Plynlimon (anglicised from ''Pumlumon'' in Welsh
) is the highest point of the Cambrian Mountains
(taking the more restricted definition of the Cambrian Mountains, excluding Snowdonia
and the Brecon Beacons
), and the highest point in Mid Wales
. It is a massif
that dominates the surrounding countryside and is the highest point (county top
) of Ceredigion
(both the modern council area, and the historic county, also known as Cardiganshire
The highest point of the massif itself is Pen Pumlumon Fawr, which is above ordnance datum
. Its other important peaks are Pen Pumlumon Arwystli
, Y Garn
, Pen Pumlumon Llygad-bychan
and Pumlumon Fach
The longest river
in Britain, the River Severn
, has its source
on the mountain, as do the rivers Wye
says there is a sleeping giant in Pumlumon.
''Plynlimon'' is anglicized from the Welsh name ''Pumlumon'',
which is thought to mean "five tops" or "five beacons".
The first element is Old Welsh
''pimp'', meaning "five" (Modern Welsh
and the second is , "beacon",
an element whose Brittonic
equivalent underlies the Scottish hill-names Lomond Hills
and Ben Lomond
The Pumlumon area is the largest watershed
in Wales and is the source of the rivers Wye, Severn and Rheidol.
Since 2007 the Wildlife Trusts of Wales
have been working to improve the habitat as a "living landscape" project. This watershed area has been affected by loss of biodiversity
, erosion of the peaty soils' structure, and accelerated drainage.
[The Pumlumon Project]
Montgomeryshire Wildlife Trust
Some believe the drainage issues have contributed significantly to flooding in areas some distance downstream, though this cannot be clearly proved.
Like most of the upland
s across Wales, intensive land use activities have resulted in many habitats being either lost or degraded. Over-grazing of sheep has induced soil compaction, which has resulted in increased flooding of the lowland areas.
The principal land cover within the project area is dominated by a complex mosaic of locally, nationally and internationally important habitats and species, such as dry and wet dwarf-shrub heathland
, blanket bog
, unimproved acid grassland
and a number of oligotroph
s. Agriculturally improved grassland, broadleaved woodland
s and forestry plantation
are also characteristic features of the area.
The Pumlumon area is also important for breeding, wintering and feeding bird fauna particularly hen harrier
, short-eared owl
and black grouse
, and a number of Red Data Book
and UK BAP
[Nuttall, John & Anne (1999). The Mountains of England & Wales - Volume 1: Wales (2nd edition ed). Milnthorpe, Cumbria: Cicerone. .]
The red kite
also frequents the area. Golden Plover
s have declined by 92% since 1992.
The Severn Way
runs for 210 miles (337 km) along the River Severn
between the mouth of the Severn at Bristol
, England, and its source at Plynlumon, Wales.
* Computer generated summit panoramaPlynlimon
Montgomeryshire Wildlife Trust
www.geograph.co.uk ; photos of Plynlimon and surrounding area
Category:Mountains and hills of Ceredigion
Category:Hewitts of Wales
Category:Marilyns of Wales
Category:Sites of Special Scientific Interest in Ceredigion