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Ephebomyrmex Wheeler, 1902 Forelomyrmex Wheeler, 1913 Janetia Forel, 1899

Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
is a genus of harvester ants, occurring primarily in the deserts of North, Central, and South America, with a single endemic species from Haiti.[2]

Contents

1 Description 2 Venom 3 Nests 4 Predation 5 Species 6 Gallery 7 References 8 External links

Description[edit] The genus name originated from the Greek language and refers to a beard-like structure, the psammophore, below the head (Greek πώγων/pōgōn, "beard" + μύρμηξ/murmēx, "ant"), which can be found in most species of the subgenus sensu stricto. The psammophore is used for gathering small seeds, helping to increase the efficiency of transportation of fine sand and pebbles during nest construction, or to carry eggs. However, this structure is missing in species of the subgenus Ephebomyrmex (Greek ἔφηβος/ephēbos, "beardless lad"), and these species generally have smaller individuals and colonies.[citation needed] Venom[edit] Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
(sensu stricto) workers have the most toxic venom documented in any insects, with Pogonomyrmex maricopa
Pogonomyrmex maricopa
being the most toxic tested thus far.[3] It has an LD50 of only 0.12 mg/kg, compared to western honey bee venom, at 2.8 mg/kg, and comparable to cobra venom. The venom is presumed to be an antivertebrate defense, specifically against predators that have evolved to selectively feed on them such as horned lizards. Very few insects have had the toxicity of their venoms formally tested, and other insects likely have more potent venoms.[citation needed] Nests[edit] These ants dig very deep nests with many underground chambers in which they keep seeds, from which they derive food for their larvae. The areas around most Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
(sensu stricto) nests tend to be utterly devoid of vegetation, and are easily seen from a distance.[citation needed] Predation[edit] In addition to horned lizards, predatory wasps in the genus Clypeadon feed only on Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
workers, paralyzing them with their venom, and carrying them back to a burrow where they will serve as food for the wasp's larva.[2] Species[edit] As of 2014, there are 69 extant and 1 fossil species in the genus.[1]

Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
abdominalis Santschi, 1929 Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
andinus Kusnezov, 1951 Pogonomyrmex anergismus
Pogonomyrmex anergismus
Cole, 1954 Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
angustus Mayr, 1870 Pogonomyrmex anzensis
Pogonomyrmex anzensis
Cole, 1968 Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
apache Wheeler, 1902 Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
atratus Santschi, 1922 Pogonomyrmex badius
Pogonomyrmex badius
(Latreille, 1802) Pogonomyrmex barbatus
Pogonomyrmex barbatus
(Smith, 1858) Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
bicolor Cole, 1968 Pogonomyrmex bigbendensis
Pogonomyrmex bigbendensis
Francke & Merickel, 1982 Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
bispinosus (Spinola, 1851) Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
brevibarbis Emery, 1906 Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
brevispinosus Cole, 1968 Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
bruchi Forel, 1913 Pogonomyrmex californicus
Pogonomyrmex californicus
(Buckley, 1866) Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
carbonarius Mayr, 1868 Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
catanlilensis Gallardo, 1931 Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
coarctatus Mayr, 1868 Pogonomyrmex colei
Pogonomyrmex colei
Snelling, 1982 Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
comanche Wheeler, 1902 Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
cunicularius Mayr, 1887 Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
desertorum Wheeler, 1902 † Pogonomyrmex fossilis Carpenter, 1930 Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
guatemaltecus Wheeler, 1914 Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
hoelldobleri Johnson, Overson & Moreau, 2013[4] Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
huachucanus Wheeler, 1914 Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
humerotumidus Vásquez-Bolaños & Mackay, 2004 Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
imberbiculus Wheeler, 1902 Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
inermis Forel, 1914 Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
kusnezovi Cuezzo & Claver, 2009[5] Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
laevigatus Santschi, 1921 Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
laevinodis Snelling, 1982 Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
laticeps Santschi, 1922 Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
lobatus Santschi, 1921 Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
longibarbis Gallardo, 1931 Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
magnacanthus Cole, 1968 Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
marcusi Kusnezov, 1951 Pogonomyrmex maricopa
Pogonomyrmex maricopa
Wheeler, 1914 Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
mayri Forel, 1899 Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
mendozanus Cuezzo & Claver, 2009[5] Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
meridionalis Kusnezov, 1951 Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
micans Forel, 1914 Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
mohavensis Johnson & Overson, 2009[6] Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
occidentalis Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
montanus MacKay, 1980 Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
naegelii Emery, 1878 Pogonomyrmex occidentalis
Pogonomyrmex occidentalis
(Cresson, 1865) Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
odoratus Kusnezov, 1949 Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
pima Wheeler, 1909 Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
pronotalis Santschi, 1922 Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
rastratus Mayr, 1868 Pogonomyrmex rugosus
Pogonomyrmex rugosus
Emery, 1895 Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
salinus Olsen, 1934 Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
saucius Wheeler & Mann, 1914 Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
schmitti Forel, 1901 Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
snellingi Taber, 1998 Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
stefani Lattke, 2006[7] Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
striatinodus Fernández & Palacio, 1998 Pogonomyrmex subdentatus
Pogonomyrmex subdentatus
Mayr, 1870 Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
subnitidus Emery, 1895 Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
sylvestris Lattke, 1991 Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
tenuipubens Santschi, 1936 Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
tenuispinus Forel, 1914 Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
texanus Francke & Merickel, 1982 Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
theresiae Forel, 1899 Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
uruguayensis Mayr, 1887 Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
variabilis Santschi, 1916 Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
vermiculatus Emery, 1906 Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
wheeleri Olsen, 1934

Gallery[edit]

P. californicus

P. barbatus with psammophore visible

Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
collecting food item

Larvae of P. barbatus

References[edit]

^ a b Bolton, B. (2014). "Pogonomyrmex". AntCat. Retrieved 23 July 2014.  ^ a b Cole, A.C. 1968. Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
Harvester Ants: a study of the genus in North America. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, TN. ^ W. L. Meyer (1996-05-01). "Chapter 23 — Most Toxic Insect
Insect
Venom". Book of Insect
Insect
Records. University of Florida. Archived from the original on 2008-06-13.  ^ Johnson, R. A., et al. (2013). A new species of seed-harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
hoelldobleri (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), from the Mohave and Sonoran Deserts of North America. Zootaxa 3646(3), 201-27. ^ a b Cuezzo, F. and S. Claver. (2009). Two new species of the ant genus Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
(Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Argentina. Rev. Soc. Entomol. Argent 68(1-2), 97-106. ^ Johnson, R. A. and R. P. Overson. (2009). A new North american species of Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
(Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from the Mohave Desert of eastern California and western Nevada. Journal of Hymenptera Research 18(2), 305-14. ^ Lattke, J. E. (2006). A new species of Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
(Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from gallery forests of the Orinoco Watershed, Venezuela.[permanent dead link] Myrmecologische Nachrichten 8, 53-57.

External links[edit]

Media related to Pogonomyrmex
Pogonomyrmex
at Wikimedia Commons

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q138710 ADW: Pogonomyrmex BugGuide: 21468 EoL: 34294 EPPO: 1POGOG Fossilworks: 152104 GBIF: 1325341 ITIS: 1

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