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1,747

LANGUAGES

Polish • Kashubian • Silesian

RELIGION

Christianity
Christianity
: Predominantly Roman Catholicism

RELATED ETHNIC GROUPS

Other West Slavs
West Slavs
( Kashubians
Kashubians
, Silesians
Silesians
, Sorbs
Sorbs
, Slovaks
Slovaks
, and Czechs
Czechs
)

The POLES (Polish : _Polacy_, pronounced ; singular masculine: _Polak_, singular feminine: _Polka_) are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland
Poland
who share a common ancestry , culture , history and are native speakers of the Polish language
Polish language
. The population of Poles
Poles
in Poland
Poland
is estimated at 37,394,000 out of an overall population of 38,538,000 (based on the 2011 census ). Poland's population inhabits several historic regions, including Greater Poland
Poland
, Lesser Poland
Poland
, Mazovia
Mazovia
, Silesia
Silesia
, Pomerania
Pomerania
, Kuyavia
Kuyavia
, Warmia
Warmia
(Ermland), Masuria
Masuria
, and Podlachia.

Over a thousand years ago, the Polans – an influential tribe in Greater Poland
Poland
region, inhabiting the areas around Giecz, Gniezno
Gniezno
, and Poznań
Poznań
– succeeded in uniting various Lechitic tribes under what became the Piast dynasty, thereby creating the Polish state.

A wide-ranging Polish diaspora
Polish diaspora
(the _Polonia _) exists throughout Europe
Europe
( Germany
Germany
, France
France
, Belarus
Belarus
, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, Russia
Russia
, Lithuania
Lithuania
, Ukraine
Ukraine
, Ireland
Ireland
, Scandinavia
Scandinavia
, Italy
Italy
, Belgium
Belgium
, Spain ), the Americas (the United States
United States
, Brazil
Brazil
, Canada
Canada
, Argentina
Argentina
) and in Australasia ( Australia
Australia
and New Zealand
New Zealand
). Today the largest urban concentration of Poles
Poles
is the Katowice
Katowice
urban agglomeration (the Silesian Metropolis
Silesian Metropolis
) of 2.7 million inhabitants.

Polish émigrés have included individuals with important roles in American society, such as Generals Casimir Pulaski
Casimir Pulaski
, Tadeusz Kosciuszko and Włodzimierz Krzyżanowski(a first cousin to composer Frédéric Chopin
Frédéric Chopin
), and National Security Advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski . Poland
Poland
was also for centuries a refuge for many Jews
Jews
from all over Europe; a large number emigrated in the twentieth century to Israel
Israel
. Several prominent Israeli statesmen were born in Poland, including Israel's founder David Ben-Gurion
David Ben-Gurion
, former President of Israel
Israel
Shimon Peres , and Prime Ministers Yitzhak Shamirand Menachem Begin
Menachem Begin
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Origins * 2 Statistics

* 3 Culture
Culture

* 3.1 Language * 3.2 Science and technology

* 3.3 Music

* 3.3.1 17th and 18th centuries * 3.3.2 Traditional music

* 3.4 Literature

* 3.4.1 Middle Ages
Middle Ages
* 3.4.2 Renaissance
Renaissance
* 3.4.3 Baroque
Baroque
* 3.4.4 Enlightenment * 3.4.5 Romanticism
Romanticism
* 3.4.6 Positivism * 3.4.7 Young Poland
Poland
(1890–1918) * 3.4.8 Interbellum and the return to independence (1918–1939) * 3.4.9 After 1945

* 4 Poles
Poles
in cinema and theatre * 5 Religion * 6 Exonyms * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links

ORIGINS

_ Fragment of Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum
Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum
_ (1073) by Adam of Bremen
Adam of Bremen
, containing the name "Polans ": "_trans Oddaram sunt Polanos_"

Slavs
Slavs
have been in the territory of modern Poland
Poland
for over 1500 years. They organized into tribal units , of which the larger ones were later known as the Polish tribes; the names of many tribes are found on the list compiled by the anonymous Bavarian Geographerin the 9th century. In the 9th and 10th centuries the tribes gave rise to developed regions along the upper Vistula
Vistula
(the Vistulans
Vistulans
within the Great Moravian Empire sphere), the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
coast and in Greater Poland
Poland
. The last tribal undertaking resulted in the 10th century in a lasting political structure and state , Poland
Poland
, one of the West Slavic nations.

The concept which has become known as the Piast Idea, the chief proponent of which was Jan Ludwik Popławski, is based on the statement that the Piast
Piast
homeland was inhabited by so-called "native" aboriginal Slavs
Slavs
and Slavonic Poles
Poles
since time immemorial and only later was "infiltrated" by "alien" Celts
Celts
, Germans
Germans
and others. After 1945 the so-called "autochthonous" or "aboriginal" school of Polish prehistory received official backing in Poland
Poland
and a considerable degree of popular support. According to this view, the Lusatian Culture
Culture
which archaeologists have identified between the Oder
Oder
and the Vistula
Vistula
in the early Iron Age
Iron Age
, is said to be Slavonic; all non-Slavonic tribes and peoples recorded in the area at various points in ancient times are dismissed as "migrants" and "visitors". In contrast, the critics of this theory, such as Marija Gimbutas, regard it as an unproved hypothesis and for them the date and origin of the westward migration of the Slavs
Slavs
is largely uncharted; the Slavonic connections of the Lusatian Culture
Culture
are entirely imaginary; and the presence of an ethnically mixed and constantly changing collection of peoples on the Middle European Plain is taken for granted.

STATISTICS

Polish people are the sixth largest national group in the European Union . Estimates vary depending on source, though available data suggest a total number of around 60 million people worldwide (with roughly 21 million living outside of Poland, many of whom are not of Polish ethnicity, but Polish nationals). There are almost 38 million Poles
Poles
in Poland
Poland
alone. There are also Polish minorities in the surrounding countries including Germany
Germany
, and indigenous minorities in the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
, Hungary
Hungary
, Slovakia
Slovakia
, northern and eastern Lithuania
Lithuania
, western Ukraine
Ukraine
, and western Belarus
Belarus
. There are some smaller indigenous minorities in nearby countries such as Moldova
Moldova
. There is also a Polish minority in Russia
Russia
which includes indigenous Poles
Poles
as well as those forcibly deported during and after World War II ; the total number of Poles
Poles
in what was the former Soviet Union
Soviet Union
is estimated at up to 3 million. The map depicts countries by number of citizens who reported Polish ancestry (based on sources in this article) Poland
Poland
More than 1 million More than 500 thousand More than 100 thousand

The term "Polonia " is usually used in Poland
Poland
to refer to people of Polish origin who live outside Polish borders, officially estimated at around 10 to 20 million. There is a notable Polish diaspora
Polish diaspora
in the United States
United States
, Brazil
Brazil
, and Canada
Canada
. France
France
has a historic relationship with Poland
Poland
and has a relatively large Polish-descendant population. Poles
Poles
have lived in France
France
since the 18th century. In the early 20th century, over a million Polish people settled in France, mostly during world wars, among them Polish émigrés fleeing either Nazi occupation or later Soviet rule.

In the United States, a significant number of Polish immigrants settled in Chicago
Chicago
, Ohio
Ohio
, Detroit
Detroit
, New Jersey
New Jersey
, New York City
New York City
, Orlando , Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
, Buffalo , and New England
New England
. The highest concentration of Polish Americans
Americans
in a single New England
New England
municipality is in New Britain, Connecticut. The majority of Polish Canadianshave arrived in Canada
Canada
since World War II. The number of Polish immigrants increased between 1945 and 1970, and again after the end of Communism in Poland
Poland
in 1989 . In Brazil
Brazil
the majority of Polish immigrants settled in Paraná State. Smaller, but significant numbers settled in the states of Rio Grande do Sul
Rio Grande do Sul
, Espírito Santo
Espírito Santo
and São Paulo (state) . The city of Curitiba
Curitiba
has the second largest Polish diaspora in the world (after Chicago) and Polish music, dishes and culture are quite common in the region.

A recent large migration of Poles
Poles
took place following Poland's accession to the European Union
European Union
and opening of the EU's labor market; with an approximate number of 2 million, primarily young, Poles
Poles
taking up jobs abroad. It is estimated that over half a million Polish people have come to work in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
from Poland. Since 2011, Poles
Poles
have been able to work freely throughout the EU and not just in the United Kingdom, Ireland
Ireland
and Sweden
Sweden
where they have had full working rights since Poland's EU accession in 2004 . The Polish community in Norway
Norway
has increased substantially and has grown to a total number of 120,000, making Poles
Poles
the largest immigrant group in Norway.

CULTURE

_ An ethnic highlander ( Góral_) with bagpipes in Lesser Poland
Poland
Main article: Culture
Culture
of Poland
Poland

The culture of Poland
Poland
has a history of 1000 years . Poland, located in Central Europe
Central Europe
, developed a character that was influenced by its geography at the confluence of fellow Central European cultures (Austrian , Czech , German , and Hungarian ), Western European cultures (French and Dutch ), Southern European cultures (Italian and Greek ), Northeastern European/Baltic cultures (Lithuanian , Estonian and Latvian ), Eastern European cultures (Belarusian and Ukrainian and Western Asian /Caucasian cultures (Ottoman Turkish , Armenian , and Georgian ). Influences were conveyed by immigrants (Jewish, German and Dutch), political alliances (with Lithuania
Lithuania
, Hungary
Hungary
, Saxony
Saxony
, France
France
and Sweden
Sweden
), conquests of the Polish-Lithuanian state (Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova, Romania
Romania
and Latvia) and conquerors of the Polish lands (the Russian Empire, Kingdom of Prussia and the Habsburg monarchy, later to be known as the Austrian Empire or Austria-Hungary).

Over time, Polish culture
Polish culture
has been greatly influenced by its ties with the Germanic , Latinateand other ethnic groups and minorities living in Poland
Poland
. The people of Poland
Poland
have traditionally been seen as hospitable to artists from abroad (especially Italy) and open to cultural and artistic trends popular in other European countries. Owing to this central location, the Poles
Poles
came very early into contact with both civilizations – eastern and western, and as a result developed economically, culturally, and politically. A German general Helmut Carl von Moltke , in his _Poland. A historical sketch_ (1885), stated that " Poland
Poland
of the fifteenth century was one of the most civilised states of Europe."

In the 19th and 20th centuries, the Polish focus on cultural advancement often took precedence over political and economic activity, experiencing severe crises, especially during World War II and in the following years. These factors have contributed to the versatile nature of Polish art, with all its complex nuances.

LANGUAGE

_ Book of Henryków_. Highlighted in red is the earliest known sentence written in the Old Polish language
Polish language
Knowledge of the Polish language
Polish language
within Europe
Europe
Main article: Polish language
Polish language

The Polish language
Polish language
(Polish : _język polski_) is a West Slavic language and the official language of Poland. Its written form uses the Polish alphabet
Polish alphabet
, which is the Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
with the addition of a few diacritic marks .

Poland
Poland
is the most linguistically homogeneous European country; nearly 97% of Poland's citizens declare Polish as their mother tongue. Elsewhere, ethnic Poles
Poles
constitute large minorities in Germany
Germany
, northern Slovakia
Slovakia
and the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
, Hungary
Hungary
, northeast Lithuania
Lithuania
and western Belarus
Belarus
and Ukraine
Ukraine
. Polish is the most widely used minority language in Lithuania's Vilnius
Vilnius
County (26% of the population, according to the 2001 census results) and is found elsewhere in northeastern and western Lithuania. In Ukraine
Ukraine
it is most common in the western Lviv
Lviv
and Volyn oblast (provinces), while in western Belarus
Belarus
it is used by the significant Polish minority, especially in the Brest and Grodno
Grodno
regions and in areas along the Lithuanian border.

The geographical distribution of the Polish language
Polish language
was greatly affected by the border changes and population transfers that followed World War II
World War II
. Poles
Poles
resettled in the " Recovered Territories
Recovered Territories
" in the west and north. Some Poles
Poles
remained in the previously Polish-ruled territories in the east that were annexed by the USSR
USSR
, resulting in the present-day Polish-speaking minorities in Lithuania
Lithuania
, Belarus
Belarus
, and Ukraine
Ukraine
, although many Poles
Poles
were expelled or emigrated from those areas to areas within Poland's new borders. Meanwhile, the flight and expulsion of Germans, as well as the expulsion of Ukrainians
Ukrainians
and resettlement of Ukrainians
Ukrainians
within Poland, contributed to the country's linguistic homogeneity.

Polish-speakers use the language in a uniform manner throughout most of Poland, though numerous languages and dialects coexist alongside the standard Polish language. The most common dialects in Poland
Poland
are Silesian , spoken in Upper Silesia, and Kashubian , widely spoken in the north.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Education has been of prime interest to Poland
Poland
since the early 12th century. The catalog of the library of the Cathedral Chapter in Kraków
Kraków
dating from 1110 shows that Polish scholars already then had access to literature from all over Europe. In 1364 King Casimir III the Great founded the Kraków
Kraków
Academy , which would become Jagiellonian University, one of the great universities of Europe.

The list of early famous scientists in Poland
Poland
begins with the 13th-century Witeloand includes the polymath and astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus , who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at its center; the publication of Copernicus' book _ De revolutionibus orbium coelestium
De revolutionibus orbium coelestium
_ (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres) just before his death in 1543 is considered a major event in the history of science, triggering the Copernican Revolution
Copernican Revolution
and making an important contribution to the Scientific Revolution
Scientific Revolution
. In 1773 King Stanisław August Poniatowski established the Commission of National Education, the world's first ministry of education.

After the 1795 third partition of Poland
Poland
, no free Polish state existed. The 19th and 20th centuries saw many Polish scientists working abroad. The greatest was Maria Skłodowska Curie (1867–1934), a physicist and chemist who conducted pioneering research on radioactivity and was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize , the first person and only woman to win twice , the only person to win twice in multiple sciences, and was part of the Curie family legacy of five Nobel Prizes . Another notable Polish expatriate scientist was Ignacy Domeyko(1802–89), a geologist and mineralogist who lived and worked in South America, in Chile
Chile
.

Kazimierz Funk(1884–1967), whose name is commonly anglicized as "Casimir Funk", was a Polish biochemist , generally credited with being among the first to formulate (in 1912) the concept of vitamins , which he called "vital amines" or "vitamines".

In the first half of the 20th century, Poland
Poland
was a world center of mathematics. Outstanding Polish mathematicians formed the Lwów School of Mathematics (including Stefan Banach
Stefan Banach
, Hugo Steinhaus, Stanisław Ulam ) and Warsaw School of Mathematics(including Alfred Tarski, Kazimierz Kuratowski, Wacław Sierpiński
Wacław Sierpiński
). World War II
World War II
pushed many of them into exile; Benoit Mandelbrot
Benoit Mandelbrot
's family left Poland
Poland
when he was still a child. An alumnus of the Warsaw School of Mathematicswas Antoni Zygmund, a shaper of 20th-century mathematical analysis .

*

Nicolaus Copernicus
Nicolaus Copernicus
, astronomer who formulated a model of the Solar System that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the centre . *

Michael Sendivogius
Michael Sendivogius
, pioneer of chemistry, he discovered oxygen and developed ways of purification and creation of various acids, metals and other chemical compounds. *

Ignacy Łukasiewicz, pharmacist and petroleum industry pioneer who built the world's first oil refinery , invented the modern kerosene lamp , and introduced the first modern street lamp in Europe. *

Marie Skłodowska Curie, conducted pioneering research on radioactivity and was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize . *

Tadeusz Reichstein
Tadeusz Reichstein
, succeeded in synthesizing vitamin C in what is now called the Reichstein processand received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine . *

Marian Rejewski
Marian Rejewski
, mathematician and cryptologist who reconstructed the Nazi German military Enigma cipher machine sight-unseen in 1932. *

Wacław Sierpiński
Wacław Sierpiński
, a Polish mathematician known for outstanding contributions to set theory (research on the axiom of choice and the continuum hypothesis ), number theory , theory of functions and topology *

Hilary Koprowski, virologist and immunologist , and the inventor of the world's first effective live polio vaccine . *

Leonid Hurwicz
Leonid Hurwicz
, the first economist to recognize the value of game theory and the oldest Nobel Laureate
Nobel Laureate
, having received the prize at the age of 90. *

Benoit Mandelbrot
Benoit Mandelbrot
, recognized for his contribution to the field of fractal geometry , as well as developing a theory of "roughness and self-similarity " in nature. *

Stefan Banach
Stefan Banach
, one of the most influential mathematicians of the 20th century, one of the principal founders of modern functional analysis *

Stanisław Ulam, mathematician ; he participated in America's Manhattan Project
Manhattan Project
, originated the Teller–Ulam design of thermonuclear weapons , discovered the concept of cellular automaton , invented the Monte Carlo method
Monte Carlo method
of computation, and suggested nuclear pulse propulsion *

Krzysztof Matyjaszewski, chemist, recipient of Wolf Prizein chemistry , best known for the discovery of atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), a novel method of polymer synthesis that has revolutionized the way macromolecules are made *

Aleksander Wolszczan
Aleksander Wolszczan
, astronomer , he conducted pioneering astronomical observations and co-discovered the first extrasolar planets and pulsar planets

Marian Rejewski
Marian Rejewski
(1905–80), a Polish mathematician, in December 1932 solved the plugboard-equipped Enigma machine
Enigma machine
, the main cipher device used by Nazi Germany
Germany
. The cryptologic successes of Rejewski and his mathematician colleagues Jerzy Różycki
Jerzy Różycki
and Henryk Zygalski
Henryk Zygalski
, over six and a half years later, jump-started British reading of Enigma in the Second World War; the intelligence so gained, code-named _ Ultra
Ultra
_, contributed, perhaps decisively, to the defeat of Germany
Germany
.

Sir Józef Rotblat(1908–2005), a Polish physicist , who left the U.S. Manhattan Project
Manhattan Project
on grounds of conscience. His work on nuclear fallout was a major contribution toward the ratification of the 1963 Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
. A signatory of the Russell–Einstein Manifesto, he was secretary-general of the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs from their founding until 1973. He shared, with the Pugwash Conferences, the 1995 Nobel Peace Prize for efforts toward nuclear disarmament .

Hilary Koprowski(1916 – 2013) was a Polish virologist and immunologist , and the inventor of the world's first effective live polio vaccine . While in the United States, he authored or co-authored over 875 scientific papers and co-edited several scientific journals. Aleksander Wolszczan
Aleksander Wolszczan
(born 1946), a Polish astronomer , is the co-discoverer of the first extrasolar planets and pulsar planets .

Today Poland
Poland
has over 100 institutions of post-secondary education – technical, medical, economic, as well as 500 universities – located in major cities such as Gdańsk
Gdańsk
, Kraków
Kraków
, Wrocław
Wrocław
, Lublin , Łódź
Łódź
, Poznań
Poznań
, Rzeszów
Rzeszów
and Warsaw
Warsaw
. They employ over 61,000 scientists and scholars. Another 300 research-and-development institutes are home to some 10,000 researchers. There are also a number of smaller laboratories. Altogether, these institutions support some 91,000 scientists and scholars.

MUSIC

Main article: Music of Poland
Poland

Józef Hofmann (1876–1957) Karol Szymanowski
Karol Szymanowski
(1882–1937) Arthur Rubinstein
Arthur Rubinstein
(1887–1982) Krzysztof Penderecki
Krzysztof Penderecki
(born 1933)

The origin of Polish musiccan be traced as far back as the 13th century, from which manuscripts have been found in Stary Sącz, containing polyphonic compositions related to the Parisian Notre Dame School . Other early compositions, such as the melody of _Bogurodzica _, may also date back to this period. The first known notable composer, however, Mikołaj z Radomia, lived in the 15th century.

During the 16th century, mostly two musical groups—both based in Kraków
Kraków
and belonging to the King and Archbishop of Wawel—led the rapid innovation of Polish music. Composers writing during this period include Wacław of Szamotuły, Mikołaj Zieleński
Mikołaj Zieleński
, and Mikołaj Gomółka . Diomedes Cato, a native-born Italian who lived in Kraków from about the age of five, became one of the most famous lutenists at the court of Sigismund III, and not only imported some of the musical styles from southern Europe, but blended them with native folk music.

17th And 18th Centuries

_ Pożegnanie Ojczyzny_ (Farewell to Country) Polonaise
Polonaise
by Ogiński -------------------------

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In the last years of the 16th century and the first part of the 17th century, a number of Italian musicians were guests at the royal courts of King Sigismund III Vasa
Sigismund III Vasa
and his son Władysław IV. These included Luca Marenzio, Giovanni Francesco Anerio, and Marco Scacchi. Polish composers from this period focused on baroque religious music, concertos for voices, instruments, and basso continuo , a tradition that continued into the 18th century. The best-remembered composer of this period is Adam Jarzębski, known for his instrumental works such as _Chromatica_, _Tamburetta_, _Sentinella_, _Bentrovata_, and _Nova Casa_. Other composers include Grzegorz Gerwazy Gorczycki, Franciszek Lilius , Bartłomiej Pękiel, Stanisław Sylwester Szarzyńskiand Marcin Mielczewski.

In addition, a tradition of operatic production began in Warsaw
Warsaw
in 1628, with a performance of _Galatea_ (composer uncertain), the first Italian opera produced outside Italy. Shortly after this performance, the court produced Francesca Caccini's opera _La liberazione di Ruggiero dall\'isola d’Alcina _, which she had written for Prince Władysław three years earlier when he was in Italy. Another first, this is the earliest surviving opera written by a woman. When Władysław became king (as Władysław IV) he oversaw the production of at least ten operas during the late 1630s and 1640s, making Warsaw a center of the art. The composers of these operas are not known: they may have been Poles
Poles
working under Marco Scacchi in the royal chapel, or they may have been among the Italians imported by Władysław.

The late 17th and 18th century saw a decline of Poland, which also hindered the development of music. Some composers attempted to create a Polish opera(such as Jan Stefani and Maciej Kamieński), others imitated foreign composers such as Haydn and Mozart .

The most important development in this time, however, was the polonaise , perhaps the first distinctively Polish art music . Polonaises for piano were and remain popular, such as those by Michał Kleofas Ogiński , Karol Kurpiński, Juliusz Zarębski
Juliusz Zarębski
, Henryk Wieniawski , Mieczysław Karłowicz
Mieczysław Karłowicz
, Józef Elsner, and, most famously, Fryderyk Chopin. Chopin remains very well known, and is regarded for composing a wide variety of works, including mazurkas , nocturnes , waltzes and concertos , and using traditional Polish elements in his pieces. The same period saw Stanisław Moniuszko
Stanisław Moniuszko
, the leading individual in the successful development of Polish opera, still renowned for operas like _ Halka_ and _ The Haunted Manor_.

*

Michał Kleofas Ogiński, known for his polonaise _Pożegnanie Ojczyzny_, written on the occasion of his emigration after the failure of the Kościuszko Uprising
Kościuszko Uprising
. *

Frédéric Chopin
Frédéric Chopin
, whose innovations in style, musical form and harmony, and his association of music with nationalism, were influential throughout the Romantic period
Romantic period
. *

Stanisław Moniuszko
Stanisław Moniuszko
, wrote many popular art songs and operas, and his music is filled with patriotic folk themes of the peoples of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
. *

Witold Lutosławski
Witold Lutosławski
, one of the major European composers of the 20th century, and one of the preeminent Polish musicians during his last three decades. *

Andrzej Panufnik
Andrzej Panufnik
, one of the leading Polish composers responsible for the re-establishment of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Philharmonic orchestra after World War II
World War II
. *

Henryk Górecki
Henryk Górecki
, became a leading figure of the Polish avant-garde during the post-Stalin cultural thaw and achieved great commercial success.

Traditional Music

_ Mazurkain A minor, Op. 17, No. 4 Giorgi Latso, piano ------------------------- Waltz
Waltz
in D-flat major, Op. 64, No. 1 (so-called Minute Waltz_) Muriel Nguyen Xuan, piano ------------------------- Étude Op. 10, No. 12 (so-called _Revolutionary_) Martha Goldsteinplaying an 1851 Érard piano ------------------------- Prelude Op. 28, No. 15 in D-flat major Giorgi Latso, piano -------------------------

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Polish folk music was collected in the 19th century by Oskar Kolberg , as part of a wave of Polish national revival . With the coming of the world wars and then the Communist state
Communist state
, folk traditions were oppressed or subsumed into state-approved folk ensembles. The most famous of the state ensembles are Mazowsze and Śląsk , both of which still perform. Though these bands had a regional touch to their output, the overall sound was a homogenized mixture of Polish styles. There were more authentic state-supported groups, such as Słowianki , but the Communist sanitized image of folk music made the whole field seem unhip to young audiences, and many traditions dwindled rapidly.

Polish dance music, especially the mazurka and polonaise , were popularized by Frédéric Chopin, and they soon spread across Europe and elsewhere. These are triple time dances, while five-beat forms are more common in the northeast and duple-time dances like the krakowiak come from the south. The polonaise comes from the French word for _Polish_ to identify its origin among the Polish aristocracy and nobility, who had adapted the dance from a slower walking dance called _chodzony_. The polonaise then re-entered the lower-class musical life, and became an integral part of Polish music.

LITERATURE

Main article: Polish literature
Polish literature

Polish literature
Polish literature
is the literary tradition of Poland. Most Polish literature has been written in the Polish language, though other languages, used in Poland
Poland
over the centuries, have also contributed to Polish literary traditions, including German , Hungarian , Slovak , Czech , Latin
Latin
, Yiddish
Yiddish
, Lithuanian , Ukrainian , and Esperanto
Esperanto
.

Middle Ages

Jan Długosz
Jan Długosz

Almost nothing remains of Polish literature
Polish literature
prior to the country\'s Christianization in 966. Poland's pagan inhabitants certainly possessed an oral literature extending to Slavic songs, legends and beliefs, but early Christian writers did not deem it worthy of mention in the obligatory Latin, and so it has perished.

The first recorded sentence in the Polish language
Polish language
reads: "_Day ut ia pobrusa, a ti poziwai_" ("Let me grind, and you take a rest") – a paraphrase of the Latin
Latin
"_Sine, ut ego etiam molam._" The work, in which this phrase appeared, reflects the culture of early Poland. The sentence was written within the Latin
Latin
language chronicle _Liber fundationis _ from between 1269 and 1273, a history of the Cistercian monastery in Henryków , Silesia
Silesia
. It was recorded by an abbot known simply as Piotr (Peter), referring to an event almost a hundred years earlier. The sentence was supposedly uttered by a Bohemian settler, Bogwal ("Bogwalus Boemus"), a subject of Bolesław the Tall, expressing compassion for his own wife who "very often stood grinding by the quern-stone ." Most notable early medieval Polish works in Latin
Latin
and the Old Polish language
Polish language
include the oldest extant manuscript of fine prose in the Polish language
Polish language
entitled the _Holy Cross Sermons _, as well as the earliest Polish-language _Bible of Queen Zofia_ and the _Chronicle of Janko of Czarnków_ from the 14th century, not to mention the _Puławy Psalter_.

In the early 1470s, one of the first printing houses in Poland
Poland
was set up by Kasper Straubein Kraków
Kraków
(see: spread of the printing press ). In 1475 Kasper Elyan of Glogau (Głogów) set up a printing shop in Breslau (Wrocław) , Silesia
Silesia
. Twenty years later, the first Cyrillic printing house was founded at Kraków
Kraków
by Schweipolt Fiol
Schweipolt Fiol
for Eastern Orthodox Church hierarchs. The most notable texts produced in that period include _Saint Florian's Breviary,_ printed partially in Polish in the late 14th century; _Statua synodalia Wratislaviensia_ (1475): a printed collection of Polish and Latin
Latin
prayers; as well as Jan Długosz 's _Chronicle_ from the 15th century and his _Catalogus archiepiscoporum Gnesnensium_.

Renaissance

Jan Kochanowski
Jan Kochanowski

With the advent of the Renaissance
Renaissance
, the Polish language
Polish language
was finally accepted on an equal footing with Latin. Polish culture
Polish culture
and art flourished under Jagiellonian rule, and many foreign poets and writers settled in Poland, bringing with them new literary trends. Such writers included Kallimach( Filippo Buonaccorsi) and Conrad Celtis. Many Polish writers studied abroad, and at the Kraków
Kraków
Academy , which became a melting pot for new ideas and currents. In 1488 the world's first writers' club, called _ Sodalitas Litterarum Vistulana_ was founded in Kraków. Notable members included Conrad Celtes, Albert Brudzewski , Filip Callimachusand Laurentius Corvinus.

Baroque

Jan Andrzej Morsztyn

Polish Baroque
Baroque
literature (1620–1764) was influenced by the popularization of Jesuit
Jesuit
secondary schools , which offered an education based on Latin
Latin
classics as part of a preparation for a career in politics. The study of poetry required practical skill in writing both Latin
Latin
and Polish poems, and radically increased the numbers of poets and versifiers countrywide. Some exceptional writers grew up as well in the soil of humanistic education: Piotr Kochanowski (1566–1620) produced a translation of Torquato Tasso
Torquato Tasso
's _Jerusalem Delivered _; poet laureate Maciej Kazimierz Sarbiewskibecame known throughout Europe, for his Latin
Latin
writings, as _Horatius christianus_ ("the Christian Horace
Horace
"); Jan Andrzej Morsztyn(1621–1693), epicurean courtier and diplomat, extolled in his sophisticated poems the value of earthly delights; and Wacław Potocki
Wacław Potocki
(1621–96), the most productive writer of the Polish Baroque
Baroque
, united typical Polish _szlachta _ (nobility) views with deeper reflections and existential experiences. Notable Polish poets and prose writers of the period included:

* Mikołaj Sęp Szarzyński(1550–1581), _Rymy_ * Kasper Miaskowski (1550?–1622) * Daniel Naborowski(1573–1640) * Hieronim Morsztyn(1581–1623) * Szymon Starowolski(1588–1656) * Maciej Kazimierz Sarbiewski(1595–1640) * Józef Bartłomiej Zimorowic(1597–1677) * Samuel Twardowski
Samuel Twardowski
(1600?–1661) * Szymon Zimorowic (1608?–1629), _Roksolanki_ * Krzysztof Opaliński(1611–1655)

* Łukasz Opaliński (1612–1666) * Jan Andrzej Morsztyn(1621–1693), leading Baroque
Baroque
poet * Wacław Potocki
Wacław Potocki
(1621–1696), _Wojna Chocimska_ * Zbigniew Morsztyn(Morstyn, 1628?–1689) * Stanisław Grochowski(1633–1645) * Jan Chryzostom Pasek(1636–1701), _Pamietniki_ (memoirs) * Kasper Twardowski, "Lekcyje Kupidynowe" (church-banned erotica) * Sebastian Grabowiecki(1543–1607) * Piotr Kochanowski (1566–1620) * Jan z Kijan (Dzwonowski?, early 1600s)

Enlightenment

Ignacy Krasicki

The period of Polish Enlightenmentbegan in the 1730s–40s and peaked in the second half of the 18th century during the reign of Poland\'s last king , Stanisław August Poniatowski
Stanisław August Poniatowski
. It went into sharp decline with the Third and final Partition of Poland
Poland
(1795), followed by political, cultural and economic destruction of the country, and leading to the Great Emigration
Great Emigration
of Polish elites. The Enlightenment ended around 1822, and was replaced by Polish Romanticism
Romanticism
at home and abroad. The crowning achievements of Polish Enlightenment include the adoption of the Constitution of May 3, 1791 , Europe's oldest written constitution as well as the creation of the Commission of National Education, the world's first ministry of education.

One of the leading Polish Enlightenmentpoets was Ignacy Krasicki (1735–1801), known as "the Prince of Poets" and Poland's La Fontaine , author of _ Fables and Parables_ as well as the first Polish novel called _ The Adventures of Mr. Nicholas Wisdom_ (_Mikołaja Doświadczyńskiego przypadki_); he was also a playwright , journalist , encyclopedist and translator from French and Greek . Another prominent writer of the period was Jan Potocki
Jan Potocki
(1761–1815), a Polish nobleman, Egyptologist , linguist , and adventurer, whose travel memoirs made him legendary in his homeland. Outside Poland
Poland
he is known chiefly for his novel, _ The Manuscript Found in Saragossa,_ which has drawn comparisons to such celebrated works as the _ Decameron
Decameron
_ and _the Arabian Nights
Arabian Nights
_.

Another notable literary figure from this period is Piotr Skarga, a Polish Jesuit
Jesuit
, preacher, hagiographer , polemicist , and leading figure of the Counter-Reformation
Counter-Reformation
in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth . His greatest works include _ The Lives of the Saints_ (_Żywoty świętych_, 1579), which was for several centuries one of the most popular books in the Polish language
Polish language
and the _ Sejm Sermons_ (_Kazania Sejmowe_, 1597), a political treatise , which became popular in the second half of the 19th century, when Skarga was seen as the "patriotic seer" who predicted the partitions of Poland
Poland
.

Romanticism

Due to the three successive Partitions carried out by three adjacent empires—ending the existence of the sovereign Polish state in 1795— Polish Romanticism, unlike Romanticism
Romanticism
elsewhere in Europe, was largely a movement for independence from foreign occupation, and expressed the ideals and traditional way of life of the Polish people. The period of Romanticism
Romanticism
in Poland
Poland
ended with the Russian Empire's suppression of the January 1863 Uprising , culminating in public executions and deportations to Siberia.

The literature of Polish Romanticismfalls into two distinct sub-periods, each ended by an insurgency : the first, circa 1820–30, ending with the November 1830 Uprising ; and the second, 1830–64, giving rise to Polish Positivism . In the first Romantic sub-period, Polish Romantics were heavily influenced by other European Romantics: their work featured emotionalism and imagination, folklore , and country life, in addition to the aspiration for independence . The sub-period's most famous writers were Adam Mickiewicz
Adam Mickiewicz
, Seweryn Goszczyński , Tomasz Zan, and Maurycy Mochnacki.

In the second Romantic sub-period, after the November 1830 Uprising , many Polish Romantics worked abroad, driven from Poland
Poland
by the occupying powers. Their work became dominated by the aspiration to regain their country's lost sovereignty . Elements of mysticism became more prominent. Also, the concept of the Three Bards(_trzej wieszcze_) developed. The _wieszcz_ functioned as spiritual leader to the suppressed people. The most notable poet of the Three Bards, so recognized in both Polish Romantic sub-periods, was Adam Mickiewicz
Adam Mickiewicz
. The other two national bards were Juliusz Słowacki
Juliusz Słowacki
and Zygmunt Krasiński .

*

Adam Jerzy Czartoryski
Adam Jerzy Czartoryski
, President of the Polish National Government during the November 1830 Uprising , and a romantic poet. *

Aleksander Fredro
Aleksander Fredro
, whose fables, prose, and especially plays belong to the canon of Polish literature
Polish literature
. *

Adam Mickiewicz
Adam Mickiewicz
, a principal figure in Polish Romanticism, widely regarded as one of the greatest Polish and European poets of all time. *

Zygmunt Krasiński, one of the Three Bardswho influenced national consciousness during Poland's political bondage. *

Józef Ignacy Kraszewski, author of _An Ancient Tale _, who produced over 200 novels and 150 novellas. *

Juliusz Słowacki
Juliusz Słowacki
, a major figure of Polish Romanticism, and father of modern Polish drama. His most popular works include _ Kordian_ and _Balladyna _. *

Cyprian Kamil Norwid, a nationally esteemed poet, sometimes considered to be the "Fourth Bard".

Positivism

Bolesław Prus
Bolesław Prus

In the wake of the failed January 1863 Uprising against Russian occupation, a new period of thought and literature, Polish "Positivism" , proceeded to advocate level-headedness, skepticism, the exercise of reason, and "organic work". "Positivist" writers argued for the establishment of equal rights for all members of society; for the assimilation of Poland's Jewish minority ; and for defense of western Poland's population, in the German-occupied part of Poland, against the German _ Kulturkampf
Kulturkampf
_ and the displacement of the Polish populace by German colonization . Writers such as Bolesław Prus sought to educate the public about a constructive patriotism that would enable Polish society to function as a fully integrated _social organism,_ regardless of external circumstances. Another influential Polish novelist active in that period was Henryk Sienkiewicz
Henryk Sienkiewicz
who received the Nobel Prize in Literature
Nobel Prize in Literature
in 1905. The Positivist period lasted until the turn of the 20th century and the advent of the Young Poland
Poland
movement.

Young Poland
Poland
(1890–1918)

Władysław Reymont Joseph Conrad
Joseph Conrad

The modernist period known as the Young Poland
Poland
movement in visual arts, literature and music , came into being around 1890, and concluded with the Poland\'s return to independence (1918). The period was based on two concepts. Its early stage was characterized by a strong aesthetic opposition to the ideals of its own predecessor (promoting _organic work_ in the face of foreign occupation). Artists following this early philosophy of Young Poland
Poland
believed in decadence , symbolism , conflict between human values and civilization, and the existence of art for art\'s sake . Prominent authors who followed this trend included Joseph Conrad
Joseph Conrad
, Kazimierz Przerwa-Tetmajer, Stanisław Przybyszewski and Jan Kasprowicz.

Interbellum And The Return To Independence
Independence
(1918–1939)

Literature of the Second Polish Republic
Second Polish Republic
(1918–1939) encompasses a short, though exceptionally dynamic period in Polish literary consciousness. The socio-political reality has changed radically with Poland's return to independence. In large part, derivative of these changes was the collective and unobstructed development of programs for artists and writers. New avant-garde trends had emerged. The period, spanning just twenty years, was full of notable individualities who saw themselves as exponents of changing European civilization, including Tuwim , Witkacy , Gombrowicz , Miłosz , Dąbrowska and Nałkowska (PAL ).

After 1945

Stanisław Lem

Much of Polish literature
Polish literature
written during the occupation of Poland appeared in print only after the end of World War II, including books by Nałkowska , Rudnicki , Borowski and others. The Soviet takeover of the country did not discourage émigrés and exiles from returning, especially before the advent of Stalinism . Indeed, many writers attempted to recreate the Polish literary scene, often with a touch of nostalgia for the prewar reality, including Jerzy Andrzejewski, author of _ Ashes and Diamonds_, describing the political and moral dilemmas associated with the anti-communist resistance in Poland
Poland
. His novel was adapted into film a decade later by Wajda . The new emerging prose writers such as Stanisław Dygatand Stefan Kisielewski approached the catastrophe of war from their own perspective. Kazimierz Wykacoined a term "borderline novel" for documentary fiction.

In the second half of the 20th century a number of Polish writers and poets achieved international recognition including Stanisław Lem, Czesław Miłosz
Czesław Miłosz
( Nobel Prize in Literature
Nobel Prize in Literature
, 1980), Zbigniew Herbert , Sławomir Mrożek, Wisława Szymborska( Nobel Prize in Literature
Nobel Prize in Literature
, 1996), Jerzy Kosiński, Adam Zagajewski, Andrzej Sapkowski, and Olga Tokarczuk.

POLES IN CINEMA AND THEATRE

At present, the Polish theatre actor possibly best-known outside the country is Andrzej Seweryn, who in the years 1984–1988 was a member of the international group formed by Peter Brook
Peter Brook
to work on the staging of the Mahabharata, and since 1993 has been linked with the Comédie Française. The most revered actor of the second half of the twentieth century in Poland
Poland
is generally considered to be Tadeusz Łomnicki , who died in 1992 of a heart attack while rehearsing King Lear.

During the second half of the nineties, there appeared in Polish dramatic theatre a new generation of young directors, who have attempted to create productions relevant to the experience and problems of a thirty-something generation brought up surrounded by mass culture, habituated to a fast-moving lifestyle, but at the same time ever more lost in the world of consumer capitalism. There is no strict division in Poland
Poland
between theatre and film directors and actors, therefore many stage artists are known to theatre goers from films of Andrzej Wajda
Andrzej Wajda
, for example: Wojciech Pszoniak, Daniel Olbrychski , Krystyna Janda
Krystyna Janda
, Jerzy Radziwiłowicz, and from films of Krzysztof Kieślowski. Notable actors from Poland
Poland
include Jerzy Stuhr , Janusz Gajos, Jerzy Skolimowskiand Michał Żebrowski. Polish actors and actresses that achieved great success overseas, mostly in Hollywood
Hollywood
, include Bella Darvi, Pola Negri
Pola Negri
, Ross Martin
Ross Martin
, Ingrid Pitt , Ned Glass, Lee Strasberg
Lee Strasberg
, Izabella Scorupco
Izabella Scorupco
, Paul Wesleyand John Bluthal.

Notable Hollywood
Hollywood
American actors and actresses of Polish descent include David Arquette, Caroll Baker(born Karolina Piekarski), Christine Baranski
Christine Baranski
, Kristen Bell
Kristen Bell
, Maria Bello
Maria Bello
, Jack Benny
Jack Benny
, Charles Bronson , Mayim Bialik
Mayim Bialik
, Cate Blanchett
Cate Blanchett
, Alex Borstein
Alex Borstein
, David Burtka , Steve Carell
Steve Carell
, Anna Chlumsky, Jennifer Connelly, Jesse Eisenberg
Jesse Eisenberg
, Estelle Getty, Scarlett Johansson
Scarlett Johansson
, Harvey Keitel
Harvey Keitel
, John Krasinski
John Krasinski
, Lisa Kudrow
Lisa Kudrow
, Ben Stiller, Carole Landis
Carole Landis
, Téa Leoni, Paul Newman
Paul Newman
, Eli Wallach
Eli Wallach
, Jared Padalecki, Gwyneth Paltrow
Gwyneth Paltrow
, Robert Prosky, Maggie Q
Maggie Q
, William Shatner
William Shatner
, Sarah Silverman
Sarah Silverman
, Leelee Sobieski, Loretta Swit
Loretta Swit
and others.

*

Pola Negri
Pola Negri
, famous for her tragedienne and _femme fatale _ roles *

Lee Strasberg
Lee Strasberg
, co-founder of the New York Group Theatre , which was hailed as "America's first true theatrical collective " *

Ross Martin
Ross Martin
, portrayed Artemus Gordon on the CBS
CBS
Western series _The Wild Wild West _ *

Andrzej Wajda
Andrzej Wajda
, recipient of a honorary Oscar and the Palme d\'Or , he was possibly the most prominent member of the " Polish Film School" *

Carroll Baker
Carroll Baker
, earned her BAFTA
BAFTA
and Academy Award
Academy Award
nomination for Tennessee Williams
Tennessee Williams
's _ Baby Doll_ (1956) *

Roman Polanski
Roman Polanski
, film director and Academy Award
Academy Award
winner. Known for _Rosemary\'s Baby _, _Chinatown _ (1974), _The Pianist _ (2002) and _Oliver Twist _ (2005). *

Andrzej Seweryn, one of the most successful Polish theatre actors, starred in over 50 films *

Paul Wesley, known for playing Aaron Corbett in _Fallen _ and Stefan Salvatore in the supernatural drama _ The Vampire Diaries
The Vampire Diaries
_ *

Krzysztof Kieślowski, an influential filmmaker, his most critically acclaimed films include _ Dekalog_, _ The Double Life of Veronique_ and _Three Colors_ trilogy *

Mia Wasikowska, Australian actress of Polish descent, known for her roles in such films as _Alice in Wonderland _, _Jane Eyre _, _Maps to the Stars _ and _Alice Through the Looking Glass _ *

Pawel Pawlikowski, Academy Award
Academy Award
-winning film director; his films include _ My Summer of Love_ and _Ida _ *

Jerzy Skolimowski, film director, recipient of Golden Bear
Golden Bear
Award and Golden Lion
Golden Lion
Award for Lifetime Achievement *

Agnieszka Holland
Agnieszka Holland
, film and television director, and screenwriter, best known for her political contributions to Polish cinema, Holland is one of Poland's most eminent filmmakers

RELIGION

Main article: Religion in Poland
Poland
King Casimir III the Great welcomes the Jews
Jews
to Poland
Poland

Most Poles
Poles
adhere to the Christian faith , the majority belonging to the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
. with 87.5% of Poles
Poles
in 2011 identifying as Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
. The remaining religious part of the population consists mainly of Protestants , Lutherans
Lutherans
, Jehovah\'s Witnesses , those irreligious , and Judaism
Judaism
(mostly from the Jewish populations in Poland
Poland
who have lived there prior to World War II). Roman Catholics live all over the country, while Orthodox Christians can be found mostly in north-east, in the area of Białystok
Białystok
, and Protestants (mainly Lutherans) in Cieszyn Silesia
Silesia
and Warmia- Masuria
Masuria
. A growing Jewish population exists in major cities, especially in Warsaw
Warsaw
, Kraków
Kraków
and Wrocław
Wrocław
. Over two million Jews
Jews
of Polish origin reside in the United States, Brazil, and Israel.

According to Poland\'s Constitution freedom of religion is ensured to everyone. It also allows for national and ethnic minorities to have the right to establish educational and cultural institutions, institutions designed to protect religious identity, as well as to participate in the resolution of matters connected with their cultural identity.

Religious organizations in the Republic of Poland
Poland
can register their institution with the Ministry of Interior and Administration creating a record of churches and other religious organizations who operate under separate Polish laws. This registration is not necessary; however, it is beneficial when it comes to serving the freedom of religious practice laws.

The Slavic Rodzimowiercy groups, registered with the Polish authorities in 1995, are the Native Polish Church(Rodzimy Kościół Polski) which represents a pagan tradition that goes back to Władysław Kołodziej's 1921 Holy Circle of Worshipper of Światowid (Święte Koło Czcicieli Światowida), and the Polish Slavic Church (Polski Kościół Słowiański), There's also the Native Faith Association (Zrzeszenie Rodzimej Wiary, ZRW), and the Association for Tradition and Culture
Culture
_ Niklot_ (founded in 1998). See also: Roman Catholicism in Poland
Poland
, Polish National Catholic Church
Catholic Church
, Polish Orthodox Church , Polish Lutheran Church, Pentecostal Church in Poland
Poland
, Baptist Union of Poland
Poland
, and Polish Reformed Church

EXONYMS

See also: Lechites
Lechites

Among the exonyms not native to the Polish people or language are: лях (_lyakh_) used in East Slavic languages
East Slavic languages
. Today, the word _Lachy_ is used in Belorussian, Ukrainian (now considered offensive and is replaced by the neutral поляк – _polyak_) and Russian as synonyms for "Poles". The foreign exonyms include also: Lithuanian _Lenkai_, Hungarian _Lengyelek_, Turkish _Leh_, Armenian : Լեհաստան _Lehastan_; Persian : لهستان‎‎ _Lahestān_.

SEE ALSO

* Polonization * Karta Polaka * Polish nationality law
Polish nationality law
* Demographics of Poland
Demographics of Poland
* List of Poles
Poles
* West Slavs
West Slavs
* Lechites
Lechites
* Name of Poland
Poland
(etymology of the demonym ) * Pole, Hungarian, two good friends * Poles
Poles
in Germany
Germany
* Poles
Poles
in Lithuania
Lithuania
* Poles
Poles
in Romania
Romania
* Poles
Poles
in the former USSR
USSR
* Poles
Poles
in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
* Polish Americans
Americans
* Polish Argentines * Polish Australians * Polish Brazilians * Polish British * Polish Canadians * Polish Chileans * Polish Czechs
Czechs
* Polish minority in France
France
* Polish Mexicans * Polish New Zealanders * Polish Spaniards * Polish Uruguayan * Polish Venezuelans * Sons of Poland
Poland

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. Nakładem Akademii Umiejętności. 1910. 119s. (in Polish) * ^ Jacek Adamczyk, book review: _Regina Libertas: Liberty in Polish Eighteenth-Century Political Thought_, by Anna Grześkowiak-Krwawicz. _Instytut Książki_, Poland. Retrieved September 17, 2011. * ^ Day, William Ansell (1867). _The Russian government in Poland: with a narrative of the Polish Insurrection of 1863_. London : Longmans, Green, Reader & Dyer. * ^ Czesław Miłosz
Czesław Miłosz
, _The History of Polish Literature_, p. 284. * ^ _A_ _B_ Jean Albert Bédé, William Benbow Edgerton, _Columbia dictionary of modern European literature._ Page 632. _Columbia University Press _, 1980. ISBN 0-231-03717-1 * ^ "IMDb: Actors and Actresses of Polish Descent – a list by comicman117". _IMDb_. Retrieved 18 March 2015. * ^ "The World Factbook". Retrieved 14 November 2014. * ^ (in Polish) _Kościoły i związki wyznaniowe w Polsce_. Retrieved on June 17, 2008. * ^ Simpson, Scott (2000). Native Faith: Polish Neo-Paganism At the Brink of the 21st Century

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