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about 97–107 species, see list

Podocarpus
Podocarpus
(/ˌpoʊdəˈkɑːrpəs/[2]) is a genus of conifers, the most numerous and widely distributed of the podocarp family, Podocarpaceae. Podocarpus
Podocarpus
are evergreen shrubs or trees, usually from 1 to 25 metres (3 to 82 ft) tall, known to reach 40 metres (130 ft) at times. The cones have two to five fused cone scales which form a fleshy, berry-like, brightly coloured receptacle at maturity. The fleshy cones attract birds which then eat the cones and disperse the seeds in their droppings. There are approximately 97 to 107 species in the genus depending on the circumscription of the species.[1][3][4][5]

Contents

1 Names and etymology 2 Description 3 Distribution 4 Classification 5 Allergenic potential 6 Uses 7 References 8 Further reading

Names and etymology[edit] The name Podocarpus
Podocarpus
is derived from the Greek, podos, meaning "foot", and karpos, meaning "fruit".[1] Common names for various species include "yellowwood" as well as "pine",[3] as in the plum pine ( Podocarpus
Podocarpus
elatus)[6] or the Buddhist pine (Podocarpus macrophyllus).[7] Description[edit] Podocarpus
Podocarpus
are evergreen woody plants. They are generally trees but may also be shrubs.[1] The trees can reach a height of 40 meters at their tallest.[3] Some shrubby species have a decumbent growth habit. The primary branches form pseudo-whorls around the trunk. The bark can be scaly or fibrous and peeling with vertical strips. Terminal buds are distinctive with bud scales that are often imbricate and can be spreading.[1] The leaves are simple, flattened and may be sessile or short petiolate. The phyllotaxis or leaf arrangement is spiral and may be subopposite on some shoots.[1][8] The leaves are usually linear-lanceolate or linear-elliptic in shape, though they can be broader lanceolate, ovate or nearly elliptic in some species.[1][3][8] Juvenile leaves are often larger than adult leaves though similar in shape.[8] The leaves are coriaceous and have a distinct midrib. The stomata are usually restricted to the abaxial or underside of the leaf, forming two stomatal bands around the midrib.[1] Podocarpus
Podocarpus
are generally dioecious, with the male pollen cones and female seed cones borne on separate individual plants but some species may be monoecious. The cones develop from axillary buds and may be solitary or form clusters.[1] The pollen cones are long and catkin-like in shape. They may be sessile or short pedunculate. A pollen cone consists of a slender rachis with numerous spirally arranged microsporophylls around it. Each triangular microsporophyll has two basal pollen producing pollen sacs. The pollen is bisaccate.[1] The seed cones are highly modified with the few cone scales swelling and fusing at maturity. The cones are pedunculate and often solitary. The seed cone consists of two to five cone scales of which only the uppermost one or rarely two nearest the apex of the cone are fertile. Each fertile scale usually has one apical ovule. The infertile basal scales fuse and swell to form a succulent, usually brightly colored receptacle. Each cone generally has only one seed but may have two or rarely more. The seed is attached to the apex of the receptacle. The seed is entirely covered by a fleshy modified scale known as an epimatium. The epimatium is usually green but may be bluish or reddish in some species.[1][8]

Leaves of P. henkelii.

Male cones of P. macrophyllus grow in clusters.

A seed cone of P. totara showing a red receptacle and a green epimatium.

A seedling of P. elatus.

Distribution[edit] The natural distribution of the genus consists of much of Africa, Asia, Australia, Central and South America
South America
and several South Pacific islands. The genus occurs from southern Chile
Chile
north to Mexico
Mexico
in the Americas
Americas
and from New Zealand
New Zealand
north to Japan
Japan
in the Asia-Pacific region.[1] Podocarpus
Podocarpus
and the Podocarpaceae
Podocarpaceae
were endemic to the ancient supercontinent of Gondwana, which broke up into Africa, South America, India, Australia-New Guinea, New Zealand, and New Caledonia
New Caledonia
between 105 and 45 million years ago. Podocarpus
Podocarpus
is a characteristic tree of the Antarctic flora, which originated in the cool, moist climate of southern Gondwana, and elements of the flora survive in the humid temperate regions of the former supercontinent. As the continents drifted north and became drier and hotter, Podocarps and other members of the Antarctic flora
Antarctic flora
generally retreated to humid regions, especially in Australia, where sclerophyll genera like Acacia
Acacia
and Eucalyptus
Eucalyptus
became predominant. The flora of Malesia, which includes the Malay peninsula, Indonesia, the Philippines, and New Guinea, is generally derived from Asia, but includes many elements of the old Gondwana
Gondwana
flora, including several other genera in the Podocarpaceae (Dacrycarpus, Dacrydium, Falcatifolium, Nageia, Phyllocladus, and the Malesian endemic Sundacarpus), and also Agathis
Agathis
in the Araucariaceae. Classification[edit]

Podocarpus macrophyllus
Podocarpus macrophyllus
with mature seed cones

There are two subgenera, subgenus Podocarpus
Podocarpus
and subgenus Foliolatus, distinguished by cone and seed morphology. In Podocarpus, the cone is not subtended by lanceolate bracts, and the seed usually has an apical ridge. Species are distributed in the temperate forests of Tasmania, New Zealand, and southern Chile, with a few occurring in the tropical highlands of Africa
Africa
and the Americas. In Foliolatus, the cone is subtended by two lanceolate bracts ("foliola"), and the seed usually lacks an apical ridge. The species are tropical and subtropical, concentrated in eastern and southeastern Asia
Asia
and Malesia, overlapping with subgenus Podocarpus
Podocarpus
in northeastern Australia
Australia
and New Caledonia. Species in family Podocarpaceae
Podocarpaceae
have been reshuffled a number of times based on genetic and physiological evidence, with many species formerly assigned to genus Podocarpus
Podocarpus
now assigned to other genera. A sequence of classification schemes have moved species between Nageia and Podocarpus, and in 1969 de Laubenfels divided the huge genus Podocarpus
Podocarpus
into Dacrycarpus, Decussocarpus (an invalid name he later revised to the valid Nageia), Prumnopitys, and Podocarpus. Some species of genus Afrocarpus
Afrocarpus
were formerly in Podocarpus, such as Afrocarpus
Afrocarpus
gracilior.

Species

Subgenus Podocarpus

section Podocarpus
Podocarpus
(eastern and southern Africa)

Podocarpus
Podocarpus
elongatus Podocarpus
Podocarpus
latifolius Podocarpus
Podocarpus
falcatus Podocarpus
Podocarpus
milanjianus

section Scytopodium (Madagascar, eastern Africa)

Podocarpus
Podocarpus
capuronii Podocarpus
Podocarpus
henkelii Podocarpus
Podocarpus
humbertii Podocarpus
Podocarpus
madagascariensis Podocarpus
Podocarpus
rostratus

section Australis (southeast Australia, New Zealand, New Caledonia, southern Chile)

P. totara

Podocarpus
Podocarpus
alpinus Podocarpus
Podocarpus
gnidioides Podocarpus
Podocarpus
laetus Podocarpus
Podocarpus
lawrencei Podocarpus
Podocarpus
nivalis Podocarpus
Podocarpus
nubigenus Podocarpus
Podocarpus
totara

section Crassiformis (northeast Queensland)

Podocarpus
Podocarpus
smithii

section Capitulatis (central Chile, southern Brazil, the Andes
Andes
from northern Argentina
Argentina
to Ecuador)

Podocarpus
Podocarpus
aracensis Podocarpus
Podocarpus
glomeratus Podocarpus
Podocarpus
lambertii Podocarpus
Podocarpus
parlatorei Podocarpus
Podocarpus
salignus Podocarpus
Podocarpus
sellowii Podocarpus
Podocarpus
sprucei Podocarpus
Podocarpus
transiens

section Pratensis (southeast Mexico
Mexico
to Guyana
Guyana
and Peru)

P. oleifolius

Podocarpus
Podocarpus
oleifolius Podocarpus
Podocarpus
pendulifolius Podocarpus
Podocarpus
tepuiensis

section Lanceolatis (southern Mexico, Puerto Rico, Lesser Antilles, Venezuela
Venezuela
to highland Bolivia)

Podocarpus
Podocarpus
coriaceus Podocarpus
Podocarpus
matudai Podocarpus
Podocarpus
rusbyi Podocarpus
Podocarpus
salicifolius Podocarpus
Podocarpus
steyermarkii

section Pumilis (southern Caribbean islands
Caribbean islands
and Guyana
Guyana
highlands)

Podocarpus
Podocarpus
angustifolius Podocarpus
Podocarpus
aristulatus Podocarpus
Podocarpus
buchholzii Podocarpus
Podocarpus
roraimae Podocarpus
Podocarpus
urbanii

section Nemoralis (central and northern South America, south to Bolivia)

Podocarpus
Podocarpus
brasiliensis Podocarpus
Podocarpus
celatus Podocarpus
Podocarpus
guatemalensis Podocarpus
Podocarpus
magnifolius Podocarpus
Podocarpus
purdieanus Podocarpus
Podocarpus
trinitensis

Subgenus Foliolatus

section Foliolatus ( Nepal
Nepal
to Sumatra, Philippines, and New Guinea
New Guinea
to Tonga)

P. neriifolius

Podocarpus
Podocarpus
archboldii Podocarpus
Podocarpus
beecherae Podocarpus
Podocarpus
borneensis Podocarpus
Podocarpus
deflexus Podocarpus
Podocarpus
epiphyticus Podocarpus
Podocarpus
indonesiensis Podocarpus
Podocarpus
insularis Podocarpus
Podocarpus
levis Podocarpus
Podocarpus
neriifolius Podocarpus
Podocarpus
novae-caledoniae Podocarpus
Podocarpus
pallidus Podocarpus
Podocarpus
rubens Podocarpus
Podocarpus
spathoides

section Acuminatus (northern Queensland, New Guinea, New Britain, Borneo)

Podocarpus
Podocarpus
dispermus Podocarpus
Podocarpus
ledermannii Podocarpus
Podocarpus
micropedunculatus

section Globulus ( Taiwan
Taiwan
to Vietnam, Sumatra
Sumatra
and Borneo, and New Caledonia)

Podocarpus
Podocarpus
annamiensis Podocarpus
Podocarpus
globulus Podocarpus
Podocarpus
lucienii Podocarpus
Podocarpus
nakaii Podocarpus
Podocarpus
sylvestris Podocarpus
Podocarpus
teysmannii

section Longifoliolatus ( Sumatra
Sumatra
and Borneo, East to Fiji)

Podocarpus
Podocarpus
atjehensis Podocarpus
Podocarpus
bracteatus Podocarpus
Podocarpus
confertus Podocarpus
Podocarpus
decumbens Podocarpus
Podocarpus
degeneri Podocarpus
Podocarpus
gibbsii Podocarpus
Podocarpus
longefoliolatus Podocarpus
Podocarpus
polyspermus Podocarpus
Podocarpus
pseudobracteatus Podocarpus
Podocarpus
salomoniensis

section Gracilis (southern China, across Malesia
Malesia
to Fiji)

Podocarpus
Podocarpus
affinis Podocarpus
Podocarpus
glaucus Podocarpus
Podocarpus
lophatus Podocarpus
Podocarpus
pilgeri Podocarpus
Podocarpus
rotundus

section Macrostachyus (Southeast Asia
Asia
to New Guinea)

Podocarpus
Podocarpus
brassii Podocarpus
Podocarpus
brevifolius Podocarpus
Podocarpus
costalis Podocarpus
Podocarpus
crassigemmis Podocarpus
Podocarpus
tixieri

section Rumphius (Hainan, south through Malesia
Malesia
to northern Queensland)

Podocarpus grayae
Podocarpus grayae
(aka P. grayii and P. grayi) Podocarpus
Podocarpus
laubenfelsii Podocarpus
Podocarpus
rumphii

section Polystachyus (southern China
China
and Japan, through Malaya to New Guinea and northeast Australia)

Podocarpus
Podocarpus
chinensis Podocarpus
Podocarpus
chingianus Podocarpus
Podocarpus
elatus Podocarpus
Podocarpus
fasciculus Podocarpus
Podocarpus
macrocarpus Podocarpus
Podocarpus
macrophyllus Podocarpus
Podocarpus
polystachyus Podocarpus
Podocarpus
ridleyi Podocarpus
Podocarpus
subtropicalis

section Spinulosus (Southeast and southwest coasts of Australia)

Podocarpus
Podocarpus
drouynianus Podocarpus
Podocarpus
spinulosus

Allergenic potential[edit] Male Podocarpus
Podocarpus
are extremely allergenic, and have an OPALS allergy scale rating of 10 out of 10. Conversely, completely female Podocarpus plants have an OPALS rating of 1, and are considered "allergy-fighting", as they capture pollen while producing none.[9] Podocarpus
Podocarpus
are related to yews, and, as with yews, the stems, leaves, flowers, and pollen of Podocarpus
Podocarpus
are all poisonous. Additionally, the leaves, stems, bark, and pollen are cytotoxic. The male Podocarpus blooms and releases this cytotoxic pollen in the spring and early summer. Heavy exposure to the pollen, such as with a male Podocarpus planted near a bedroom window, can produce symptoms that mimic the cytotoxic side effects of chemotherapy.[9] Uses[edit] Several species of Podocarpus
Podocarpus
are grown as garden trees, or trained into hedges, espaliers, or screens. Common garden species used for their attractive deep green foliage and neat habits include P. macrophyllus, known commonly as Buddhist pine, fern pine, or kusamaki, P. salignus from Chile, and P. nivalis, a smaller, red-fruited shrub. Some members of the genera Nageia, Prumnopitys
Prumnopitys
and Afrocarpus
Afrocarpus
are marketed under the genus name Podocarpus. The red, purple or bluish fleshy fruit of most species of Podocarpus are edible, raw or cooked into jams or pies. They have a mucilaginous texture with a slightly sweet flavor. However, they are slightly toxic and should be eaten only in small amounts, especially when raw. Tolerates drought, deer, disease, seaside[10] Some species of Podocarpus
Podocarpus
are used in systems of traditional medicine for conditions such as fevers, coughs, arthritis, sexually transmitted diseases, and canine distemper.[11] A chemotherapy drug used in treatment of leukemia is made from Podocarpus.[9] References[edit]

^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Farjon, Aljos (2010). A Handbook of the World's Conifers. Leiden: Brill. pp. 795–796. ISBN 9789004177185.  ^ Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607 ^ a b c d Earle, Chris J.: Podocarpus. The Gymnosperm Database. 2013. ^ Ornelas, J. F.; et al. (2010). "Phylogeography of Podocarpus
Podocarpus
matudae (Podocarpaceae): pre-Quaternary relicts in northern Mesoamerican cloud forests" (PDF). Journal of Biogeography. 37: 2384–96. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2699.2010.02372.x. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ^ Barker, N. P., et al. (2004). A yellowwood by any other name: molecular systematics and the taxonomy of Podocarpus
Podocarpus
and the Podocarpaceae
Podocarpaceae
in southern Africa. South African Journal of Science 100(11 & 12), 629-32. ^ Earle, Chris J.: Podocarpus
Podocarpus
elatus. The Gymnosperm Database. 2013. ^ Earle, Chris J.: Podocarpus
Podocarpus
macrophyllus. The Gymnosperm Database. 2013. ^ a b c d "Podocarpus". eFloras: Flora of China. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA. 1999. Retrieved March 30, 2016.  ^ a b c Ogren, Thomas (2015). The Allergy-Fighting Garden. Berkeley, CA: Ten Speed Press. pp. 171–172. ISBN 978-1-60774-491-7.  ^ Data sheet - Podocarpus
Podocarpus
-budgetplants.com ^ Abdillahi, H. S.; et al. (2011). "Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-tyrosinase and phenolic contents of four Podocarpus
Podocarpus
species used in traditional medicine in South Africa". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 136 (3): 496–503. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2010.07.019. PMID 20633623. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link)

Further reading[edit]

de Laubenfels, D. J. (1985). A taxonomic revision of the genus Podocarpus. Blumea 30(2), 251-78. Farjon, A. World Checklist and Bibliography of Conifers 2nd Edition. Kew, Richmond, UK. 2001. ISBN 978-1-84246-025-2

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q157524 APDB: 201462 Conifers.org: Podocarpus EoL: 13999 EPPO: 1PODG FloraBase: 20918 FoC: 126161 Fossilworks: 264290 GBIF: 5284386 GRIN: 9623 ITIS: 183488 NCBI: 3363 PLANTS: PODOC

.