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Podocarpaceae
Podocarpaceae
is a large family of mainly Southern Hemisphere conifers, comprising about 156 species of evergreen trees and shrubs.[1] It contains 19 genera if Phyllocladus
Phyllocladus
is included and if Manoao
Manoao
and Sundacarpus
Sundacarpus
are recognized. The family is a classic member of the Antarctic flora, with its main centres of diversity in Australasia, particularly New Caledonia, Tasmania, and New Zealand, and to a slightly lesser extent Malesia
Malesia
and South America
South America
(primarily in the Andes
Andes
mountains). Several genera extend north of the equator into Indochina
Indochina
and the Philippines. Podocarpus
Podocarpus
reaches as far north as southern Japan
Japan
and southern China in Asia, and Mexico
Mexico
in the Americas, and Nageia
Nageia
into southern China and southern India. Two genera also occur in sub-Saharan Africa, the widespread Podocarpus
Podocarpus
and the endemic Afrocarpus. Parasitaxus usta
Parasitaxus usta
is unique as the only known parasitic gymnosperm. It occurs on New Caledonia, where it is parasitic on another member of the Podocarpaceae, Falcatifolium taxoides.[2] The genus Phyllocladus
Phyllocladus
is sister to Podocarpaceae
Podocarpaceae
sensu stricto.[2] It is treated by some botanists in its own family Phyllocladaceae.[3]

Contents

1 Taxonomy 2 Genera 3 References 4 Further reading 5 External links

Taxonomy[edit] Podocarpaceae
Podocarpaceae
shows great diversity, both morphologically and ecologically. Members occur mainly in the Southern Hemisphere, with most generic variety taking place in New Caledonia, New Zealand, and Tasmania. Species
Species
diversity of Podocarpus
Podocarpus
is found mainly in South America and the Indonesian islands, the latter also being rich in Dacrydium
Dacrydium
and Dacrycarpus
Dacrycarpus
species. Podocarpus
Podocarpus
(with 82 to 100 species)[1][4] and Dacrydium
Dacrydium
(with 21 species) are the largest genera. A few genera are common to New Zealand and South America, supporting the view that podocarps had an extensive distribution over southern Gondwanaland. The breaking up of Gondwanaland
Gondwanaland
led to large-scale speciation of Podocarpaceae. Until 1970, only seven Podocarpaceae
Podocarpaceae
genera were recognized: Podocarpus, Dacrydium, Phyllocladus, Acmopyle, Microcachrys, Saxegothaea, and Pherosphaera. All four of the African species fell under Podocarpus
Podocarpus
– P. falcatus, P. elongatus, P. henkelii, and P. latifolius. Taxonomists divided Podocarpus
Podocarpus
species into eight species groups based on leaf anatomy: Afrocarpus
Afrocarpus
J. Buchholz & N. E. Gray, Dacrycarpus
Dacrycarpus
Endl., Eupodocarpus Endl., Microcarpus Pilg., Nageia (Gaertn.) Endl., Polypodiopsis C. E. Bertrand (non Polypodiopsis Carriére nom. rej. prop. 6), Stachycarpus Endl. and Sundacarpus
Sundacarpus
J. Buchholz and N. E. Gray. Studies of embryology, gametophyte development, female cone structure, and cytology led to the belief that the eight categories probably deserved generic status. Researchers agreed on the need to recognize "fairly natural groupings which prove to have good geographic and probably evolutionary cohesion" and took the necessary steps to raise each section to generic status.[5] In 1990, a treatment of the Podocarpaceae
Podocarpaceae
recognized 17 genera, excluding Phyllocladus
Phyllocladus
from the family, while recognizing Sundacarpus, but not Manoao.[4] In 1995, Manoao
Manoao
was segregated from Lagarostrobus, based on morphological characters.[6] In 2002, a molecular phylogenetic study showed Sundacarpus
Sundacarpus
is embedded in Prumnopitys
Prumnopitys
and the monophyly of Lagarostrobos
Lagarostrobos
is doubtful if Manoao
Manoao
is included within it.[2] More recent treatments of the family have recognized Manoao, but not Sundacarpus.[7] Genera[edit]

Acmopyle Afrocarpus Dacrycarpus Dacrydium Falcatifolium Halocarpus Lagarostrobos Lepidothamnus Manoao Microcachrys Microstrobos Nageia Parasitaxus Phyllocladus Podocarpus Prumnopitys Retrophyllum Saxegothaea Sundacarpus

References[edit]

^ a b James E. Eckenwalder. 2009. Conifers of the World. Portland, Oregon: Timber Press. ISBN 978-0-88192-974-4. ^ a b c William T. Sinclair, R. R. Mill, M. F. Gardner, P. Woltz, T. Jaffré, J. Preston, M. L. Hollingsworth, A. Ponge, and M. Möller. 2002. "Evolutionary relationships of the New Caledonian heterotrophic conifer, Parasitaxis usta (Podocarpaceae), inferred from chloroplast trnL-F intron/spacer and nuclear rDNA ITS2 sequences". Plant Systematics and Evolution 233 (1–2): 79–104. doi:10.1007/s00606-002-0199-8 ^ Christopher N. Page. 1990. "Phyllocladaceae" pages 317–319. In: Klaus Kubitzki (general editor); Karl U. Kramer and Peter S. Green (volume editors) The Families and Genera
Genera
of Vascular Plants volume I. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 978-0-387-51794-0 ^ a b Christopher N. Page. 1990. "Podocarpaceae" pages 332–346. In: Klaus Kubitzki (general editor); Karl U. Kramer and Peter S. Green (volume editors) The Families and Genera
Genera
of Vascular Plants volume I. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 978-0-387-51794-0 ^ Barker, N. P.; Muller, E. M.; and Mill, R. R. (2004). "A yellowwood by any other name: molecular systematics and the taxonomy of Podocarpus
Podocarpus
and the Podocarpaceae
Podocarpaceae
in southern Africa" Archived 2008-04-08 at the Wayback Machine.. South African Journal of Science, 100: 629–632. ^ Brian P. J. Molloy. 1995. " Manoao
Manoao
(Podocarpaceae), a new monotypic conifer genus endemic to New Zealand". New Zealand
New Zealand
Journal of Botany 33 (2): 183–201. ^ Aljos Farjon. 2008. A Natural History of Conifers. Portland, Oregon: Timber Press. ISBN 978-0-88192-869-3

Further reading[edit]

Christopher J. Quinn and Robert A. Price. 2003. "Phylogeny of the Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
Conifers". Proceedings of the Fourth International Conifer
Conifer
Conference: 129–136.

External links[edit]

Podocarpaceae
Podocarpaceae
At The Gymnosperm
Gymnosperm
Database

v t e

Pinophyta
Pinophyta
families

Pinaceae Araucariaceae Podocarpaceae Sciadopityaceae Cupressaceae Cephalotaxaceae Taxaceae

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q157160 Conifers.org: Podocarpaceae EoL: 6748 EPPO: 1POCF FloraBase: 22736 FoC: 10713 Fossilworks: 54795 GBIF: 8830 GRIN: 899 IPNI: 77126768-1 ITIS: 18050 NCBI: 3362

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