The Info List - Podoviridae

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is a family of viruses in the order Caudovirales. Bacteria serve as natural hosts. There are currently 50 species in this family, divided among 20 genera.[1][2] This family is characterized by having very short, noncontractile tails.


1 Structure 2 Life cycle 3 Taxonomy

3.1 Proposed genera

4 References 5 External links


Electron micrograph of podovirus ΦCP7R of Clostridium perfringens.

Genomes of some podoviruses of Clostridium perfringens

in Podoviridae
are non-enveloped, with icosahedral and head-tail geometries. The diameter is around 60 nm,[1] and consists of 72 capsomers. The head protein has a molecular mass of ~38 kiloDaltons and is present in 460 copies per virion. There are 9 structural proteins. The tail is non-contractile and has 6 short subterminal fibers. It is thick and rod-shaped and built of stacked disks. The maximum length is ~17 nm. The double stranded DNA genome is linear, around 40-42kb in length,[1] and encodes ~55 genes. The guanine + cytosine content is ~50%. It has terminally redundant sequences and is nonpermuted. By weight, the genome constitutes ~50% of the viron. The genome encodes 9 structural proteins, an adenylated transferase B type DNA polymerase and an RNA polymerase. Three internal proteins constitute the polymerase complex. Two classes of genes are recognized (early and late). This classification is based on the timing of transcription that is temporally regulated. Genes with related functions are clustered together. Genome replication is bidirectional.

Genus Structure Symmetry Capsid Genomic arrangement Genomic segmentation

Phikmvlikevirus Head-Tail T=7 Non-enveloped Linear Monopartite

Sp6likevirus Head-Tail T=7 Non-enveloped Linear Monopartite

T7likevirus Head-Tail T=7 Non-enveloped Linear Monopartite

Ahjdlikevirus Head-Tail T=4 Non-enveloped Linear Monopartite

Phi29likevirus Head-Tail T=3, Q=5 Non-enveloped Linear Monopartite

Bcep22likevirus Head-Tail T=7 Non-enveloped Linear Monopartite

Bppunalikevirus Head-Tail T=7 Non-enveloped Linear Monopartite

Epsilon15likevirus Head-Tail T=7 Non-enveloped Linear Monopartite

F116likevirus Head-Tail T=7 Non-enveloped Linear Monopartite

Luz24likevirus Head-Tail

Non-enveloped Linear Monopartite

N4likevirus Head-Tail T=9 Non-enveloped Linear Monopartite

P22likevirus Head-Tail T=7 Non-enveloped Linear Monopartite

Phieco32likevirus Head-Tail

Non-enveloped Linear Monopartite

Life cycle[edit] Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by adsorption into the host cell. Replication follows the DNA strand displacement model. DNA-templated transcription is the method of transcription. The virus exits the host cell by lysis, and holin/endolysin/spanin proteins. Bacteria serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are passive diffusion. [1]

Genus Host details Tissue tropism Entry details Release details Replication site Assembly site Transmission

Phikmvlikevirus Bacteria None Injection Lysis Cytoplasm Cytoplasm Passive diffusion

Sp6likevirus Bacteria None Injection Lysis Cytoplasm Cytoplasm Passive diffusion

T7likevirus Bacteria None Injection Lysis Cytoplasm Cytoplasm Passive diffusion

Ahjdlikevirus Bacteria: gram positive None Injection Lysis Cytoplasm Cytoplasm Passive diffusion

Phi29likevirus Bacteria None Injection Lysis Cytoplasm Cytoplasm Passive diffusion

Bcep22likevirus Bacteria None Injection Lysis Cytoplasm Cytoplasm Passive diffusion

Bppunalikevirus Bacteria None Injection Lysis Cytoplasm Cytoplasm Passive diffusion

Epsilon15likevirus Bacteria None Injection Lysis Cytoplasm Cytoplasm Passive diffusion

F116likevirus Bacteria None Injection Lysis Cytoplasm Cytoplasm Passive diffusion

Luz24likevirus Bacteria None Injection Lysis Cytoplasm Cytoplasm Passive diffusion

N4likevirus Bacteria None Injection Lysis Cytoplasm Cytoplasm Passive diffusion

P22likevirus Bacteria None Injection Lysis Cytoplasm Cytoplasm Passive diffusion

Phieco32likevirus Bacteria None Injection Lysis Cytoplasm Cytoplasm Passive diffusion

Taxonomy[edit] Genera within this family have ~40% homology between corresponding proteins. Subfamiles have ~20% homology between corresponding proteins. This family is divided into two subfamiles ( Autographivirinae and Picovirinae) and a number of genera awaiting classification into subfamilies.[3][4] Group: dsDNA

Order: Caudovirales

Family: Podoviridae

Sub-Family: Autographivirinae

Genus: Phikmvlikevirus

Pantoea phage Limelight Pantoea phage Limezero Pseudomonas phage LKA1 Pseudomonas phage phiKMV

Genus: Sp6likevirus

Enterobacteria phage K5 Enterobacteria phage K1-5 Enterobacteria phage K1E Enterobacteria phage SP6 Erwinia amylovora phage Era103

Genus: T7likevirus

Enterobacteria phage T7 Kluyvera phage Kvp1 Pseudomonad phage gh-1

Genus: Unassigned

Prochlorococcus phage P-SSP7 Synechococcus phage P60 Synechococcus phage syn5

Sub-Family: Picovirinae

Genus: Ahjdlikevirus

Staphylococcus phage 44AHJD Streptococcus phage C1

Genus: Phi29likevirus

Bacillus phage B103 Bacillus phage GA-1 Bacillus phage phi29 Kurthia phage 6

Genus: Unassigned

Actinomyces phage Av-1 Mycoplasma phage P1 Streptococcus phage Cp-1

Sub-Family: Unassigned

Genus: Bcep22likevirus

Burkholderia phage Bcep22 Burkholderia phage Bcepil02 Burkholderia phage Bcepmigl Burkholderia phage Dc1

Genus: Bppunalikevirus

Bordetella phage BPP-1 Burkholderia phage BcepC6B

Genus: Epsilon15likevirus

Escherichia phage PhiV10 Salmonella phage epsilon15

Genus: F116likevirus

Pseudomonas phage F116 Pseudomonas phage H66

Genus: Luz24likevirus

Pseudomonas phage LUZ24 Pseudomonas phage PaP3

Genus: N4likevirus

Escherichia phage N4

Genus: P22likevirus

Enterobacteria phage P22 Salmonella phage HK620 Salmonella phage ST64T Shigella phage Sf6

Genus: Phieco32likevirus

Enterobacteria phage Phieco32

Genus: Unassigned

Endosymbiont phage APSE-1 Lactococcus phage KSY1 Phormidium phage Pf-WMP3 Phormidium phage Pf-WMP4 Pseudomonas phage 119X Pseudomonas phage F116 Roseobacter phage SIO1 Vibrio phage VpV262

[2] Proposed genera[edit] The following genera have been proposed but are not currently ratified by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses:[4][5][6][7][8][9]

Genus 119xlikevirus; type species: Pseudomonas phage 119X


Pseudomonas phage 119X

Genus Cba40unalikevirus; type species: Cellulophaga phage phi40:1


Cellulophaga phage phi40:1 Cellulophaga phage phi38:1

Genus Cba183likevirus; type species: Cellulophaga phage phi18:3


Cellulophaga phage phi18:3 Cellulophaga phage phi13:2 Cellulophaga phage phi19:3 Cellulophaga phage phi46:3

Genus Cba142likevirus; type species: Cellulophaga phage phi14:2


Cellulophaga phage phi14:2

Genus Cba4unalikevirus; type species: Cellulophaga phage phi4:1


Cellulophaga phage phi4:1 Cellulophaga phage phi17:2

Genus Cpvunalikevirus; type species: Clostridium phage CpV1


Clostridium phage CpV1

Genus Gap227likevirus; type species: Cronobacter phage vB CsaP GAP227


Cronobacter phage vB CsaP GAP227 Yersinia phage phiR8-01 Yersinia phage phi80-18 Aeromonas phage phiAS7

Genus P60likevirus (synonyms = Marine Picocyanobacteria Podovirus subgroup or MPP subgroup); type species: Synechococcus phage P60


Synechococcus phage P60

Genus pelagiphages (informal); type species: Pelagibacter phage HTVC010P


Pelagibacter phage HTVC010P MAR122 Pelagibacter phage HTVC010P MAR123 Pelagibacter phage HTVC010P MAR124

Genus Vp2likevirus; type species: Vibrio phage VP2


Vibrio phage VP2

Genus Ys6unalikevirus; type species: Weissella phage phiYS61


Weissella phage phiYS61


^ a b c d "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 1 July 2015.  ^ a b ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 1 July 2015.  ^ "International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses". ictvonline.org. Virology Division of IUMS. 2014. Retrieved August 14, 2014.  ^ a b Lavigne, R.; Seto, D.; Mahadevan, P.; Ackermann, H. W.; Kropinski, A. M. (2008). "Unifying classical and molecular taxonomic classification: analysis of the Podoviridae
using BLASTP-based tools". Research in Microbiology. 159 (5): 406–14. doi:10.1016/j.resmic.2008.03.005. PMID 18555669.  ^ Abbasifar R, Kropinski AM, Sabour PM, Ackermann HW, Alanis Villa A, Abbasifar A, Griffiths MW (2013). "The Genome of Cronobacter sakazakii Bacteriophage vB_CsaP_GAP227 Suggests a New Genus within the Autographivirinae". Genome Announc. 1 (1). doi:10.1128/genomeA.00122-12. PMC 3569369 . PMID 23409275.  ^ Labrie SJ, Frois-Moniz K, Osburne MS, Kelly L, Roggensack SE, Sullivan MB, Gearin G, Zeng Q, Fitzgerald M, Henn MR, Chisholm SW (2013). "Genomes of marine cyanopodoviruses reveal multiple origins of diversity". Environ. Microbiol. 15 (5): 1356–76. doi:10.1111/1462-2920.12053. PMID 23320838.  ^ Kleppen HP, Holo H, Jeon SR, Nes IF, Yoon SS (2012) A novel bacteriophage of the Podoviridae
family infecting Weissella cibaria isolated from kimchi. Appl Environ Microbiol doi:10.1128/AEM.00031-12 ^ Mizuno, C. M.; Rodriguez-Valera, F.; Kimes, N. E.; Ghai, R. (2013). "Expanding the Marine Virosphere Using Metagenomics". PLoS Genetics. 9 (12): e1003987. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1003987. PMC 3861242 . PMID 24348267.  ^ Holmfeldt, K.; Solonenko, N.; Shah, M.; Corrier, K.; Riemann, L.; Verberkmoes, N. C.; Sullivan, M. B. (2013). "Twelve previously unknown phage genera are ubiquitous in global oceans". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 110 (31): 12798–12803. doi:10.1073/pnas.1305956110. PMC 3732932 . PMID 23858439. 

External links[edit]

Viralzone: Podoviridae ICTV Complete Genomes of Podoviridae

v t e

Baltimore (virus classification)


I: dsDNA viruses


Myoviridae Podoviridae Siphoviridae


Alloherpesviridae Herpesviridae Malacoherpesviridae


Lipothrixviridae Rudiviridae


NLCDV: Ascoviridae Asfarviridae Iridoviridae Marseilleviridae Mimiviridae Phycodnaviridae Poxviridae genera: Dinodnavirus

nonenveloped: Adenoviridae Papillomaviridae Papovaviridae (obsolete) Polyomaviridae genera: Rhizidiovirus

Ampullaviridae Baculoviridae Bicaudaviridae Clavaviridae Corticoviridae Fuselloviridae Globuloviridae Guttaviridae Hytrosaviridae Nimaviridae Nudiviridae Plasmaviridae Polydnaviridae Sphaerolipoviridae Tectiviridae Turriviridae genera: Salterprovirus

II: ssDNA viruses

Anelloviridae Bidnaviridae Circoviridae Geminiviridae Inoviridae Microviridae Nanoviridae Parvoviridae Spiraviridae genera: Bacilladnavirus


III: dsRNA viruses

Amalgaviridae Birnaviridae Chrysoviridae Cystoviridae Endornaviridae Hypoviridae Megabirnaviridae Partitiviridae Picobirnaviridae Quadriviridae Reoviridae Totiviridae

IV: (+)ssRNA viruses (primarily icosahedral)


Arteriviridae Coronaviridae Mesoniviridae Roniviridae


Comoviridae (obsolete) Dicistroviridae Iflaviridae Marnaviridae Picornaviridae Secoviridae Sequiviridae (obsolete) genera: Bacillarnavirus Labyrnavirus


Alphaflexiviridae Betaflexiviridae Gammaflexiviridae Tymoviridae


Alphatetraviridae Alvernaviridae Astroviridae Barnaviridae Benyviridae Bromoviridae Caliciviridae Carmotetraviridae Closteroviridae Flaviviridae Flexiviridae (obsolete) Hepeviridae Leviviridae Luteoviridae Narnaviridae Nodaviridae Permutotetraviridae Potyviridae Tetraviridae (obsolete) Togaviridae Tombusviridae Virgaviridae genera: Cilevirus Higrevirus Idaeovirus Ourmiavirus Polemovirus Sobemovirus

V: (–)ssRNA viruses (primarily helical)


Bornaviridae Filoviridae Nyamiviridae Paramyxoviridae Rhabdoviridae


Hantaviridae Nairoviridae Peribunyaviridae Phenuiviridae Tospoviridae Feraviridae Fimoviridae Jonviridae



Arenaviridae Ophioviridae Orthomyxoviridae genera:Deltavirus


VI: ssRNA-RT viruses

Metaviridae Pseudoviridae Retroviridae

VII: dsDNA-RT viruses

Caulimoviridae Hepadnaviridae

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q6797 EoL: 8045 EPPO: 1PODVF GBIF