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Ephebomyrmex Wheeler, 1902 Forelomyrmex Wheeler, 1913 Janetia Forel, 1899

POGONOMYRMEX is a genus of harvester ants , occurring primarily in the deserts of North , Central , and South America
South America
, with a single endemic species from Haiti
Haiti
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Description * 2 Venom * 3 Nests * 4 Predation * 5 Species * 6 Gallery * 7 References * 8 External links

DESCRIPTION

The genus name originated from the Greek language and refers to a beard-like structure, the psammophore , below the head (Greek πώγων/pōgōn, "beard" + μύρμηξ/murmēx, "ant"), which can be found in most species of the subgenus sensu stricto . The psammophore is used for gathering small seeds, helping to increase the efficiency of transportation of fine sand and pebbles during nest construction, or to carry eggs. However, this structure is missing in species of the subgenus Ephebomyrmex (Greek ἔφηβος/ephēbos, "beardless lad"), and these species generally have smaller individuals and colonies.

VENOM

Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
(sensu stricto) workers have the most toxic venom documented in any insects, with Pogonomyrmex maricopa
Pogonomyrmex maricopa
being the most toxic tested thus far. It has an LD50 of only 0.12 mg/kg, compared to western honey bee venom, at 2.8 mg/kg, and comparable to cobra venom. The venom is presumed to be an antivertebrate defense, specifically against predators that have evolved to selectively feed on them such as horned lizards . Very few insects have had the toxicity of their venoms formally tested, and other insects likely have more potent venoms.

NESTS

These ants dig very deep nests with many underground chambers in which they keep seeds, from which they derive food for their larvae. The areas around most Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
(sensu stricto) nests tend to be utterly devoid of vegetation, and are easily seen from a distance.

PREDATION

In addition to horned lizards, predatory wasps in the genus Clypeadon feed only on Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
workers, paralyzing them with their venom, and carrying them back to a burrow where they will serve as food for the wasp's larva.

SPECIES

As of 2014, there are 68 extant and 1 fossil species in the genus.

* Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
abdominalis Santschi, 1929 * Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
andinus Kusnezov, 1951 * Pogonomyrmex anergismus Cole, 1954 * Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
angustus Mayr, 1870 * Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
anzensis Cole, 1968 * Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
apache Wheeler, 1902 * Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
atratus Santschi, 1922 * Pogonomyrmex badius (Latreille, 1802) * Pogonomyrmex barbatus (Smith, 1858) * Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
bicolor Cole, 1968 * Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
bigbendensis Francke & Merickel, 1982 * Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
bispinosus (Spinola, 1851) * Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
brevibarbis Emery, 1906 * Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
brevispinosus Cole, 1968 * Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
bruchi Forel, 1913 * Pogonomyrmex californicus (Buckley, 1866) * Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
carbonarius Mayr, 1868 * Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
catanlilensis Gallardo, 1931 * Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
coarctatus Mayr, 1868 * Pogonomyrmex colei Snelling, 1982 * Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
comanche Wheeler, 1902 * Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
cunicularius Mayr, 1887 * Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
desertorum Wheeler, 1902 * † Pogonomyrmex fossilis Carpenter, 1930 * Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
guatemaltecus Wheeler, 1914 * Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
hoelldobleri Johnson, Overson & Moreau, 2013 * Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
huachucanus Wheeler, 1914 * Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
humerotumidus Vásquez-Bolaños & Mackay, 2004 * Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
imberbiculus Wheeler, 1902 * Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
inermis Forel, 1914 * Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
kusnezovi Cuezzo & Claver, 2009 * Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
laevigatus Santschi, 1921 * Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
laevinodis Snelling, 1982 * Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
laticeps Santschi, 1922 * Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
lobatus Santschi, 1921 * Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
longibarbis Gallardo, 1931 * Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
magnacanthus Cole, 1968 * Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
marcusi Kusnezov, 1951 * Pogonomyrmex maricopa
Pogonomyrmex maricopa
Wheeler, 1914 * Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
mayri Forel, 1899 * Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
mendozanus Cuezzo & Claver, 2009 * Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
meridionalis Kusnezov, 1951 * Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
micans Forel, 1914 * Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
mohavensis Johnson & Overson, 2009 * Pogonomyrmex occidentalis * Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
montanus MacKay, 1980 * Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
naegelii Emery, 1878 * Pogonomyrmex occidentalis (Cresson, 1865) * Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
odoratus Kusnezov, 1949 * Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
pima Wheeler, 1909 * Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
pronotalis Santschi, 1922 * Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
rastratus Mayr, 1868 * Pogonomyrmex rugosus Emery, 1895 * Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
salinus Olsen, 1934 * Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
saucius Wheeler & Mann, 1914 * Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
schmitti Forel, 1901 * Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
snellingi Taber, 1998 * Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
stefani Lattke, 2006 * Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
striatinodus Fernández & Palacio, 1998 * Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
subdentatus Mayr, 1870 * Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
subnitidus Emery, 1895 * Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
sylvestris Lattke, 1991 * Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
tenuipubens Santschi, 1936 * Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
tenuispinus Forel, 1914 * Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
texanus Francke ">

P. californicus *

P. barbatus with psammophore visible *

Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
collecting food item *

Larvae of P. barbatus

REFERENCES

* ^ A B Bolton, B. (2014). "Pogonomyrmex". AntCat. Retrieved 23 July 2014. * ^ A B Cole, A.C. 1968. Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
Harvester Ants: a study of the genus in North America. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, TN. * ^ W. L. Meyer (1996-05-01). "Chapter 23 — Most Toxic Insect Venom". Book of Insect
Insect
Records. University of Florida . * ^ Johnson, R. A., et al. (2013). A new species of seed-harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
hoelldobleri (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), from the Mohave and Sonoran Deserts of North America. Zootaxa 3646(3), 201-27. * ^ A B Cuezzo, F. and S. Claver. (2009). Two new species of the ant genus Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
(Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Argentina. Rev. Soc. Entomol. Argent 68(1-2), 97-106. * ^ Johnson, R. A. and R. P. Overson. (2009). A new North american species of