Pokémon (Japanese: ポケモン, Hepburn: Pokemon,
Japanese: [pokemoɴ]; English: /ˈpoʊkɪˌmɒn, -ki-,
-keɪ-/) is a media franchise managed by The Pokémon
Company, a Japanese consortium between Nintendo, Game Freak, and
Creatures. The franchise copyright is shared by all three
Nintendo is the sole owner of the trademark. The
franchise was created by
Satoshi Tajiri in 1995, and is centered on
fictional creatures called "Pokémon", which humans, known as Pokémon
Trainers, catch and train to battle each other for sport.
The franchise began as a pair of video games for the original Game Boy
that were developed by
Game Freak and published by Nintendo. It now
spans video games, trading card games, animated television shows and
movies, comic books, and toys.
Pokémon is the second best-selling
video game franchise, behind only Nintendo's Mario franchise, and
the highest-grossing media franchise of all time. The franchise is
also represented in other
Nintendo media, such as the Super Smash
Cumulative sales of the video games (including home console games,
Hey You, Pikachu!
Hey You, Pikachu! for the
Nintendo 64) have reached more than
300 million copies. In November 2005, 4Kids Entertainment, which
had managed the non-game related licensing of Pokémon, announced that
it had agreed not to renew the
Pokémon representation agreement. The
Pokémon Company International (formerly
Pokémon USA Inc.), a
subsidiary of Japan's
Pokémon Co., oversees all
outside Asia. As of March 2017, the
Pokémon franchise has grossed
revenues of ¥6.0 trillion worldwide (equivalent to
The franchise celebrated its tenth anniversary in 2006. 2016 marks
the 20th anniversary of the release of the original games, with the
company celebrating by airing an ad during Super Bowl 50, issuing
Pokémon Red, Blue, and Yellow, and completely
redesigning the way the newest games are played. The mobile
augmented reality game
Pokémon Go was released in July 2016. The
first seventh-generation games
Pokémon Sun and Moon were released
worldwide on November 18, 2016. A live-action film adaptation
Detective Pikachu began production in 2017. The English
slogan for the franchise is "Gotta Catch 'Em All".
3 Video games
3.1.1 Generation 1
3.1.2 Generation 2
3.1.3 Generation 3
3.1.4 Generation 4
3.1.5 Generation 5
3.1.6 Generation 6
3.1.7 Generation 7
3.2 Game mechanics
3.2.1 Starter Pokémon
4 In other media
4.1 Anime series
4.2.1 Anime Film Series
4.2.2 Live Action Film
Pokémon Trading Card Game
5 Criticism and controversy
5.1 Morality and religious beliefs
5.2 Animal cruelty
5.4 Monster in My Pocket
6 Cultural influence
6.1 Fan community
7 See also
9 External links
Pokémon is the romanized contraction of the Japanese brand
Pocket Monsters (ポケットモンスター, Poketto Monsutā).
The term Pokémon, in addition to referring to the
itself, also collectively refers to the 806 fictional species that
have made appearances in
Pokémon media as of the release of the
seventh generation titles
Pokémon Sun and Moon. "Pokémon" is
identical in both the singular and plural, as is each individual
species name; it is grammatically correct to say "one Pokémon" and
"many Pokémon", as well as "one Pikachu" and "many Pikachu".
An animated history of how
Satoshi Tajiri came to conceive Pokémon.
Tajiri first thought of Pokémon, albeit with a different concept and
name, around 1989, when the
Game Boy was first released. The concept
Pokémon universe, in both the video games and the general
fictional world of Pokémon, stems from the hobby of insect
collecting, a popular pastime which
Pokémon executive director
Satoshi Tajiri enjoyed as a child. Players are designated as
Pokémon Trainers and have three general goals: to complete the
Pokédex by collecting all of the available
found in the fictional region where a game takes place, to complete
Pokédex by transferring
Pokémon from other regions, and
to train a team of powerful
Pokémon from those they have caught to
compete against teams owned by other Trainers so they may eventually
Pokémon League and become the regional Champion. These themes
of collecting, training, and battling are present in almost every
version of the
Pokémon franchise, including the video games, the
anime and manga series, and the
Pokémon Trading Card Game.
In most incarnations of the
Pokémon universe, a Trainer who
encounters a wild
Pokémon is able to capture that
throwing a specially designed, mass-producible spherical tool called a
Poké Ball at it. If the
Pokémon is unable to escape the confines of
the Poké Ball, it is officially considered to be under the ownership
of that Trainer. Afterwards, it will obey whatever commands it
receives from its new Trainer, unless the Trainer demonstrates such a
lack of experience that the
Pokémon would rather act on its own
accord. Trainers can send out any of their
Pokémon to wage non-lethal
battles against other Pokémon; if the opposing
Pokémon is wild, the
Trainer can capture that
Pokémon with a Poké Ball, increasing his or
her collection of creatures.
Pokémon already owned by other Trainers
cannot be captured, except under special circumstances in certain side
games. If a
Pokémon fully defeats an opponent in battle so that the
opponent is knocked out ("faints"), the winning
experience points and may level up. When leveling up, the Pokémon's
battling aptitude statistics ("stats, such as Attack and Speed")
increase. At certain levels, the
Pokémon may also learn new moves,
which are techniques used in battle. In addition, many species of
Pokémon can undergo a form of metamorphosis and transform into a
similar but stronger species of Pokémon, a process called evolution.
In the main series, each game's single-player mode requires the
Trainer to raise a team of
Pokémon to defeat many non-player
character (NPC) Trainers and their Pokémon. Each game lays out a
somewhat linear path through a specific region of the
for the Trainer to journey through, completing events and battling
opponents along the way (including foiling the plans of an 'evil' team
Pokémon Trainers who serve as antagonists to the player). Each
game (excluding Sun and Moon) features eight especially powerful
Trainers, referred to as Gym Leaders, that the Trainer must defeat in
order to progress. As a reward, the Trainer receives a Gym Badge, and
once all eight badges are collected, that Trainer is eligible to
challenge the region's
Pokémon League, where four immensely talented
trainers (referred to collectively as the "Elite Four") challenge the
Trainer to four
Pokémon battles in succession. If the trainer can
overcome this gauntlet, he or she must then challenge the Regional
Champion, the master Trainer who had previously defeated the Elite
Four. Any Trainer who wins this last battle becomes the new champion.
In Sun and Moon, however, the Gym Leaders are not present, and are
instead replaced with "Trial Captains", a NPC who gives the Trainer a
challenge to complete so as to earn a special item. Once the player
completes all of these on an island, the Trainer must take on the
Island Kahuna, the strongest Trainer on the island. Once the player
beats all the Kahunas, he must travel to the recently built Pokémon
League, where he must re-defeat two of the Kahunas and two strong
Trainers, who now form the Elite Four, and then defend his newly
received title against challengers.
It is implied by Takeshi Shudo, the initial writer for the anime, that
the creators of
Pokémon had not anticipated the franchise would
become so popular, and there were plans to end the series by the Gold
and Silver era. In his blog, Shudo reveals he even had an ending
drafted for the anime, in which the last episode reveals an elderly
Ash Ketchum hallucinated the entire events of the show. This is
supported in an interview with president of The
Tsunekazu Ishihara, who predicted the anime would end by 1998. He also
stated he initially did not intend on making "any more Pokémon
titles" after Gold and Silver and would have moved on to other
projects. However the games' success following their release prompted
Ishinhara to continue work on the series.
Pokémon (video game series)
Pokémon games were role-playing games (RPGs) with an
element of strategy, and were created by
Satoshi Tajiri for the Game
Boy. These RPGs, and their sequels, remakes, and English language
translations, are still considered the "main"
Pokémon games, and the
games which most fans of the series are referring to when they use the
Pokémon games". All of the licensed
overseen by The
Pokémon Company International are divided roughly by
generation. These generations are roughly chronological divisions by
release; every several years, when an official sequel in the main RPG
series is released that features new Pokémon, characters, and
gameplay concepts, that sequel is considered the start of a new
generation of the franchise. The main games and their spin-offs, the
anime, manga, and trading card game are all updated with the new
Pokémon properties each time a new generation begins. The franchise
began the seventh generation on November 18, 2016.
A rival battle between a
Bulbasaur and a
Pokémon franchise started off in its first generation with its
initial release of
Pocket Monsters Aka and Midori ("Red" and "Green",
respectively) for the
Game Boy in
Japan on February 27, 1996. When
these games proved extremely popular, an enhanced Ao ("Blue") version
was released sometime after, and the Ao version was reprogrammed as
Pokémon Red and Blue
Pokémon Red and Blue for international release. The games launched in
the United States on September 30, 1998. The original Aka and Midori
versions were never released outside Japan. Afterwards, a further
enhanced version titled
Pikachu Edition was
released to partially take advantage of the color palette of the Game
Boy Color, as well as to feature more elements from the popular
Pokémon anime. This first generation of games introduced the original
151 species of Pokémon, in National
Pokédex order, encompassing all
Bulbasaur to Mew. It also introduced the basic game
concepts of capturing, training, battling, and trading
both computer and human players. These versions of the games take
place within the fictional Kanto region, inspired by the real world
Kantō region of Japan, though the name "Kanto" was not used until the
The second generation of
Pokémon began in 1999 with the release of
Pokémon Gold and Silver for
Game Boy Color. Like the previous
generation, an enhanced version titled
Pokémon Crystal was later
released. The second generation introduced 100 new species of
Pokémon, starting with
Chikorita and ending with Celebi. The Pokédex
Pokémon to collect, train, and battle, set in Johto,
inspired by Japan's Kansai region. The
Pokémon mini is a handheld
game console released in November 2001 in North America, December 2001
in Japan, and 2002 in Europe.
Pokémon entered its third generation with the 2002 release of
Pokémon Ruby and Sapphire for
Game Boy Advance and continued with the
Game Boy Advance remakes of
Pokémon Red and Blue,
and LeafGreen, and an enhanced version of
Pokémon Ruby and Sapphire
Pokémon Emerald. The third generation introduced 135 new
Pokémon, starting with
Treecko and ending with Deoxys, for a total of
Pokémon Ruby, Sapphire and Emerald are set in Hoenn,
inspired by Japan's
Kyushu region. However, this generation also
garnered some criticism for leaving out several gameplay features,
including the day-and-night system introduced in the previous
generation. It was also the first installment that encouraged the
player to collect merely a selected assortment of the total number of
Pokémon rather than every existing species. By contrast, 202 out of
386 species are catchable in the Ruby and Sapphire versions.
Japan began the fourth generation of the franchise with the
Pokémon Diamond and Pearl for
Nintendo DS. The fourth
generation introduced another 107 new species of Pokémon, starting
Turtwig and ending with Arceus, bringing the total of Pokémon
species to 493. The
Nintendo DS "touch screen" allows new features
to the game such as cooking poffins with the stylus and using the
"Pokétch". New gameplay concepts include a restructured
move-classification system, online multiplayer trading and battling
Nintendo Wi-Fi Connection, the return and expansion of the second
generation's day-and-night system, the expansion of the third
Pokémon Contests into "Super Contests", and the new
region of Sinnoh. This region was inspired by Japan's
and part of Russia's Sakhalin, and has an underground component for
multiplayer gameplay in addition to the main overworld. Pokémon
Platinum, the enhanced version of Diamond and Pearl—much like
Pokémon Yellow, Crystal, and Emerald—was released in September 2008
in Japan, March 2009 in North America, and May 2009 in Australia and
Europe. Spin-off titles in the fourth generation include the Pokémon
Pokémon Battle Revolution for Wii, which has Wi-Fi
connectivity as well.
Nintendo announced in May 2009 that enhanced
Pokémon Gold and Silver, entitled
Pokémon HeartGold and
SoulSilver, would be released for the
Nintendo DS system. HeartGold
and SoulSilver are set in the
Johto region and were released in
September 2009 in Japan and March 2010 in North America.
The fifth generation of
Pokémon began on September 18, 2010, with the
Pokémon Black and White in
Nintendo DS. The
games were originally announced by the
Pokémon Company on January 29,
2010, with a tentative release later that year. The final
release date of September 18 was announced on June 27, 2010. This
version is set in the Unova region (イッシュ地方, Isshu-chihō,
Isshu region), inspired by New York City, and utilizes the Nintendo
DS's 3-D rendering capabilities to a greater extent than Platinum,
HeartGold, and SoulSilver, as shown in game footage of the player
walking through the Castelia City (ヒウンシティ, Hiun Shiti)
metropolis. A total of 156 new
Pokémon were introduced, starting with
Victini and ending with Genesect, bringing the franchise's total to
649. This is currently the only time that the number of Pokémon
introduced surpasses the number introduced in the first
generation. It also deployed new game mechanics such as the C Gear
(Cギア, C Gia) wireless interactivity features and the ability
to upload game data to the Internet and to the player's own
Pokémon Black and White was released in Europe on March
4, 2011, in North America on March 6, 2011, and in Australia on March
10, 2011. On June 23, 2012,
Pokémon Black 2 and
Pokémon White 2 in
Nintendo DS, with early October releases
in North America and Europe. Black 2 and White 2 are sequels to Black
and White, with several events in the second games referencing events
in the first; they also allow players to link their previous Black or
White with their Black 2 or White 2, introducing several events based
on how they played their previous game.
Officially announced on January 8, 2013, and released simultaneously
worldwide on October 12, 2013,
Pokémon X and
Pokémon Y for the
Nintendo 3DS are part of the sixth generation of games.
Introducing the France-inspired Kalos region, these are the first
Pokémon games rendered in 3D, and the first released worldwide
together. A total of 72 new
Pokémon were introduced, starting
with Chespin and ending with Volcanion, bringing the franchise's total
to 721. The fewest new
Pokémon in a single generation so far;
however, the new Mega Evolution feature was added to the games to
balance out the lack of new characters. Another addition was the Fairy
typing, the first new type since Dark and Steel in the second
generation. On May 7, 2014,
Nintendo announced remakes of the third
Pokémon Ruby and Sapphire titled
Pokémon Omega Ruby
and Alpha Sapphire which were released in Japan, North America,
Australia, and South Korea on November 21, 2014, and in Europe on
November 28, 2014.
Officially announced on February 26, 2016,
Pokémon Sun and Moon for
Nintendo 3DS are part of the seventh generation of games, and the
celebrations for the 20th anniversary of the franchise, introducing
the Hawaii-inspired Alola region. Both games were released worldwide
on November 18, 2016, in nine languages; Japanese, English, French,
Italian, German, Spanish, Korean, and, for the first time, Chinese
(Traditional and Simplified). A total of 81 new
introduced, bringing the total to 802. Though no new mega evolutions
were added, a new type of form was added for specific Pokémon, called
Alola Form, changing their types and move sets. A new type of move was
added as well, called the Z-move. Usable by any Pokémon, Z-moves are
extremely powerful and as such can only be used once per battle.
Two more games,
Pokémon Ultra Sun and Ultra Moon were released on
November 17, 2017. These games add five new
Pokémon on top of the
ones introduced into Sun and Moon, bringing the total to 807.
Main article: Gameplay of Pokémon
The main staple of the
Pokémon video game series revolves around the
catching and battling of Pokémon. Starting with a starter Pokémon,
the player can catch wild
Pokémon by weakening them and catching them
with Poké Balls. Conversely, they can choose to defeat them in battle
in order to gain experience for their Pokémon, raising their levels
and teaching them new moves. Most
Pokémon have 'evolution families',
a term which refers to the
Pokémon to evolve into or be evolved into
more powerful forms by raising their levels or using certain items.
Throughout the game, players will have to battle other trainers in
order to progress, with the main goal to defeat various Gym
Leaders/Trials and earn the right to become the regional champion.
Subsequent games in the series have introduced various side games and
side quests, including the Battle Frontiers that display unique battle
types and the
Pokémon Contests where visual appearance is put on
One of the consistent aspects of the
Pokémon games—spanning from
Pokémon Red and Blue
Pokémon Red and Blue on the
Game Boy to the
Nintendo 3DS games
Pokémon Ultra Sun and Ultra Moon—is the choice of one of three
Pokémon at the start of the player's adventures; these
three are often labeled "starter Pokémon". Players can choose a
Grass-type, a Fire-type, or a Water-type. For example, in Pokémon
Red and Blue (and their respective remakes,
Pokémon FireRed and
Pokémon LeafGreen), the player has the choice of starting with
Bulbasaur, Charmander, or Squirtle. The exception to this rule is
Pokémon Yellow (a remake of the original games that loosely follows
the story of the
Pokémon anime), where players are given a Pikachu,
an Electric-type mouse Pokémon, famous for being the mascot of the
Pokémon media franchise; in this game, however, the three starter
Pokémon from Red and Blue can be obtained by meeting certain
requirements in game, such as
Pikachu having full happiness.
Another consistent aspect is that the player's rival will always
choose as his or her starter
Pokémon the one that has a type
advantage over the player's Pokémon. For instance, if the player
picks a Grass-type Pokémon, the rival will always pick the Fire-type
starter. An exception to this is again
Pokémon Yellow, in which the
rival picks an Eevee, but whether this
Eevee evolves into Vaporeon,
Flareon is decided by when the player wins and loses to
the rival through the journey.
Pokémon Sun and Moon are also an
exception where the rival will pick the starter weak toward the
players, with the remaining starter used elsewhere. The GameCube games
Pokémon Colosseum and
Pokémon XD: Gale of Darkness also contain an
exception; whereas in most games the player's initial
at Level 5, in these two games the player's initial
Pokémon starts at
Levels 10 and 25, respectively. In Colosseum the player's starter
Espeon and Umbreon, while in Gale of Darkness the
player's starter is Eevee.
Pokédex is an electronic device featured in the
game, anime, and manga series. In the games, whenever a
first captured, its data will be added to a player's Pokédex, but in
the anime, the
Pokédex is a comprehensive electronic reference
encyclopedia, usually referred to in order to deliver exposition.
"Pokédex" is also used to refer to a list of Pokémon, usually a list
Pokémon by number. In the video games, a
Pokémon Trainer is
issued a blank device at the start of the journey. A trainer must then
attempt to fill the
Pokédex by encountering and at least briefly
obtaining each of the different species of Pokémon. A player will
receive the name and image of a
Pokémon after encountering one that
was not previously in the Pokédex, typically after battling said
Pokémon either in the wild or in a trainer battle (with the
exceptions of link battles and tournament battles, such as in the
Battle Frontier). In
Pokémon Red and Blue, some Pokémon's data is
added to the
Pokédex simply by viewing the Pokémon, such as in the
zoo outside the Safari Zone. Also, certain NPC characters may add to
Pokédex by explaining what a
Pokémon looks like during
More detailed information is available after the player obtains a
member of the species, either through capturing the
Pokémon in the
wild, evolving a previously captured Pokémon, hatching a
(from the second generation onwards), or through a trade with another
trainer (either an NPC or another player). This information includes
height, weight, species type, typing, and a short description of the
Pokémon. Later versions of the
Pokédex have more detailed
information, like the size of a certain
Pokémon compared to the
player character, or
Pokémon being sorted by their habitat (so far,
the latter feature is only in the FireRed and LeafGreen versions). The
most current forms of
Pokédex are capable of containing information
Pokémon currently known. The GameCube games, Pokémon
Pokémon XD: Gale of Darkness, have a
Assistant (P★DA) which is similar to the Pokédex, but also tells
what types are effective against a
Pokémon and gives a description of
In other media
Ash Ketchum holding
Pikachu in the pilot episode, "Pokémon, I Choose
Pokémon anime series and films are a meta-series of adventures
usually separate from the canon that most of the
Pokémon video games
follow (with the exception of
Pokémon Yellow, a game based loosely on
the anime storyline). The anime follows the quest of the main
Ash Ketchum (known as Satoshi in Japan), a
in training, as he and a small group of friends travel around the
Pokémon along with their
The original series, titled Pocket Monsters, or simply
Western countries (often referred to as Pokémon: Gotta Catch 'Em All
to distinguish it from the later series), begins with Ash's first day
Pokémon trainer. His first (and signature)
Pokémon is a
Pikachu, differing from the games, where only Bulbasaur, Charmander,
Squirtle could be chosen. The series follows the storyline of
the original games,
Pokémon Red and Blue, in the region of Kanto.
Accompanying Ash on his journeys are Brock, the Pewter City Gym
Leader, and Misty, the youngest of the
Gym Leader sisters from
Cerulean City. Pokémon: Adventures in the Orange Islands follows
Ash's adventures in the Orange Islands, a place unique to the anime,
and replaces Brock with Tracey Sketchit, an artist and "Pokémon
watcher". The next series, based on the second generation of games,
Johto Journeys, Pokémon:
Johto League Champions,
and Pokémon: Master Quest, following the original trio of Ash, Brock,
and Misty in the western
The saga continues in Pokémon: Advanced, based on the third
generation games. Ash and company travel to Hoenn, a southern region
Pokémon World. Ash takes on the role of a teacher and mentor
for a novice
Pokémon trainer named May. Her brother Max accompanies
them, and though he isn't a trainer, he knows large amounts of handy
information. Brock (from the original series) soon catches up with
Ash, but Misty has returned to Cerulean City to tend to her duties as
a gym leader (Misty, along with other recurring characters, appears in
the spin-off series
Pokémon Chronicles). The Advanced series
concludes with the Battle Frontier saga, based on the Emerald version
and including aspects of FireRed and LeafGreen. It ended with Max
leaving to pick his starter
Pokémon and May going to the Grand
Festival in Johto.
In the Diamond and Pearl series, based on the fourth generation games,
Ash, Brock, and a new companion, an aspiring
named Dawn, travel through the region of Sinnoh. At the end of the
series, Ash and Brock return to Kanto where Brock begins to follow his
newfound dream of becoming a
Pokémon doctor himself.
Pocket Monsters: Best Wishes!, based on the fifth generation games,
features Ash and
Pikachu traveling through the region of Unova (Isshu
in Japan) alongside two new companions, Iris and Cilan (Dent in Japan)
who part ways with them after returning to Kanto.
Pocket Monsters: XY (ポケットモンスターXY, Poketo Monsutā
Ekkusu Wai), is the current airing series based on the sixth
generation games, following Ash and Pikachu's journey through the
region of Kalos, accompanied by Ash's childhood friend Serena and the
siblings Clemont and Bonnie.
In addition to the TV series, twenty
Pokémon films have been made as
of July 2017, with the pair of films,
Pokémon the Movie:
Victini and Reshiram and White—
Victini and Zekrom considered
together as one. Collectible bonuses, such as promotional trading
cards, have been available with some of the films. Various children's
books, collectively known as
Pokémon Junior, are also based on the
Anime Film Series
Given release years are the original Japanese release years.
Pokémon: The First Movie—Mewtwo Strikes Back (1998)
Pokémon: The Movie 2000—The Power of One (1999)
Pokémon 3: The Movie—Spell of the Unown (2000)
Pokémon 4Ever—Celebi: Voice of the Forest (2001)
Pokémon Heroes—Latios and Latias (2002)
Pokémon: Jirachi Wish Maker (2003)
Pokémon: Lucario and the Mystery of Mew (2005)
Pokémon Ranger and the Temple of the Sea (2006)
Pokémon: The Rise of Darkrai (2007)
Pokémon: Giratina and the Sky Warrior (2008)
Arceus and the Jewel of Life (2009)
Pokémon: Zoroark: Master of Illusions (2010)
Pokémon the Movie: Black—
Victini and Reshiram &
Pokémon the Movie: White—
Victini and Zekrom (2011)
Pokémon the Movie: Kyurem vs. the Sword of Justice (2012)
Pokémon the Movie:
Genesect and the Legend Awakened (2013)
Pokémon the Movie: Diancie and the Cocoon of Destruction (2014)
Pokémon the Movie: Hoopa and the Clash of Ages (2015)
Pokémon the Movie: Volcanion and the Mechanical Marvel (2016)
Pokémon the Movie: I Choose You! (2017)
Pokémon the Movie: Everyone's Story (2018)
Live Action Film
In April of 2016, It was announced by The Hollywood Reporter that
Warner Bros. Pictures, Sony Pictures Entertainment, and Legendary
Pictures were in negotiations with The
Pokémon Company for a live
Pokémon movie. Soon after, Deadline reported that
Legendary was closing a deal with The
Pokémon Company for live-action
film that'll begin with a
Detective Pikachu movie. The partnership
Toho distributing the film in Japan, with Universal Pictures
distributing it in the rest of the world. 
Nicole Perlman and
Alex Hirsch are penning the script. Originally, Chris McKay,
Robert Rodriguez, Tim Miller, Mark A.Z. Dippé,
Shane Acker and Chris
Wedge were being considered as potential directors.
On November 30th, 2016, Deadline reported that The
and Legendary Entertainment had chosen
Rob Letterman to direct the
film. It was eventually announced that the film will be titled
Detective Pikachu later started production in
January of 2018.
Pokémon CDs have been released in North America, most of them in
conjunction with the theatrical releases of the first three Pokémon
films. These releases were commonplace until late 2001. On March 27,
2007, a tenth anniversary CD was released containing 18 tracks from
the English dub; this was the first English-language release in over
five years. Soundtracks of the
Pokémon feature films have been
Japan each year in conjunction with the theatrical
June 29, 1999
Pokémon 2.B.A. Master
November 9, 1999
Pokémon: The First Movie
February 8, 2000
May 9, 2000
Pokémon: The First Movie Original Motion Picture Score
July 18, 2000
Pokémon: The Movie 2000
Pokémon: The Movie 2000 Original Motion Picture Score
January 23, 2001
April 3, 2001
Pokémon 3: The Ultimate Soundtrack
October 9, 2001
Pokémon Christmas Bash
March 27, 2007
Pokémon X: Ten Years of Pokémon
November 12, 2013
Pokémon X &
Pokémon Y: Super Music Collection
December 10, 2013
Pokémon FireRed &
Pokémon LeafGreen: Super Music Collection
January 14, 2014
Pokémon HeartGold &
Pokémon SoulSilver: Super Music Collection
February 11, 2014
Pokémon Ruby &
Pokémon Sapphire: Super Music Collection
March 11, 2014
Pokémon Diamond &
Pokémon Pearl: Super Music Collection
April 8, 2014
Pokémon Black &
Pokémon White: Super Music Collection
May 13, 2014
Pokémon Black 2 &
Pokémon White 2: Super Music Collection
December 21, 2014
Pokémon Omega Ruby &
Pokémon Alpha Sapphire: Super Music
April 27, 2016
Pokémon Red and Green Super Music Collection
November 30, 2016
Pokémon Sun &
Pokémon Moon: Super Music Collection
^1 The exact date of release is unknown.
Pokémon Trading Card Game
Pokémon Trading Card Game
Palkia, the Spacial
Pokémon Trading Card Game card from
Diamond and Pearl.
Pokémon Trading Card Game (TCG) is a collectible card game with a
goal similar to a
Pokémon battle in the video game series. Players
Pokémon cards, with individual strengths and weaknesses, in an
attempt to defeat their opponent by "knocking out" his or her Pokémon
cards. The game was first published in North America by Wizards of
the Coast in 1999. However, with the release of
Pokémon Ruby and
Game Boy Advance video games, The
Pokémon Company took back
the card game from
Wizards of the Coast
Wizards of the Coast and started publishing the
cards themselves. The Expedition expansion introduced the
Pokémon-e Trading Card Game, where the cards (for the most part) were
compatible with the
Nintendo discontinued its
production of e-Reader compatible cards with the release of 'ex'
FireRed & LeafGreen. In 1998,
Nintendo released a
Game Boy Color
version of the trading card game in Japan;
Pokémon Trading Card Game
was subsequently released to the US and Europe in 2000. The game
included digital versions cards from the original set of cards and the
first two expansions (Jungle and Fossil), as well as several cards
exclusive to the game. A Japan-exclusive sequel was released in
Main article: List of
There are various
Pokémon manga series, four of which were released
in English by Viz Media, and seven of them released in English by
Chuang Yi. The manga series vary from game-based series to being based
on the anime and the Trading Card Game. Original stories have also
been published. As there are several series created by different
Pokémon manga series differ greatly from each other and
other media, such as the anime.
Pocket Monsters and Pokémon
Adventures are the only two manga never stopped since the first
Manga released in English
The Electric Tale of
Pikachu (a.k.a. Dengeki Pikachu), a shōnen manga
created by Toshihiro Ono. It was divided into four tankōbon, each
given a separate title in the North American and English Singapore
versions: The Electric Tale of Pikachu,
Pikachu Shocks Back, Electric
Pikachu Boogaloo, and Surf's Up, Pikachu. The series is based loosely
on the anime.
Pokémon Adventures (
Pocket Monsters SPECIAL in Japan) by Hidenori
Kusaka (story), Mato (art formerly), and Satoshi Yamamoto (art
currently), the most popular
Pokémon manga based on the video games.
The story series around the
Pokémon Trainers who called "Pokédex
Pokémon Journey (a.k.a.
Pocket Monsters PiPiPi ★
Adventures), a shōjo manga
Pikachu Meets the Press (newspaper style comics, not released by
Pikachu (a.k.a. Satoshi to Pikachu, not released by Viz)
Pokémon Gold & Silver (not released by Viz)
Pokémon Ruby-Sapphire and
Pocket Monsters (not released by
Pokémon: Jirachi Wish Maker (not released by Viz)
Deoxys (not released by Viz)
Pokémon: Lucario and the Mystery of Mew (the third movie-to-comic
Pokémon Ranger and the Temple of the Sea (the fourth
Pokémon Diamond and Pearl Adventure!
Pokémon Adventures: Diamond and Pearl / Platinum
Pokémon: The Rise of Darkrai (the fifth movie-to-comic adaption)
Pokémon: Giratina and the Sky Warrior (the sixth movie-to-comic
Arceus and the Jewel of Life (the seventh movie-to-comic
Pokémon: Zoroark: Master of Illusions (the eighth movie-to-comic
Pokémon The Movie: White:
Victini and Zekrom (the ninth
Pokémon Black and White
Manga not released in English
Pocket Monsters by Kosaku Anakubo, the first
It is chiefly a gag manga series stars a
Pokémon Trainer named Red,
his rude Clefairy, and Pikachu.
Pokémon Card ni Natta Wake (How I Became a
Pokémon Card) by Kagemaru
Himeno, an artist for the Trading Card Game. There are six volumes and
each includes a special promotional card. The stories tell the tales
of the art behind some of Himeno's cards.
Pokémon Get aa ze! by Miho Asada
Pocket Monsters Chamo-Chamo ★ Pretty ♪ by Yumi Tsukirino, who also
Pokémon Card Master
Pocket Monsters Emerald Chōsen!! Battle Frontier by Ihara Shigekatsu
Pocket Monsters Zensho by Satomi Nakamura
A Monopoly board game was released in August 2014.
Criticism and controversy
Morality and religious beliefs
Pokémon has been criticized by some Christians over perceived occult
and violent themes and the concept of "
Pokémon evolution", which they
feel goes against the Biblical creation account in Genesis.
However, Sat2000, a satellite television station based in Vatican
City, has countered that the
Pokémon Trading Card Game and video
games are "full of inventive imagination" and have no "harmful moral
side effects". In the United Kingdom, the "Christian Power
Cards" game was introduced in 1999 by David Tate who stated, "Some
people aren't happy with
Pokémon and want an alternative, others just
want Christian games." The game was similar to the
Card Game but used Biblical figures.
Nintendo stopped manufacturing the Japanese version of the
"Koga's Ninja Trick" trading card because it depicted a manji, a
Buddhist symbol with no negative connotations. The
Jewish civil rights group
Anti-Defamation League complained because
the symbol is the reverse of a swastika, which is considered offensive
Jewish people. The cards were intended for sale in
Japan only, but
the popularity of
Pokémon led to importation into the United States
with approval from Nintendo. The
Anti-Defamation League understood
that the issue symbol was not intended to offend and acknowledged the
Nintendo showed by removing the product.
In 1999, two nine-year-old boys from
Merrick, New York
Merrick, New York sued Nintendo
because they claimed the
Pokémon Trading Card Game caused their
Saudi Arabia banned
Pokémon games and cards, alleging that
the franchise promoted
Zionism by displaying the
Star of David
Star of David in the
trading cards (a six-pointed star is featured in the card game) as
well as other religious symbols such as crosses they associated with
Christianity and triangles they associated with Freemasonry; the games
also involved gambling, which is in violation of Muslim
Pokémon has also been accused of promoting materialism.
In 2012, PETA publicly criticized the concept of
supporting cruelty to animals. PETA compared the game's concept, of
capturing animals and forcing them to fight, to cockfights, dog
fighting rings and circuses, all events frequently criticized for
cruelty to animals. PETA released a game spoofing
Pokémon where the
Pokémon battle their trainers to win their freedom. PETA
reaffirmed their objections in 2016 with the release of
promoting the hashtag #GottaFreeThemAll.
Main article: Dennō Senshi Porygon
On December 16, 1997, more than 635 Japanese children were admitted to
hospitals with epileptic seizures. It was determined the seizures
were caused by watching an episode of
Pokémon "Dennō Senshi
Porygon", (most commonly translated "Electric Soldier Porygon", season
1, episode 38); as a result, this episode has not been aired since. In
this particular episode, there were bright explosions with rapidly
alternating blue and red color patterns. It was determined in
subsequent research that these strobing light effects cause some
individuals to have epileptic seizures, even if the person had no
previous history of epilepsy. This incident is a common focus of
Pokémon-related parodies in other media, and was lampooned by the
Simpsons episode "Thirty Minutes over Tokyo" and the South Park
episode "Chinpokomon", among others.
Monster in My Pocket
In March 2000, Morrison Entertainment Group, a small toy developer
based at Manhattan Beach, California, sued
Nintendo over claims that
Pokémon infringed on its own
Monster in My Pocket
Monster in My Pocket characters. A judge
ruled there was no infringement, so Morrison appealed the ruling. On
February 4, 2003, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit
affirmed the decision by the District Court to dismiss the suit.
Pokémon Go § Criticism and incidents
Within its first two days of release,
Pokémon Go raised safety
concerns among players. Multiple people also suffered minor injuries
from falling while playing the game due to being distracted.
Multiple police departments in various countries have issued warnings,
some tongue-in-cheek, regarding inattentive driving, trespassing, and
being targeted by criminals due to being unaware of one's
surroundings. People have suffered various injuries from
accidents related to the game, and Bosnian players
have been warned to stay out of minefields left over from the 1990s
Bosnian War. On July 20, 2016, it was reported that an 18-year-old
boy in Chiquimula,
Guatemala was shot and killed while playing the
game in the late evening hours. This was the first reported death
in connection with the app. The boy's 17-year-old cousin, who was
accompanying the victim, was shot in the foot. Police speculated that
the shooters used the game's GPS capability to find the two.
All Nippon Airways
All Nippon Airways Boeing 747-400 in
Pokémon livery, dubbed a
Pokémon, being a globally popular franchise, has left a significant
mark on today's pop culture. The
Pokémon characters themselves have
become pop culture icons; examples include two different Pikachu
balloons in the Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade,
Pokémon Jets operated
by All Nippon Airways, thousands of merchandise items, and a traveling
theme park that was in Nagoya,
Japan in 2005 and in
Taipei in 2006.
Pokémon also appeared on the cover of the U.S. magazine Time in 1999.
The Comedy Central show
Drawn Together has a character named Ling-Ling
who is a direct parody of Pikachu. Several other shows such as
ReBoot, The Simpsons, South Park, The Grim Adventures of Billy &
Mandy, Robot Chicken, All Grown Up!, and
Johnny Test have made
references and spoofs of Pokémon, among other series.
also featured on VH1's I Love the '90s: Part Deux. A live action show
Pokémon Live! toured the United States in late 2000. It was
based on the popular
Pokémon anime, but had some continuity errors
relating to it.
Jim Butcher cites
Pokémon as one of the inspirations
Codex Alera series of novels.
In November 2001,
Nintendo opened a store called the
in New York, in New York's Rockefeller Center, modeled after the
Pokémon Center stores in Tokyo and
Osaka and named after a
staple of the videogame series;
Pokémon Centers are fictional
buildings where Trainers take their injured
Pokémon to be healed
after combat. The store sold
Pokémon merchandise on a total of
two floors, with items ranging from collectible shirts to stuffed
Pokémon plushies. The store also featured a Pokémon
Distributing Machine in which players would place their game to
receive an egg of a
Pokémon that was being given out at that time.
The store also had tables that were open for players of the Pokémon
Trading Card Game to duel each other or an employee. The store was
closed and replaced by the
Nintendo World Store on May 14, 2005.
Pokémon Center kiosks were put in malls in Washington, with one
in Tacoma and one in Seattle currently remaining.[unreliable
Pokémon Center online store was relaunched on August 6,
Meitetsu 2200 series train Giratina & Shaymin.
Joseph Jay Tobin theorizes that the success of the franchise was
mainly due to the long list of names that could be learned by children
and repeated in their peer groups. The rich fictional universe
provided a lot of opportunities for discussion and demonstration of
knowledge in front of their peers. In the French version
care to translate the name of the creatures so that they reflected the
French culture and language. In all cases the names of the creatures
were linked to its characteristics, which converged with the
children's belief that names have symbolic power. Children could pick
Pokémon and affirm their individuality while at the
same time affirming their conformance to the values of the group, and
they could distinguish themselves from other kids by asserting what
they liked and what they didn't like from every chapter. Pokémon
gained popularity because it provided a sense of identity to a wide
variety of children, and lost it quickly when many of those children
found that the identity groups were too big and searched for
identities that would distinguish them into smaller groups.
Shinkansen E3 Series
Shinkansen E3 Series train in
Pokémon's history has been marked at times by rivalry with the
Digimon media franchise that debuted at a similar time. Described as
"the other 'mon'" by IGN's Juan Castro,
Digimon has not enjoyed
Pokémon's level of international popularity or success, but has
maintained a dedicated fanbase. IGN's Lucas M. Thomas stated that
Pokémon is Digimon's "constant competition and comparison",
attributing the former's relative success to the simplicity of its
evolution mechanic as opposed to Digivolution. The two have been
noted for conceptual and stylistic similarities by sources such as
GameZone. A debate among fans exists over which of the two
franchises came first. In actuality, the first
Pokémon Red and Green, were released initially on February 27,
1996; whereas the
Digimon virtual pet was released on June 26,
While Pokémon's target demographic is young boys, early purchasers of
Pokémon Omega Ruby and Alpha Sapphire were in their 20's. Many
fans are adults who originally played the games as children and later
returned to the series.
Bulbapedia, a wiki-based encyclopedia associated with longtime
fan site Bulbagarden, is the "Internet's most detailed
Pokémon database project". Bulbapedia finally received a mobile
makeover with the release of BulbaGo, the app for Bulbapedia. The
app's developer, Jonathan Zarra, was the same that created the
location based chat app GoChat for
Pokémon Go. The Bulbapedia App was
so successful that within 3 days of its release, it was acquired by
Bulbapedia and turned into its official app.
A significant community around the
Pokémon video games' metagame has
existed for a long time, analyzing the best ways to use each Pokémon
to their full potential in competitive battles. The most prolific
competitive community is Smogon University, which has created a widely
accepted tier-based battle system. Smogon is affiliated with an
Pokémon game called
Pokémon Showdown, in which players create
a team and battle against other players around the world using the
competitive tiers created by Smogon.
In early 2014, an anonymous video streamer on Twitch launched Twitch
Plays Pokémon, an experiment trying to crowdsource playing subsequent
Pokémon games starting with
A challenge called the Nuzlocke Challenge was created in order for
older players of the series to enjoy
Pokémon again, but with a twist.
Pokémon faints it is considered "dead" and must be released or
stored in the PC permanently. If the player blacks out/whites out
the game is considered over and the player must restart. The
original idea only consisted of 2 to 3 rules that the community has
since built upon. There are many fan made
Pokémon games made that
contains a game mode similar to the Nuzlocke Challenge, such as
Video games portal
List of Pokémon
Pokémon video games
Pokémon episodes removed from rotation
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universe, to learn about the attributes, strengths, and weaknesses of
over 500 different characters; the literacy required for success
extends beyond the game itself.
^ O'Neil, Mathieu (2009). Cyberchiefs: autonomy and authority in
online tribes (1. publ. ed.). London: Pluto Press. p. 148.
ISBN 0745327974. Bulbapedia is a Media
Wiki installation run by
Pokémon fansite Bulbagarden.net for the purpose of creating a
Pokémon-focused encyclopedia. This project is overseen by the
Bulbapedia editorial board, and Bulbagarden's executive staff.
Bulbapedia also incorporates the Bulbanews wiki, a news organization
run by Bulbagarden as a means of publishing
Pokémon news quickly and
effectively. Bulbapedia is a founding member of Encyclopaediae
Pokémonis, a multilingual, open-content
^ Khaw, Cassandra (October 19, 2013). "More Starter Pokemon, Less
Starting Pokemon: We Can Make
Pokémon X & Y's Wonder Trade
Better!". USgamer. Gamer Network. Archived from the original on March
11, 2015. Retrieved March 10, 2015.
^ McKinley Noble. "Major Pokemon game to be announced May 10".
GamePro. Archived from the original on June 7, 2011. According to
Japan and Bulbapedia, the Internet's most detailed Pokemon
^ Alex Magdaleno (February 20, 2014). "Inside the Secret World of
Competitive Pokémon". Mashable.
^ Hernandez, Patricia (May 2, 2015). "The Most Popular
By Top Players, In One Image". Kotaku. Univision Communications.
Retrieved November 15, 2016.
^ Andrew Cunningham (February 18, 2014). "The bizarre, mind-numbing,
mesmerizing beauty of "Twitch Plays Pokémon"". Condé Nast. Retrieved
April 11, 2014.
^ Megan Farokhmanesh (March 25, 2014). "Twitch Plays Pokemon will
continue as long as it has an active following". Vox Media, Inc.
Retrieved April 11, 2014.
^ "What is the Nuzlocke Challenge?". Nuzlocke.com. 2010. Retrieved May
^ Martinez, Phillip (May 14, 2015). "
Pokémon Nuzlocke Challenge: 20
Years Of Playing
Pokémon And This Is The Most Stressful Experience
Ever". iDigitalTimes. Archived from the original on May 28, 2015.
Retrieved May 28, 2015.
^ Buzzi, Matthew (December 26, 2014). "Check Out Pokemon Uranium, A
Downloadable Fan Project About Angry Nuclear-Type Pokemon in an
Original World". Gamenguide. Retrieved May 28, 2015.
Tobin, Joseph, ed. (February 2004). Pikachu's Global Adventure: The
Rise and Fall of Pokémon. Duke University Press.
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Pokémon
Look up pokémon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
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