.C. Church, and Polish Town hosts an annual summer Polish Fair. LOT Polish Airlines
LOT Polish Airlines
provides non-stop flight service between JFK International Airport
JFK International Airport
in the Queens
Queens
borough of New York City, Newark and Warsaw.[28] Kosciuszko Foundation
Kosciuszko Foundation
is based in New York. Wisconsin
Wisconsin
and Minnesota[edit] Milwaukee's Polish population has always been overshadowed by the city's more numerous German American
German American
inhabitants. Nevertheless, the city's once numerous Polish community built a number of Polish Cathedrals, among them the magnificent Basilica of St. Josaphat
Basilica of St. Josaphat
and St. Stanislaus Catholic
Catholic
Church. Many Polish residents and businesses are still located in the Lincoln Village neighborhood. The city is also home to Polish Fest, the largest Polish festival in the United States, where Polish Americans
Americans
from all over Wisconsin
Wisconsin
and nearby Chicago, come to celebrate Polish Culture, through music, food and entertainment.[29] Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Nebraska
Nebraska
represent a different type of settlement with significant Polish communities, having been established in rural areas. Historian John Radzilowski estimates that up to a third of Poles
Poles
in Minnesota
Minnesota
settled in rural areas, where they established 40 communities, that were often centered around a Catholic church.[30] Most of these settlers came from the Polish lands that had been taken by Prussia during the Partitions, with a sub-group coming from Silesia. The Kaszub minority, from Poland's Baltic coast, was also strongly represented among Polish immigrants to Minnesota, most notably in Winona. Michigan[edit] See also: History of the Polish Americans
Americans
in Metro Detroit Michigan's Polish population of more than 850,000 is the third-largest among US states, behind that of New York and Illinois. Polish Americans
Americans
make up 8.6% of Michigan's total population. The city of Detroit
Detroit
has a very large Polish community, which historically settled in Poletown and Hamtramck on the east side of Detroit, the neighborhoods along Michigan
Michigan
Avenue from 23rd street into east Dearborn, the west side of Delray, parts of Warrendale and several sections of Wyandotte downriver. The northern part of Poletown was cleared of residents, to make way for the General Motors Detroit/Hamtramck Assembly
Detroit/Hamtramck Assembly
plant. Today it contains some of the most opulent Polish churches in America like St. Stanislaus, Sweetest Heart of Mary, St. Albertus, St. Josephat and St. Hyacinthe. Michigan
Michigan
as a state has Polish populations throughout. In addition to metropolitan Detroit, Grand Rapids, Bay City, Alpena and the surrounding area, the thumb of Michigan, Manistee, and numerous places in northern lower Michigan
Michigan
also have sizable Polish populations. The Polish influence is still felt throughout the entire metropolitan Detroit
Detroit
area, especially the suburb of Wyandotte, which is slowly emerging as the major center of Polish American activities in the state. An increase in new immigration from Poland
Poland
is helping to bolster the parish community of Our Lady of Mount Carmel and a host of Polish American civic organizations, located within the city of Wyandotte. Also, the Detroit
Detroit
suburb of Troy is home to the American Polish Cultural Center, where the National Polish-American Sports Hall of Fame has over 200 artifacts on display from over 100 inductees, including Stan Musial
Stan Musial
and Mike Krzyzewski.[31] St. Mary's Preparatory, a high school in Orchard Lake with historically Polish roots, sponsors a popular annual Polish County Fair that bills itself as "America's Largest High School Fair." Ohio[edit]

Polish and Polish themed items booth at the Lagrange Street Polish Festival in Toledo, Ohio.

Ohio
Ohio
is home to more than 440,000 people of Polish descent, their presence felt most strongly in the Greater Cleveland
Greater Cleveland
area, where half of Ohio's Polish population resides.[32] The city of Cleveland, Ohio has a large Polish community, especially in historic Slavic Village, as part of its Warszawa Section. Poles
Poles
from this part of Cleveland migrated to the suburbs, such as Garfield Heights, Parma and Seven Hills. Parma has even recently been designated a Polish Village commercial district.[33] Farther out, other members of Cleveland's Polish community live in Brecksville, Independence and Broadview Heights. Many of these Poles
Poles
return to their Polish roots, by attending masses at St. Stanislaus Church, on East 65th Street and Baxter Avenue. Poles
Poles
in Cleveland celebrate the annual Harvest Festival, which is usually held at the end of August. It features polka music, Polish food and all things Polish. Cleveland's other Polish section is in Tremont, located on Cleveland's west side. The home parishes are St. John Cantius and St. John Kanty. They also host Polish celebratory events in Cleveland.[34] Poles, in Cleveland, were instrumental in forming the Third Federal Savings and Loan, in 1938. After seeing fellow Poles
Poles
discriminated against by Cleveland's banks, Ben Stefanski formed Third Federal. Today the Stefanski family still controls the bank. Unlike Cleveland's KeyBank
KeyBank
and National City Corp., which have their headquarters in Downtown Cleveland, Third Federal is on Broadway Avenue in the Slavic Village neighborhood. Third Federal Savings and Loan is in the top 25 saving and loan institutions in the United States. In 2003, they acquired a Florida
Florida
banking company and have branches in Florida
Florida
and Ohio. Texas[edit] Panna Maria, Texas
Panna Maria, Texas
was founded by Upper Silesian settlers on Christmas Eve in 1854. Some people still speak Texas
Texas
Silesian. Others[edit] Main article: List of U.S. cities with large Polish American populations

Marker of immigration from Silesia
Silesia
into Texas
Texas
- Indianola, Texas

Other industrial cities, with major Polish communities, include: Buffalo, New York; Boston; Baltimore; New Britain, Connecticut; Portland, Oregon; Minneapolis; Philadelphia; Columbus, Ohio; Erie, Pennsylvania; Rochester, New York; Syracuse, New York; Los Angeles; San Francisco; Pittsburgh; central/western Massachusetts; and Duluth, Minnesota. Luzerne County, in northeastern Pennsylvania, is the only county in the United States, where a plurality of residents state their ancestry as Polish. (See: Maps of American ancestries) This includes the cities of Wilkes-Barre, Pittston, Hazelton, and Nanticoke. Many of the immigrants were drawn to this area, because of the mining of Anthracite
Anthracite
coal in the region. Polish influences are still common today, in the form of church bazaars, polka music, and Polish cuisine. It is widely believed that Boothwyn, Pennsylvania, has one of the fastest growing Polish communities in the United States. In 2007, at the urging of Attorney Adrian Baron and the local Polonia Business Association, New Britain, Connecticut
Connecticut
officially designated its Broad Street neighborhood as Little Poland, where an estimated 30,000 residents claim Polish heritage. Visitors can do an entire day's business completely in Polish including banking, shopping, dining, legal consultations, and even dance lessons. The area has retained its Polish character since 1890. By state totals[edit]

Distribution of Polish Americans, according to the 2000 United States Census.

According to the 2000 United States
United States
Census, the U.S. states with the largest numbers of self-reported Poles
Poles
and Americans
Americans
of Polish ancestry are:

01. New York (986,141) 02. Illinois
Illinois
(932,996) 03. Michigan
Michigan
(854,844) 04. Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
(824,146) 05. New Jersey
New Jersey
(576,473) 06. Wisconsin
Wisconsin
(497,726) 07. California
California
(491,325) 08. Ohio
Ohio
(433,016) 09. Florida
Florida
(429,691) 10. Massachusetts
Massachusetts
(323,210) 11. Connecticut
Connecticut
(284,272) 12. Minnesota
Minnesota
(240,405)

13. Texas
Texas
(228,309) 14. Maryland
Maryland
(184,364) 15. Indiana
Indiana
(183,989) 16. Arizona
Arizona
(126,665) 17. Virginia
Virginia
(124,647) 18. Colorado
Colorado
(101,190) 19. Missouri
Missouri
(90,448) 20. Georgia (82,765) […] 49. Hawaii
Hawaii
(10,770) 50. Wyoming
Wyoming
(9,929) 51. District of Columbia (7,910)

By percentage of total population[edit] The bigger the symbol, the higher the percentage of Polish Americans in that state. For the purposes of this map Hawaii
Hawaii
and Alaska
Alaska
were not included, however they are listed in the raw numbers below.

A map of the approximate number of Polish Americans
Americans
in each one of the US states as percentage of its total population, labelled in increments between 1% and 10%.

01. Wisconsin
Wisconsin
9.65% 02. Michigan
Michigan
9.59% 03. Connecticut
Connecticut
8.85% 04. Illinois
Illinois
8.13% 05. New Jersey
New Jersey
7.35% 06. Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
7.28% 07. Massachusetts
Massachusetts
5.76% 08. Delaware
Delaware
5.55% 09. Vermont
Vermont
5.29% 10. New York 5.24% 11. Minnesota
Minnesota
5.21% 12. Rhode Island
Rhode Island
4.58% 13. Ohio
Ohio
4.28% 14. New Hampshire
New Hampshire
4.20% 15. Nebraska
Nebraska
3.80% 16. Maryland
Maryland
3.61% 17. North Dakota
North Dakota
3.07% 18. Florida
Florida
2.91% 19. Indiana
Indiana
2.83% 20. Arizona
Arizona
2.79% 21. Colorado
Colorado
2.77% 22. Nevada
Nevada
2.53% 23. Maine
Maine
2.34% 24. Alaska
Alaska
2.29% 25. Montana
Montana
2.29% 26. West Virginia
Virginia
2.07%

27. Washington 2.06% 28. Virginia
Virginia
2.00% 29. Missouri
Missouri
1.93% 30. Wyoming
Wyoming
1.86% 31. Oregon
Oregon
1.77% 32. South Dakota
South Dakota
1.75% 33. Kansas
Kansas
1.70% 34. District of Columbia 1.70% 35. Idaho
Idaho
1.65% 36. California
California
1.50% 37. North Carolina
North Carolina
1.46% 38. New Mexico
New Mexico
1.35% 39. South Carolina
South Carolina
1.35% 40. Iowa
Iowa
1.28% 41. Georgia 1.15% 42. Texas
Texas
1.15% 43. Tennessee
Tennessee
1.11% 44. Hawaii
Hawaii
1.03% 45. Oklahoma
Oklahoma
0.97% 46. Utah
Utah
0.96% 47. Kentucky
Kentucky
0.95% 48. Arkansas
Arkansas
0.88% 49. Alabama
Alabama
0.69% 50. Mississippi
Mississippi
0.64% 51. Louisiana
Louisiana
0.58%

Religion[edit]

Interior of St Mary of the Angels Catholic Church
Catholic Church
in Chicago.

St. Stanislaus Kostka Church in Chicago, Illinois, the city's first Polish parish

As in Poland, the majority of Polish immigrants are Roman Catholic. Historically, less than 5% of Americans
Americans
who identified as Polish would state any other religion but Roman Catholic. Jewish
Jewish
immigrants from Poland, largely without exception, self identified[35] as "Jewish" or "Russian Jewish" when inside the United States, and faced a historical trajectory far different from that of the ethnic Poles.[36] Anusim from Poland
Poland
also varied in their self-identification,[37] but were more likely to identify as "Polish" in the United States.[38] Polish Americans
Americans
built dozens of Polish Cathedrals in the Great Lakes and New England
New England
regions and in the Mid-Atlantic States. Chicago's Poles
Poles
founded the following churches: St. Stanislaus Kostka, Holy Trinity, St. John Cantius, Holy Innocents, St. Helen, St. Fidelis, St. Mary of the Angels, St. Hedwig, St. Josaphat, St. Francis of Assisi (Humboldt Park), St. Hyacinth Basilica, St. Wenceslaus, Immaculate Heart of Mary, St. Stanislaus B&M, St. James (Cragin), St. Ladislaus, St. Constance, St. Mary of Perpetual Help, St. Barbara, SS. Peter & Paul, St. Joseph (Back of the Yards), Five Holy Martyrs, St. Pancratius, St. Bruno, St. Camillus, St. Michael (South Chicago), Immaculate Conception (South Chicago), St. Mary Magdalene, St. Bronislava, St. Thecla, St. Florian, St. Mary of Częstochowa (Cicero), St. Simeon (Bellwood), St. Blase (Summit), St. Glowienke (Downers Grove), St. John the Fisherman (Lisle), St. Isidore the Farmer (Blue Island), St. Andrew the Apostle (Calumet City) and St. John the Baptist (Harvey), as well as St. Mary of Nazareth Hospital, on the Near West Side.

Our Lady of Lourdes Catholic
Catholic
Church, Little Falls, Minnesota. Built in 1922 by Polish-American Immigrants

Poles
Poles
established approximately 50 Roman Catholic
Catholic
parishes in Minnesota. Among them: St. Wojciech (Adalbert) and St. Kazimierz (Casimir) in St. Paul; Holy Cross, St. Philip, St. Hedwig (Jadwiga Slaska) and All Saints, in Minneapolis; Our Lady Star of the Sea and St. Casimir's in Duluth; and St. Kazimierz (Casimir) and St. Stanislaw Kostka in Winona. A few of the parishes of particular note, founded by Poles
Poles
elsewhere in Minnesota, include: St. John Cantius in Wilno; St. Jozef (Joseph) in Browerville; St. John the Baptist in Virginia; St. Mary in Częstochowa; St. Wojciech (Adalbert) in Silver Lake; Our Lady of Mount Carmel in Opole; Our Lady of Lourdes in Little Falls; St. Stanislaus B&M in Sobieski; St. Stanislaus Kostka in Bowlus; St. Hedwig in Holdingford; Sacred Heart in Flensburg; Holy Cross in North Prairie; Holy Cross in Harding; and St. Isadore in Moran Township. Poles
Poles
in Cleveland established St. Hyacinth's (now closed), Saint Stanislaus Church (1873), Sacred Heart (1888–2010) Immaculate Heart of Mary (1894), St. John Cantius (Westside Poles), St. Barbara (closed), Sts Peter and Paul Church (1927) in Garfield Heights, Saint Therese (1927) Garfield Heights, Marymount Hospital (1948) Garfield Heights, and Saint Monica Church (1952) Garfield Heights. Also, the Polish Community created the Our Lady of Częstochowa
Częstochowa
Shrine on the campus of Marymount Hospital.[39] Poles
Poles
in South Bend, Indiana
Indiana
founded four parishes: St. Hedwig Parish (1877), St. Casimir Parish (1898), St. Stanislaus Parish (1907), and St. Adalbert Parish, South Bend
St. Adalbert Parish, South Bend
(1910). Circa 1897, in Pittsburgh's Polish Hill, Immaculate Heart of Mary, modeled on St. Peter's Basilica
St. Peter's Basilica
in Rome
Rome
was founded.[40]

Lady of Częstochowa, the "Black Madonna", a religious figure in Polish Catholicism

Polish Americans
Americans
preserved their longstanding tradition of venerating the Lady of Czestochowa in the United States. Replicas of the painting are common in Polish American churches and parishes, and many churches and parishes are named in her honor. The veneration of the Virgin Mary in Polish parishes is a significant difference between Polish Catholicism and Catholicism; Polish nuns in the Felician Order for instance, took to Marianism as the cornerstone of their spiritual development, and Polish churches in the U.S. were seen as "cult-like" in their veneration of Mary.[41] Religious catechism and writings from convents found that Polish nuns in the Felician Sisters
Felician Sisters
and The Sisters of the Holy Family of Nazareth were taught to have "a sound appreciation of Mary's role in the mystery of the Redemption and ...a filial confidence in her patronage," more explicitly, to be "a true daughter to the immaculate Virgin Mary". The Marianism that was taught in Polish parish schools in the United States
United States
was done independent of the Catholic
Catholic
Church, and demonstrated autonomy on the part of the nuns who taught Polish American youths. It is notable that there was a concurrent movement in Poland
Poland
that eventually led to a separatist Catholic
Catholic
church, the Mariavite Church, which greatly expanded the veneration of the Virgin Mary in its doctrine. In Poland, the Virgin Mary was believed to serve as a mother of mercy and salvation for Catholics, and throughout the Middle Ages, Polish knights prayed to her before battle. Polish American churches featured replicas of the Lady of Częstochowa, which was on feature at the Jasna Góra Monastery and holds national and religious significance because of its connection to a victorious military defense in 1655. Several towns in America are named Częstochowa, in commemoration of the town in Poland.[41] Though the majority of Polish Americans
Americans
remained loyal to the Catholic Church, a breakaway Catholic church
Catholic church
was founded in 1897 in Scranton, Pennsylvania. Polish parishioners founded the church to assert independence from the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
in America. The split was in rebellion from the church leadership, then dominated by Irish bishops and priests, and lacking in Polish language
Polish language
speakers and Polish church leaders. It exists today with 25,000 parishioners and remains independent from the authority of the Roman Catholic
Catholic
Church. Poland
Poland
is also home to followers of Protestantism
Protestantism
and the Eastern Orthodox Church. Small groups of both of these groups also immigrated to the United States. One of the most celebrated painters of religious icons in North America today is a Polish American Eastern Orthodox priest, Fr. Theodore Jurewicz, who singlehandedly painted New Gračanica Monastery in Third Lake, Illinois, over the span of three years.[42] A small group of Lipka Tatars, originating from the Białystok
Białystok
region, helped co-found the first Muslim
Muslim
organization in Brooklyn, New York, in 1907 and later, a mosque, which is still in use.[43] Politics[edit] Main article: Poland– United States
United States
relations Anti-Polonism[edit] Main article: antipolonism The Polish community was long the subject of anti-Polish sentiment in America. The word, Polack, has become a racial slur. This prejudice was partially associated with anti-Catholicism, and early 20th century worries about being overrun by Central European immigrants. Polish people were not considered white in America, until the 1960s.[citation needed] Culture[edit] Cultural contributions of Polish Americans
Americans
cover a broad spectrum including media, publishing industry, religious presence, artistic life, cuisine and museums as well as festivals.

Polish American novelty flag.

Media[edit] Among the most notable Polish American media groups are: the Hippocrene Books (founded by Polish American George Blagowidow); TVP Polonia; Polsat 2 International; TVN International; Polvision; TV4U New York; WPNA
WPNA
Radio Chicago; Polish Radio External Service
Polish Radio External Service
(formerly Radio Polonia); Polonia Today and the Warsaw
Warsaw
Voice. There are also Polish American newspapers and magazines, such as the Dziennik Związkowy, PL magazine,[44] Polish Weekly Chicago, the Super Express USA and Nowy Dziennik
Nowy Dziennik
in New York and Tygodnik Polski and The Polish Times in Detroit, not to mention the Ohio
Ohio
University Press Series in Polish American Studies,[45] Przeglad Polski Online, Polish American Journal,[46] the Polish News Online,[47]Am-Pol Eagle Newspaper,[48] and Progress for Poland,[49] among others. Cultural identity[edit] Even in long-integrated communities, remnants of Polish culture and vocabulary remain. Roman Catholic
Catholic
churches built by Polish American communities often serve as a vehicle for cultural retention. During the 1950s–1970s, the Polish wedding was often an all-day event. Traditional Polish weddings in Chicago
Chicago
metropolitan area, in areas such as the southeast side of Chicago, inner suburbs like Calumet City and Hegewisch, and Northwest Indiana
Indiana
suburbs, such as Whiting, Hammond and East Chicago, always occurred on Saturdays. The receptions were typically held in a large hall, such as a VFW Hall. A polka band of drums, a singer, accordion, and trumpet, entertained the people, as they danced traditional dances, such as the oberek, "Polish Hop" and the waltz. Always an important part of Slavic culture, food played a very important role. The musicians, as well as the guests, were expected to enjoy ample amounts of both food and drink. Foods, such as Polish sausage, sauerkraut, pierogi and kluski were common. Common drinks were beer, screwdrivers and highballs. Many popular Polish foods became a fixture in the American cuisine of today, including kiełbasa (Polish sausage), babka cake, kaszanka (kasanzka) and pierogi. Polish American cultural groups include Polish American Arts Association and the Polish Falcons. Among the many Polish American writers are a number of poets, such as Phil Boiarski, Hedwig Gorski, John Guzlowski, John Minczeski, Linda Nemec Foster, Leonard Kress (poet and translator), Cecilia Woloch, Kim Kikel and Mark Pawlak (poet and editor), along with novelists Leslie Pietrzyk, Thad Rutkowski, Suzanne Strempek Shea[50] and others. Museums[edit]

The Polish Museum of America
Polish Museum of America
in Chicago.

Among the best known Polish American museums are the Polish Museum of America in Chicago's old Polish Downtown; founded in 1935, the largest ethnic museum in the U.S. sponsored by the Polish Roman Catholic
Catholic
Union of America. The Museum Library ranks as one of the best, outside of Poland. Equally ambitious is the Polish American Museum
Polish American Museum
located in Port Washington, New York, founded in 1977. It features displays of folk art, costumes, historical artifacts and paintings, as well as bilingual research library with particular focus on achievements of the people of Polish heritage in America.[51][52] There is also the Polish Cultural Institute and Museum of Winona, Minnesota, known informally as "The Polish Museum of Winona." Formally established in 1979 by Father Paul Breza, the Polish Museum of Winona features exhibits pertaining to Winona's Kashubian Polish culture and hosts a wide range of events celebrating America's Polish-American heritage in general. Festivals[edit]

Polish-American parade in New York City, 2008

There are a number of unique festivals, street parties and parades held by the Polish American community. The Polish Fest
Polish Fest
in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, which is a popular annual festival, takes place at the Henry Maier Festival Park. It is also the largest Polish festival in the United States. It attracts Polish Americans
Americans
from all over Wisconsin
Wisconsin
and nearby Chicago, who come to celebrate Polish culture through music, food and entertainment. New York City
New York City
is home to the New York Polish Film Festival, an annual film festival showcasing current and past films of Polish cinema. NYPFF is the only annual presentation of Polish films in New York City
New York City
and the largest festival promoting and presenting Polish films on the East Coast.[53] The Polish Festival in Syracuse's Clinton Square has become the largest cultural event in the history of the Polish community in Central New York. There's also the Taste of Polonia festival held in Chicago
Chicago
every Labor Day
Labor Day
weekend since 1979 at the Copernicus Cultural and Civic Center in the Jefferson Park area. The Polish Festival in Portland, Oregon
Oregon
is reported to be the largest in the Western United States.[54] One of the newest and most ambitious festivals is the Seattle Polish Film Festival organized in conjunction with the Polish Film Festival in Gdynia, Poland. Kansas
Kansas
City, Kansas
Kansas
is home to a large Polish population and for the last 31 years, All Saints Parish has hosted Polski Day [3]. And last, but not least, there's the Pierogi
Pierogi
Fest in Whiting, Indiana
Indiana
with many more attractions other than Polish pierogi, and the Wisconsin
Wisconsin
Dells Polish Fest.[50] Holidays[edit]

Kosciuszko
Kosciuszko
Day 4 February Casimir Pulaski
Casimir Pulaski
Day March ( Illinois
Illinois
regional) Feast of the Annunciation
Feast of the Annunciation
25 March Paczki Day
Paczki Day
(Fat Thursday) Constitution Day 3 May Dyngus Day
Dyngus Day
(Easter Monday) Feast of Our Lady of Czestochowa
Our Lady of Czestochowa
26 August Dozhinki September General Pulaski Memorial Day 11 October Feast of the Immaculate Conception
Feast of the Immaculate Conception
8 December Wigilia
Wigilia
24 December

Polish Americans
Americans
carried on celebrations of Constitution Day throughout their time in the United States
United States
without political suppression. In Poland, from 1940 to 1989, the holiday was banned by Nazi and Soviet occupiers.[55] Contributions to American culture[edit]

Monument of Andrzej Pityński "Contribution of Polish Americans
Americans
to Polish-Soviet War
Polish-Soviet War
1920" founded in Warsaw
Warsaw
by Polish-Americans

Polish- Americans
Americans
have influenced American culture
American culture
in many ways. Most prominent among these is that Jefferson drafting the Constitution of the United States
United States
was inspired by religious tolerance of the Warsaw Confederation,[56] which guaranteed freedom of conscience. The Polish culture left also culinary marks in the USA - the inclusion of traditional Polish cuisine
Polish cuisine
such as pierogi, kielbasa, golabki. Some of these Polish foods were tweaked and reinvented in the new American environment such as Chicago's Maxwell Street Polish Sausage. Polish Americans
Americans
have also contributed to altering the physical landscape of the cities they have inhabited, erecting monuments to Polish-American heroes such as Kościuszko
Kościuszko
and Pulaski. Distinctive cultural phenomena such as Polish flats or the Polish Cathedral style of architecture became part and parcel of the areas where Polish settlement occurred. Poles' cultural ties to Roman Catholicism has also influenced the adoption of such distinctive rites like the blessing of the baskets before Easter in many areas of the United States
United States
by fellow Roman Catholics. In 2017 Polish American pacifist/film maker Tommy Wiseau
Tommy Wiseau
was quoted saying "If a lot of people loved each other, the world would be a better place to live. See ‘The Room,’ have fun, and enjoy life, the American Dream is alive, and it’s real." Architectural influence[edit] Early Polish immigrants built houses with high-pitched roofs in the United States. The high pitched roof is necessary in a country subject to snow, and is a common feature in Northern and Eastern European architecture. In Panna Maria, Texas, Poles
Poles
built brick houses with thick walls and high-pitched roofs. Meteorological and soil data show that region in Texas
Texas
is subject to less than 1 inch of snow[57] and a meteorological study conducted 1960-1990 found the lowest one-day temperature ever recorded was 5 degrees Fahrenheit in January 21, 1986, highly unlikely to support much snow.[58] The shaded veranda that was created by these roofs was a popular living space for the Polish Texans, who spent much of their time there to escape the sub-tropical temperatures of Texas. The Poles
Poles
in Texas
Texas
added porches to these verandas, often in the southward windy side, which is an alteration to traditional folk architecture.[59] According to oral histories recorded from descendants, the verandas were used for "almost all daily activities from preparing meals to dressing animal hides."[59] The Poles
Poles
in Texas
Texas
put straw thatching on their roofs until the early 1900s, another European influence. The first house built by a Pole in Panna Maria is the John Gawlik House, constructed 1858. The building still stands and is visited as a historical attraction in the cultural history of Texas. In 2011, the San Antonio Conservation Society financed a replacement of the building's roof, identifying it as a "historically and architecturally significant building".[60] Military[edit] Organizations like the Polish Legion of American Veterans were organized to memorialize the Polish contribution to the American military.[61] Notable people[edit] For a more comprehensive list, see List of Polish Americans. See also[edit]

United States
United States
portal Poland
Poland
portal

Polish-American vote Polish American Catholic
Catholic
Heritage Committee European Americans Hyphenated American Kashubian diaspora King Jagiello Monument

References[edit]

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United States
Census Bureau. Retrieved 2 November 2015.  ^ One Nation Under God: Religion in Contemporary American Society , p. 120 ^ U.S. Census Bureau. "Ancestry: 2000" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 September 2004. Retrieved 25 April 2014.  ^ "Allaince News : 2008" (PDF). Polishtoledo.com. Retrieved 28 August 2017.  ^ J. H. Retinger, Polacy w cywilizacjach swiata, p. 200, Warszawa, 1937. ^ See the reference to Anusim. Additionally, refer to the similar case of John Kerry's paternal grandfather, a Non-Polish subject whom immigrated to Boston
Boston
and passed for a Czech-Austrian Hungarian Catholic ^ Victor Greene, "Poles" in Stephan Thernstrom, ed., Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic groups (Harvard University Press, 1980) pp 787-803 ^ [1] ^ "Waclaw Kruszka, Historya Polska w Ameryce, Milwaukee
Milwaukee
1905, p. 65 (in Polish)" (PDF). The Polish-American Liturgical Center. Retrieved 2 November 2015.  ^ Polish Americans, Status in an ethnic Community. by Helena Lopata, p. 89 ^ "Rank of States for Selected Ancestry Groups with 100,00 or more persons: 1980" (PDF). United States
United States
Census Bureau. Retrieved 30 November 2012.  ^ "1990 Census of Population Detailed Ancestry Groups for States" (PDF). United States
United States
Census Bureau. 18 September 1992. Retrieved 30 November 2012.  ^ "Ancestry: 2000". United States
United States
Census Bureau. Retrieved 30 November 2012.  ^ "Total ancestry categories tallied for people with one or more ancestry categories reported 2010 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". United States
United States
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Poles
at Rainbow's End." Urban Affairs Review (1993) 28#4 pp: 526-543. ^ "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2011 Supplemental Table 2". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved 2012-11-02.  ^ "Supplemental Table 2. Persons Obtaining Lawful Permanent Resident Status by Leading Core Based Statistical Areas (CBSAs) of Residence and Region and Country of Birth: Fiscal Year 2014". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved September 11, 2016.  ^ "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2013 Supplemental Table 2". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved September 11, 2016.  ^ "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2012 Supplemental Table 2". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Archived from the original on December 22, 2014. Retrieved September 11, 2016.  ^ "POLISH AIRLINES LOT". LOT POLISH AIRLINES. Retrieved 2012-11-17.  ^ Gauper, Beth (2007-05-27). "Polish for a day". MidwestWeekends.com. St. Paul Pioneer Press. Retrieved 2008-01-11.  ^ John Radzilowski. Poles
Poles
in Minnesota. St. Paul: Minnesota
Minnesota
Historical Society, 2005. p. 6 ^ " National Polish-American Sports Hall of Fame Artifacts on Display at the American Polish Cultural Center". National Polish-American Sports Hall of Fame. Retrieved 2009-02-23. [dead link] ^ Data Access and Dissemination Systems (DADS). "American FactFinder - Results". Factfinder2.census.gov. Retrieved 17 March 2015.  ^ "Polish Village In Parma Ohio". Facebook.com. Retrieved 28 August 2017.  ^ "The Cleveland Society of Poles
Poles
Polish Foundation Cleveland Ohio". Clevelandsociety.com. Retrieved 2012-09-10.  ^ See " Jewish
Jewish
Surnames (Supposedly) Explained" in regards to name changes, self-identification, &c. as pertaining to Jewish
Jewish
and other immigrants at Ellis Island. ^ " Project MUSE - A Social History of Polish-American Catholicism". Muse.jhu.edu. Retrieved 17 March 2015.  ^ Contrary to popular understanding, Anusim were not just Sephardim. The Jewish
Jewish
Virtual Library explains this well. ^ Two case studies:

Julian Czerniecki identified as "Lithuanian" on his immigration manifest at Ellis Island and Russian Polish during the 1910 and 1920 Census Enumerations. Ignacy Andrulewicz, of the Andrulewicz family (including Teddy Andrulewicz) and the Orlinek, Poland
Poland
branch of said family, identified as "Polish" in 1912, when he immigrated to Cedar Rapids, Iowa, Russian in 1915, and Bohemian in 1925

^ " Our Lady of Czestochowa
Our Lady of Czestochowa
Shrine". Marymount Hospital. Retrieved 14 October 2010.  ^ No Author Listed. "A History of Polish Hill
Polish Hill
and the PHCA". Retrieved 2006-12-22.  ^ a b Mary the Messiah: Polish Immigrant Heresy and the Malleable Ideology of the Roman Catholic
Catholic
Church, 1880-1930. John J. Bukowczyk. Journal of American Ethnic History. Vol. 4, No. 2 (Spring, 1985), pp. 5-32 ^ "Serbian Monastery of New Gracanica – History". Newgracanica.com. Archived from the original on 21 February 2009. Retrieved 28 August 2017.  ^ "Religion: Ramadan". Time. 1937-11-15. Retrieved 2010-05-22.  ^ "PL - polsko-amerykański dwujęzyczny miesięcznik / Polish-American bilingual monthly". Plmagazine.net. Archived from the original on 2012-10-13. Retrieved 2012-09-10.  ^ " Ohio
Ohio
University Press & Swallow Press". Ohioswallow.com. Retrieved 2012-09-10.  ^ "Welcome to the Polish American Journal". Polamjournal.com. Retrieved 28 August 2017.  ^ "Polsko Amerykański portal - Polish American portal". Polishnews.Com. Retrieved 2012-09-10.  ^ "The Am-Pol Eagle". Ampoleagle.com. Retrieved 28 August 2017.  ^ "Progress for Poland
Poland
- Chicago: Fakty, Wiadomości, Opinie..." Progress for Poland. Retrieved 17 March 2015.  ^ a b "Polish American Historical Association - Resources and Supported Links". Polishamericanstudies.org. Retrieved 28 August 2017.  ^ Smithsonian Magazine, Polish American Museum
Polish American Museum
at Smithsonian.com ^ James Barron, the New York Times, If you're thinking of living in:; Port Washington Published: August 8, 1982 ^ "Święto polskiego kina w Nowym Jorku" (in Polish). Wirtualna Polska. 6 May 2009. Retrieved 12 March 2012.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-12-30. Retrieved 2016-02-08.  ^ "May 3rd Polish Constitution Day". Ampoleagle.com. Retrieved 17 March 2015.  ^ Sandra Lapointe. The Golden Age of Polish Philosophy: Kazimierz Twardowski's Philosophical Legacy. Springer. 2009. pp. 2-3. [2] ^ "Intellicast - Panna Maria Historic Weather Averages in Texas (78144)". Intellicast.com. Retrieved 17 March 2015.  ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-03-21. Retrieved 2013-04-10.  ^ a b Francis Edward Abernathy (1 August 2000). Publications of the Texas
Texas
Folklore Society. University of North Texas
Texas
Press. pp. 132–. ISBN 978-1-57441-092-1. Retrieved 10 April 2013.  ^ "mySouTex.com - Grant will replace roof of 1858 Panna Maria house". Mysoutex.com. Retrieved 17 March 2015. [permanent dead link] ^ "PLAV History". Plav.org. Retrieved 28 August 2017. 

Bibliography[edit]

Bukowczyk, John J. (1986). And My Children Did Not Know Me: A History of the Polish-Americans. Bloomington: Indiana
Indiana
University Press. ISBN 0-253-30701-5. OCLC 59790559.  Bukowczyk, John J. (1996). Polish Americans
Americans
and Their History: Community, Culture, and Politics. Pittsburgh, Pa: University of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
Press. ISBN 0-8229-3953-3. OCLC 494311843.  Erdmans, Mary Patrice (1998). Opposite Poles: Immigrants and Ethnics in Polish Chicago, 1976–1990. University Park, Pa: Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBN 0-271-01735-X. OCLC 37245940.  Gladsky, Thomas S. (1992). Princes, Peasants, and Other Polish Selves: Ethnicity in American Literature. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press. ISBN 0-87023-775-6. OCLC 24912598.  Greene, Victor. "Poles" in Stephan Thernstrom, ed., Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic groups (Harvard University Press, 1980) pp 787–803 Jackson, David J. (2003). "Just Another Day in a New Polonia: Contemporary Polish-American Polka
Polka
Music". Popular Music & Society. 26 (4): 529–540. doi:10.1080/0300776032000144986. ISSN 0300-7766. OCLC 363770952.  Lopata, Helena Znaniecka (1976). Polish Americans: Status Competition in an Ethnic Community. Ethnic groups in American life series. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. ISBN 0-13-686436-8. OCLC 1959615.  Majewski, Karen (2003). Traitors and True Poles: Narrating a Polish-American Identity, 1880–1939. Ohio
Ohio
University Press Polish and Polish-American studies series. Athens: Ohio
Ohio
University Press. ISBN 0-8214-1470-4. OCLC 51895984.  Nowakowski, Jacek (1989). Polish-American Ways. New York: Perennial Library. ISBN 0-06-096336-0. OCLC 20130171.  Pacyga, Dominic A. "Poles," in Elliott Robert Barkan, ed., A Nation of Peoples: A Sourcebook on America's Multicultural Heritage (1999) pp 428–45 Pienkos, Donald E. PNA: A Centennial History of the Polish National Alliance of the United States
United States
(Columbia University Press, 1984) Pienkos, Donald E., "Of Patriots and Presidents: America's Polish Diaspora
Diaspora
and U.S. Foreign Policy since 1917," Polish American Studies 68 (Spring 2011), 5–17. Pula, James S. (1995). Polish Americans: An Ethnic Community. Twayne's immigrant heritage of America series. New York: Twayne Publishers. ISBN 0-8057-8427-6. OCLC 30544009.  Pula, James S. (1996). "Image, Status, Mobility and Integration in American Society: The Polish Experience". Journal of American Ethnic History. 16 (1): 74–95. ISSN 0278-5927. OCLC 212041643.  Pula, James S. "Polish-American Catholicism: A Case Study in Cultural Determinism", U.S. Catholic
Catholic
Historian Volume 27, #3 Summer 2009, pp. 1–19; in Project MUSE Radzilowski, John. "A Social History of Polish-American Catholicism", U.S. Catholic
Catholic
Historian – Volume 27, #3 Summer 2009, pp. 21–43 in Project MUSE Silverman, Deborah Anders (2000). Polish American Folklore. Urbana: Univ. of Illinois
Illinois
Press. ISBN 0-252-02569-5. OCLC 237414611.  Thomas, William Isaac; Znaniecki, Florian Witold (1996) [1918–1920]. The Polish Peasant in Europe and America: A Classic Work in Immigration History. Urbana: University of Illinois
Illinois
Press. ISBN 0-252-06484-4. OCLC 477221814. 

Memory and historiography[edit]

Jaroszynska-Kirchmann, Anna D., "The Polish American Historical Association: Looking Back, Looking Forward," Polish American Studies, 65 (Spring 2008), 57–76. Walaszek, Adam. "Has the" Salt-Water Curtain" Been Raised Up? Globalizing Historiography of Polish America." Polish American Studies 73.1 (2016): 47-67. Wytrwal, Joseph Anthony (1969). Poles
Poles
in American History and Tradition. Detroit: Endurance Press. OCLC 29523.  Zurawski, Joseph W. "Out of Focus: The Polish American Image in Film," Polish American Studies (2013) 70#1 pp. 5–35 in JSTOR Zurawski, Joseph W. (1975). Polish American History and Culture: A Classified Bibliography. Chicago: Polish Museum of America. OCLC 1993061. 

External links[edit]

Find more aboutPolish Americansat's sister projects

Media from Wikimedia Commons Texts from Wikisource

PolishMigration.org, immigration records to United States
United States
between 1834 through 1897 Music made by Polish-Americans Chicago
Chicago
Foreign Language Press Survey: English translations of 120,000 pages of newspaper articles from Chicago's foreign language press from 1855 to 1938, many from Polish papers.

v t e

Slavic Americans

East Slavic

Belarusian Russian Rusyn Ukrainian

South Slavic

Bosnian Bulgarian Croatian Macedonian Montenegrin Serbian Slovene Yugoslav

West Slavic

Czech Kashubian Polish Silesian Slovak Sorbian

v t e

European Americans

Central Europe

Austrian1, Czech German1,

Amish German Texan Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Dutch German Mennonites from Russia

Hungarian

Hungarian Ohioans

Kashubian Liechtensteiner Luxembourgian Polish1, Slovak Slovene Sorbian Swiss

Eastern Europe

Azerbaijani5 Belarusian Chechen Georgian5 Kazakh6 Russian1, 2

Cossack Kalmyk

Ukrainian

Cossack Rusyn

Northern Europe

Danish Estonian Faroese Finnish Icelandic Latvian Lithuanian Norwegian

Norwegian Dakotan Norwegian Minnesotan

Sami Swedish

Southeast Europe3

Albanian Bosnian Bulgarian Cypriot Croatian Greek Macedonian Moldovan Montenegrin Romanian Serbian

Alaskan Serbs

Turkish4

Southern Europe

Italian

Sicilian

Maltese Monacan Portuguese Sanmarinese Spanish

Asturian Basque Canarian Catalan Galician Hispano

Western Europe

Belgian

Flemish

British

Cornish English Manx Scots-Irish/Ulster Scots Scottish Welsh

Dutch French

Basque Breton Cajun Corsican

Frisian Irish

Other Europeans

Non-Hispanic whites Métis Roma

Hungarian Slovak Romanies7

Louisiana
Louisiana
Creole

Cajun Isleños

By region

California Hawaii White Southerners

1 Poles
Poles
came to the United States
United States
legally as Austrians, Germans, Prussians or Russians throughout the 19th century, because from 1772–1795 till 1918, all Polish lands had been partitioned between imperial Austria, Prussia (a protoplast of Germany) and Russia until Poland
Poland
regained its sovereignty in the wake of World War I. 2 Russia is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. The vast majority of its population (80%) lives in European Russia, therefore Russia as a whole is included as a European country here. 3 Yugoslav Americans
Americans
are the American people from the former Yugoslavia. 4 Turkey
Turkey
is a transcontinental country in the Middle East and Southeast Europe. Has a small part of its territory (3%) in Southeast Europe called Turkish Thrace. 5 Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and Georgia are transcontinental countries. They have a small part of their territories in the European part of the Caucasus. 6 Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
is technically a bicontinental country, having a small portion in European hands. 7 Disputed; Roma have recognized origins and historic ties to Asia (specifically to Northern India), but they experienced at least some distinctive identity development while in diaspora among Europeans.

v t e

West Slavic Americans

Polish Kashubian Czech Silesian Slovak Sorbian

v t e

Polonia and Polish minorities

Europe

Belarus Bosnia and Herzegovina Croatia Czech Republic France Germany Iceland Ireland Latvia Lithuania Moldova Norway Romania Russia (and Soviet Union) Spain Sweden Ukraine United Kingdom

Americas

Argentina Brazil Canada Chile Haiti Mexico Paraguay United States

History

Uruguay Venezuela

Asia

Azerbaijan Japan Kazakhstan Lebanon Pakistan Philippines Turkey

Oceania

Australia

.