PNEUMONIC PLAGUE is a severe lung infection caused by the bacterium
The pneumonic form may occur following an initial bubonic or septicemic plague infection. It may also result from breathing in airborne droplets from another person or cat infected with pneumonic plague. The difference between the forms of plague is the location of infection; in pneumonic plague the infection is in the lungs, in bubonic plague the lymph nodes , and in septicemic plague within the blood. Diagnosis is by testing the blood, sputum, or fluid from a lymph node.
While vaccines are being worked on, in most countries they are not yet commercially available. Prevention is generally by avoiding contact with rodents . It is recommended that those infected be isolated from others. Treatment of pneumonic plague is with antibiotics .
Plague is present among rodents in Africa, the Americas, and Asia.
* 1 Signs and symptoms
* 2 Cause
* 2.1 Spread
* 3 Treatment
* 4 Epidemiology
* 4.1 India
* 4.2 China
* 4.3 Peru
* 5 References * 6 External links
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
The most apparent symptom of pneumonic plague is coughing, often with hemoptysis (coughing up blood). With pneumonic plague, the first signs of illness are fever, headache, weakness and rapidly developing pneumonia with shortness of breath, chest pain, cough and sometimes bloody or watery sputum .
The pneumonia progresses for two to four days and may cause respiratory failure and shock . Patients will die without early treatment, some within 36 hours.
Initial pneumonic plague symptoms can often include the following:
Rapidly developing pneumonia with:
Antibiotic treatment for seven days will protect people who have had direct, close contact with infected patients. Wearing a close-fitting surgical mask also protects against infection.
The mortality rate from untreated pneumonic plague approaches 100%.
Main article: Epidemiology of plague
Since 2002, the
World Health Organization (WHO) has reported seven
plague outbreaks, though some may go unreported because they often
happen in remote areas. Between 1998 and 2009, nearly 24,000 cases
have been reported, including about 2,000 deaths, in
In September 1994, India experienced an outbreak of plague that killed 50 and caused travel to New Delhi by air to be suspended until the outbreak was brought under control. The outbreak was feared to be much worse because the plague superficially resembles other common diseases such as influenza and bronchitis; over 200 people that had been quarantined were released when they did not test positive for the plague. All but two of the deaths occurred around the city of Surat .
The People\'s Republic of China has eradicated the pneumonic plague from most parts of the country, but still reports occasional cases in remote Western areas where the disease is carried by rats and the marmots that live across the Himalayan plateau . Outbreaks can be caused when a person eats an infected marmot or comes into contact with fleas carried by rats. A 2006 WHO report from an international meeting on plague cited a Chinese government disease expert as saying that most cases of the plague in China\'s northwest occur when hunters are contaminated while skinning infected animals.
The expert said at the time that due to the region's remoteness, the disease killed more than half the infected people. The report also said that since the 1990s, there was a rise in plague cases in humans—from fewer than 10 in the 1980s to nearly 100 cases in 1996 and 254 in 2000. Official statistics posted on the Chinese Health Ministry 's Web site showed no cases of plague in 2007 and 2008. In September 2008, two people in east Tibet died of pneumonic plague.
An outbreak of the disease in China began in August 2009 in Ziketan
Town located in
In September 2010, five cases of pneumonic plague were reported in Tibet.
In July 17, 2014, Chinese media reported one case found in Gansu.
In August 2010, Peru's health minister Oscar Ugarte announced that an
outbreak of plague had killed a 14-year-old boy and had infected at
least 31 people in a northern coastal province. The boy died of
bubonic plague on 26 July 2010. Ugarte stated that authorities were
screening sugar and fish meal exports from
The first recorded plague outbreak in Peru was in 1903. The last, in 1994, killed 35 people.
An outbreak of plague in November 2013, occurred in the African
island nation of
On November 2, 2007, wildlife biologist Eric York died of pneumonic
Grand Canyon National Park
On July 10, 2014, in an online news story article, by Keith Coffman
As of July 18, 2014, three more cases were reported in Colorado. However, the outbreak appears to be over, according to state officials. The outbreak was caused by a pit bull .
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* ^ "