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Podlaskie Voivodeship
Podlaskie Voivodeship
or Podlasie Province[1] (Polish: Województwo podlaskie, [vɔjɛˈvut͡stfɔ pɔdˈlaskʲɛ]) is a voivodeship (province) in northeastern Poland. It borders on Masovian Voivodeship to the west, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship
Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship
to the northwest, Lublin Voivodeship to the south, the Belarusian Voblasts of Grodno and Brest to the east, the Lithuanian Counties of Alytus and Marijampolė to the northeast, and the Kaliningrad Oblast
Kaliningrad Oblast
of Russia
Russia
to the north. The capital of Podlasie Province is Białystok. The province was created on 1 January 1999, pursuant to the Polish local government reforms adopted in 1998, from the former Białystok
Białystok
and Łomża Voivodeships and the eastern half of the former Suwałki
Suwałki
Voivodeship

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History 3 Geography 4 Environment 5 Climate 6 Subdivisions and Białystok
Białystok
Metropolitan Region 7 Demographics 8 Transportation 9 Culture 10 Historic sites

10.1 Middle Ages 10.2 Renaissance 10.3 Baroque 10.4 Classicism 10.5 19th century

11 Economy

11.1 Agriculture

12 Government

12.1 Cities and towns

13 See also 14 External links 15 References

Etymology[edit] The voivodeship takes its name from the historic region of Poland called Podlasie. There are two opinions regarding the origin of the region's name. People often derive it from the Slavic les or las, meaning "forest", i.e., it is an area "by the wood(s)" or an "area of forests", which would bring Podlasie close in meaning to adjacent Polesia. This theory has been questioned, as it does not properly take into consideration the vowel shifts "a" > "e" > "i" in various Slavic languages
Slavic languages
(in fact, it mixes vowels form different languages).[citation needed] Heavily wooded Podlasie is home to the primal Białowieża Forest
Białowieża Forest
and National Park, habitat of the European wisent bison and tarpan. A second view holds that the term comes from the expression pod Lachem, i.e., "under the Poles" (see: Lechia). Some claim it to mean "under Polish rule", which does not seem historically sound, as the area belonged to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania
until 1569, and the southern part of it—until 1795. A better variant of the latter theory holds that the name originates from the period when the territory was within the Trakai Voivodeship of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, along the border with Mazovia Province, primarily a fief of the Poland
Poland
of the Piasts, and later part of the Kingdom of Poland
Poland
of the Jagiellons. Hence pod Lachem would mean "near the Poles", "along the border with Poland". The historical Lithuanian name of the region, Palenkė, has exactly this meaning. History[edit] Main article: History of Podlaskie Voivodeship The voivodeship was created on January 1, 1999, out of the former Białystok
Białystok
and Łomża
Łomża
Voivodeships and the eastern half of the former Suwałki
Suwałki
Voivodeship, pursuant to the Polish local government reforms adopted in 1998. Geography[edit] It has a varied landscape, shaped in the north by Baltic glaciation, the rest by Middle Poland
Poland
glaciation. The highest peaks are in the north (Rowelska Top - 298 m), where the landscape is dominated by a hilly lake district. Lakeland: Zachodniosuwalskie, Wschodniosuwalskie, Ełckie) and Sandrowy lake district ( Augustów
Augustów
Plain) in the central and southern pre-glacial plains prevail (plateaus: Kolneńska, Białystok, Wysokomazowiecka, Drohiczynska, Sokólskie Hills, Międzyrzecko łomżyński, Plain Bielsko), varied in topography with small basins and river valleys. Kurpie lie on the west edge of the outwash plains. Sand, gravel, clay, moraine, and in the valleys and basins of the rivers silt, sand and river peat predominate on the surface. Environment[edit]

The Białowieża Forest
Białowieża Forest
is a UNESCO World Heritage Site

The vast forests (Białowieża, Augustów, Knyszyń, Kurpiowska), some of which are the only ones in Europe to have retained their original character, contain a unique wealth of flora and fauna. The vegetation of the region is extremely diverse, which contributes to the richness of the animal world. Visitors can also see moose, wolves, lynx and bison living in the Białowieża Forest
Białowieża Forest
and Knyszyń Forest. Podlaskie has the lowest population density of the sixteen Polish voivodeships, and its largely unspoiled nature is one of its chief assets. Around 30% of the area of the voivodeship is under legal protection. The Polish part of the Białowieża Forest
Białowieża Forest
biosphere reserve (also a World Heritage Site) is in Podlaskie. There are four National Parks (Białowieża, Biebrza, Narew and Wigry), three Landscape Parks (Knyszyń Forest, Łomża
Łomża
and Suwałki), 88 nature reserves, and 15 protected landscape areas. The voivodeship constitutes a part of the ecologically clean area known as "the Green Lungs of Poland". Climate[edit] Podlaskie has a Warm Summer Continental or Hemiboreal climate (Dfb) according to the Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
system, which is characterized by warm temperatures during summer and long and frosty winters. It is substantially different from most of the other Polish lowlands. The region is one of the coldest in Poland, with the average temperature in January being -−5 °C (23 °F). The average temperature in a year is 7 °C (45 °F). The number of frost days ranges from 50 to 60, with frost from 110 to 138 days and the duration of snow cover from 90 to 110 days. Mean annual rainfall values oscillate around 550 millimetres (21.7 in), and the vegetation period lasts 200 to 210 days.[2] Podlaskie is the coldest region of Poland, located in the very northeast of the country near the border with Belarus
Belarus
and Lithuania. The region has a continental climate which is characterized by high temperatures during summer and long and frosty winters. The climate is affected by the cold fronts which come from Scandinavia
Scandinavia
and Siberia. The average temperature in the winter ranges from -15 °C (5 °F) to -4 °C (24.8 °F).[3]

Climate data for Białystok

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 12 (54) 16 (61) 20 (68) 24 (75) 30 (86) 30 (86) 33 (91) 32 (90) 28 (82) 22 (72) 12 (54) 11 (52) 33 (91)

Average high °C (°F) −1 (30) 0 (32) 4 (39) 11 (52) 17 (63) 20 (68) 21 (70) 21 (70) 16 (61) 10 (50) 3 (37) 1 (34) 10.3 (50.5)

Average low °C (°F) −6 (21) −6 (21) −2 (28) 1 (34) 7 (45) 10 (50) 12 (54) 11 (52) 7 (45) 3 (37) 0 (32) −3 (27) 2 (36)

Record low °C (°F) −34 (−29) −25 (−13) −23 (−9) −7 (19) −3 (27) 1 (34) 5 (41) 2 (36) −4 (25) −10 (14) −16 (3) −26 (−15) −34 (−29)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 30 (1.18) 20 (0.79) 30 (1.18) 30 (1.18) 50 (1.97) 70 (2.76) 70 (2.76) 70 (2.76) 50 (1.97) 40 (1.57) 40 (1.57) 40 (1.57) 580 (22.83)

Average precipitation days 8 7 8 8 8 10 10 9 9 8 10 10 106

Average rainy days 7 7 8 9 7 8 8 7 8 9 9 6 93

Average snowy days 9 10 7 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 7 41

Mean monthly sunshine hours 21 54 139 138 207 236 217 205 162 97 27 20 1,523

Source #1: Weatherbase [4]

Source #2: ClimateData.eu[5]

Subdivisions and Białystok
Białystok
Metropolitan Region[edit]

Map of the Podlaskie Voivodeship

Main article: Subdivisions of Podlaskie Voivodeship Podlaskie Voivodeship
Podlaskie Voivodeship
is divided into 17 counties (powiats): 3 city counties and 14 land counties. These are further divided into 118 gminas. Main article: Metropolitan Białystok Metropolitan Białystok
Białystok
was designated by the Voivodeship of the Regulation No. 52/05 of 16 May 2005 [6] in order to help economically develop the region. In 2006, the metropolitan area population was 450,254 inhabitants.[7] It covers an area of 1.521 km ². For one km2, there are about 265 people. Among urban residents are more women - 192 thousand. on 100 men, 108 women on average. The municipalities adjacent to Białystok
Białystok
are slowly losing their agricultural character, becoming the residential suburban neighborhoods. Demographics[edit] Main article: Demographics of Podlaskie Voivodeship Podlaskie is the land of the confluence of cultures – Polish, Belarusian, Ukrainian and Lithuanian – and is indicative of the ethnic territories limits. Eastward of Podlaskie lie historic Polish lands, which are now part of Ukraine
Ukraine
and Belarus
Belarus
and Lithuania. Today, mainly Polish and Ruthenian (Ukrainian and Belarusian) are spoken in Podlaskie, while Lithuanian is preserved by the small but compact Lithuanian minority concentrated in the Sejny
Sejny
County. At the end of 2009 in Podlaskie Voivodeship
Podlaskie Voivodeship
there were 1,189,700 inhabitants, 3.1 per cent of the total population of Poland. The average density of the population, the number of the population per 1 km2, was 59. The urban population in the same period was 60.2 per cent of the total number of inhabitants of the voivodeship, where the percentage of females in the total population amounted to 51.3 per cent. A statistical inhabitant of Podlasie was 37.7 years old, whereas in 2008 – 37.5 years old. The latest population projection predict consistent decrease in the population in Podlaskie Voivodeship. In the next 26 years it will decrease by 117 thousand persons due to the aging of the population. Transportation[edit] Main article: Transport in Podlaskie Voivodeship Culture[edit] Podlaskie is the most diverse of all Polish voivodships. The area has been inhabited for centuries by members of different nations and religions: Poles, Jews, Belarusians, Lithuanians, Ukrainians, Rusyns, Gypsies, Lipka Tatars
Lipka Tatars
and Filippians. Many places of religious worship remain:

An 18th-century former Carmelite monastery on Wigry Lake A former Jesuit
Jesuit
complex in Drohiczyn Christ's Transfiguration Orthodox church on the Holy Mount of Grabarka Saint Nicolaus the Miracle Worker Orthodox church in Białystok A 17th-century synagogue in Tykocin The oldest Polish mosque in Kruszyniany

Historic sites[edit]

St. Michael Church in Łomża

Branicki Palace in Białystok

Church of Our Lady of Mount Carmel in Bielsk Podlaski

Middle Ages[edit]

St. Michael and John the Baptist Church in Łomża
Łomża
(1504–26)

Renaissance[edit]

The ruins of the Royal Castle in Tykocin
Tykocin
(15th century) The Jewish cemetery in Tykocin
Tykocin
(16th century) Monastery of the Annunciation in Suprasl
Suprasl
(16th–18th centuries)

Baroque[edit]

Dominican Convent of the Visitation of the Blessed Virgin Mary Church in Sejny
Sejny
(1610–19) Old Parish Church in Białystok
Białystok
(1617–26) Synagogue (1642) and the Talmud house in Tykocin
Tykocin
(18th century) Trzewiczkowych Carmelite Monastery with the Church of Our Lady of Mount Carmel in Bielsk Podlaski
Bielsk Podlaski
(mid-17th century) Branicki Palace in Białystok
Białystok
(17th–18th centuries) Summer residence Branicki in Choroszcz
Choroszcz
(1752–59) Holy Trinity Church in Tykocin
Tykocin
(1742–50) Church of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary in Siemiatycze
Siemiatycze
(1719–27) Monastery of the Dominican church of St. And St. John the Baptist. Stephen Martyr in Choroszcz
Choroszcz
(mid-18th century) Capuchin Monastery in Łomża
Łomża
(1770–98) Old Town Hall in Bielsk Podlaski
Bielsk Podlaski
(1776–80) Sokółki Palace in Pawłowiczch near Sokółka Synagogue in Orla Bernardine Monastery in Tykocin
Tykocin
(1771–91) The team Stawiski
Stawiski
Franciscan monastery (17th-19th centuries)

Classicism[edit]

Co-cathedral of St. Alexander in Suwałki

Basilica. Birth of the Virgin and St. Nicholas in Bielsk Podlaski (1780) Cathedral of St.. Nicholas in Białystok
Białystok
(1843–46) Church of Sts. Kolnie Anne (1834–39) Co-cathedral of St. Alexander in Suwałki
Suwałki
(1825) Classical brick mansion in Mały Płock (1835) Church of Sts. Anthony in Sokółka
Sokółka
(1848) Cemetery Cathedral in Łomża Synagogue in Kolno
Kolno
(second half of 18th century)

19th century[edit]

Lubomirski Palace in Białystok

Buchholtz Palace in Supraśl

Town hall in Łomża

Lubomirski Palace in Białystok
Białystok
(second half of 19th century) Hasbach Palace in Białystok
Białystok
(late 19th century) The palace and park in Buchholtzów Suprasl
Suprasl
(1892–1903) Team Becker factory in Białystok
Białystok
(19th and early 20th century) The fence and gate parafialno-municipal cemetery in Kolno
Kolno
(1809) Church in the Parish and (first half of 19th century) Catholic Parish in Grabowo (first half of 19th century) The Jewish cemetery in Kolno
Kolno
(1817) The Jewish cemetery in Stawiski
Stawiski
(first half of 19th century) Parish Church p.w. St. Adalbert in m (first half of 19th century) The team mail Stawiski
Stawiski
(2nd quarter of 19th century) Neo-Baroque bell tower at the church brick church. St. Anne Kolnie (1862) Buildings of the monastery of SS. Benedictine in Łomża
Łomża
(1863) Church of the Assumption in Łomża
Łomża
(1877) Roman Catholic Cemetery in Poryte (second half of 19th century) Church of the Holy Trinity in Zambrów
Zambrów
(1879) Church of the Holy Trinity in Grajewo
Grajewo
(1882) Church of Sts. John the Baptist in Wysokie Mazowiecki (1888) Building Seminar in Łomża(1866) Town Hall in Łomża
Łomża
(1822–23) Numerous monuments Street. Dwornej in Łomża Manor in Wojnówka Basilica of the Assumption in Białystok
Białystok
(1900–05, neo-Gothic) The Church of St.Adalbert in Białystok
Białystok
(1906–12) The Church of St. Rocha in Białystok
Białystok
(1926–47, modernist) Church of the Sacred Heart of Jesus in Augustów
Augustów
(1905–11 eclectic) The Church of Our Lady of Częstochowa and St. Casimir in Mońki (1921–35) Saints' Church of the Apostles Peter and Paul in Łapy
Łapy
(1918–27) Fortress in Osowiec Polish Tatar (see "Islam in Poland") wooden mosque and Muslim cemetery in the village of Bohoniki

Economy[edit] The following are general economic indicators for Podlaskie Voivodeship:[8]

Population (as of 30 September 2009) - 1,190,735 Average paid employment in enterprise sector (November 2009) - 95896 Average monthly gross wages and salaries in enterprise sector (November 2009) - 2,813.05 zł Unemployment rate (as of the end of November 2009) - 12,0% Dwellings completed in November 2009 - 661 Procurement of milk (November 2009) - 126.8 mln l National economy entities from the REGON register, excluding persons tending private farms (as of the end of November 2009) - 89,654

According to REGON register in the year 2002 there were around 95 thousand companies registered in Podlaskie region (97% of them in private sector), dealing with;

Trade and servicing – 33.2% Providing services to real estates and companies – 11.8% Construction – 10.5% Industrial processing – 9.7% Transport 8.3% Agriculture, hunting and forestry 4.5%

Agriculture[edit] Arable land
Arable land
constitutes around 60% of the total area of the region – most of which is ploughland (around 40%), forests, meadows and pastures. Over 120 000 farms are registered, roughly half of which are small farms of 1–5 ha and medium-sized farms of 5–10 ha. The smaller farms prefer intensive production (gardening, orcharding), whereas the larger ones engage in cattle and crop production. The cattle-raising farms are mainly oriented towards milk production. The natural conditions of the region are conducive to the development of organic growing, which at present is practised by around 100 farms. Over 600 farms in the region offer agritourist services.[9] Government[edit] The voivodeship's seat is the city of Białystok. Like all voivodeships, it has a government-appointed Provincial Governor[10] (Polish: wojewoda), as well as an elected Regional Assembly (sejmik) and of the executive elected by that assembly, headed by the voivodeship marshal (marszałek województwa). Administrative powers and competences are statutorily divided between these authorities. Cities and towns[edit]

A typical Podlaskie landscape near the village of Bohoniki

The voivodeship contains 40 cities and towns. These are listed below in descending order of population (according to official figures for 2006[11]

Białystok
Białystok
(295,210) Suwałki
Suwałki
(69,234) Łomża
Łomża
(63,572) Augustów
Augustów
(30,054) Bielsk Podlaski
Bielsk Podlaski
(26,876) Zambrów
Zambrów
(22,700) Grajewo
Grajewo
(22,651) Hajnówka
Hajnówka
(22,072) Sokółka
Sokółka
(18,888) Łapy
Łapy
(16,583) Siemiatycze
Siemiatycze
(15,169) Kolno
Kolno
(10,751) Mońki
Mońki
(10,455) Czarna Białostocka
Czarna Białostocka
(9,596) Wysokie Mazowieckie
Wysokie Mazowieckie
(9,257) Wasilków
Wasilków
(8,967) Dąbrowa Białostocka
Dąbrowa Białostocka
(6,147) Sejny
Sejny
(5,934) Choroszcz
Choroszcz
(5,416) Ciechanowiec
Ciechanowiec
(4,898) Supraśl
Supraśl
(4,578) Brańsk
Brańsk
(3,794) Szczuczyn
Szczuczyn
(3,564) Michałowo
Michałowo
(3,343) Knyszyn
Knyszyn
(2,835) Krynki
Krynki
(2,709) Czyżew
Czyżew
(2,670) Lipsk
Lipsk
(2,498) Stawiski
Stawiski
(2,442) Zabłudów
Zabłudów
(2,400) Szepietowo
Szepietowo
(c. 2,400) Suchowola
Suchowola
(2,243) Drohiczyn
Drohiczyn
(2,086) Nowogród
Nowogród
(2,014) Goniądz
Goniądz
(1,910) Jedwabne
Jedwabne
(1,901) Tykocin
Tykocin
(1,893) Rajgród
Rajgród
(1,673) Kleszczele
Kleszczele
(1,432) Suraż
Suraż
(982)

See also[edit]

Podlasie cuisine

External links[edit]

Topographical maps at scale of 1:50 000

References[edit]

^ Arkadiusz Belczyk, Tłumaczenie polskich nazw geograficznych na język angielski [Translation of Polish Geographical Names into English], 2002-2006. ^ Białystok
Białystok
- Klimat - INFORMATOR BIAŁOSTOCKI ^ "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Białystok, Poland". Retrieved September 27, 2016.  ^ "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Białystok, Poland". Retrieved September 27, 2016.  ^ "Climate Bialystok - Poland". Retrieved September 27, 2016.  ^ Rozporządzenie Nr 52/05 Wojewody Podlaskiego z dnia 16 maja 2005 r. w sprawie wyznaczenia aglomeracji Białystok
Białystok
(Dz. Urz. Woj. Podl. Nr 130, poz. 1547) ^ Rozporządzenie Nr 5/06 Wojewody Podlaskiego z dnia 29 września 2006 r. w sprawie wyznaczenia aglomeracji Białystok
Białystok
(Dz. Urz. Woj. Podl. Nr 244, poz. 2383) ^ "Statistical Office in Białystok". Retrieved January 8, 2010.  ^ "Podlaski Urząd Wojewódzki - Podlasie Voivodeship Office" (in Polish). 2007.  ^ "Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) Agreement Article XI, Coordination with Polish Authorities" (in Polish). 2007-12-31.  ^ "Central Statistical Office (GUS) Population: Size and Structure by Administrative Division" (in Polish). 2007-12-31. 

Places adjacent to Podlaskie Voivodeship

 Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship  Kaliningrad Oblast,  Russia Alytus and Marijampolė Counties,  Lithuania

 Masovian Voivodeship

 Podlaskie Voivodeship

 Grodno and  Brest Region,  Belarus

 Lublin Voivodeship

v t e

Counties of Podlaskie Voivodeship

City counties

Białystok
Białystok
(capital) Łomża Suwałki

Land counties

Augustów Białystok Bielsk Grajewo Hajnówka Kolno Łomża Mońki Sejny Siemiatycze Sokółka Suwałki Wysokie Mazowieckie Zambrów

v t e

Voivodeships of Poland

Greater Poland Kuyavian-Pomeranian Lesser Poland Łódź Lower Silesian Lublin Lubusz Masovian Opole Podkarpackie Podlaskie Pomeranian Silesian Świętokrzyskie Warmian-Masurian West Pomeranian

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 240540734 GND: 4596756-8 BNF:

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