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A plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) is any road vehicle that can be recharged from an external source of electricity, such as wall sockets, and the electricity stored in the rechargeable battery packs drives or contributes to drive the wheels. PEV is a subset of electric vehicles that includes all-electric, or battery electric vehicles (BEVs), and plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs). ''See definition on pp. 2.'' In China, plug-in electric vehicles are classified as new energy vehicles (NEVs). Sales of the first mass-production plug-in cars by major carmakers began in late December 2010, with the introduction of the all-electric Nissan Leaf and the plug-in hybrid Chevrolet Volt. Plug-in cars have several benefits compared to conventional internal combustion engine vehicles. All-electric vehicles have lower operating and maintenance costs, and produce little or no local air pollution. They reduce dependence on petroleum and may significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions, depending on the electricity source. Plug-in hybrids capture most of these benefits when they are operating in all-electric mode. Cumulative global sales of highway legal plug-in electric passenger cars and light utility vehicles achieved the 1 million unit mark in September 2015, 5 million in December 2018. and the 10 million unit milestone in 2020. Despite the rapid growth experienced, the plug-in electric car segment represented just about 1 out of every 200 motor vehicles (0.48%) on the world's roads by the end of 2019, of which pure electrics comprised 0.32%. , the Tesla Model 3 listed as the world's top selling highway-capable plug-in electric car in history, with global sales since inception of more than 800,000 units, followed by the Nissan Leaf with 500,000 units by December 2020. The Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV is the world's all-time best selling plug-in hybrid with global sales of 270,000 units through December 2020. , China had the world's largest stock of highway legal plug-in electric passenger cars with 4.5 million units, representing 42% of the world's stock of plug-in cars. Europe ranked next with over 3.2 million plug-in passenger cars at the end of 2020, accounting for about 30% of the global stock. The U.S. cumulative sales totaled about 1.8 million plug-in cars through December 2020. , Germany is the leading European country with cumulative sales of around 700,000 plug-ins registered since 2010, and also led the continent plug-in sales in 2019 and 2020. ''A total of 394,632 plug-in electric passenger cars were registered in Germany in 2021, consisting of 200,469 plug-in hybrids (6.9% market share) and 194,163 all-electric cars (6.7% market share).'' Norway has the highest market penetration per capita in the world, and also achieved in 2020 the world's largest annual plug-in market share ever registered, almost 75% of new car sales. In October 2018, Norway became the first country where 1 for every 10 passenger cars registered is a plug-in electric car, and its plug-in stock in use passed 15% in 2020. See graph under "Personbilbestanden i Norge fordelt på drivstoff" - '', there were 12.06% all-electric cars and 5.11% are plug-in hybrid cars in use on Norwegian roads. Combined, plug-in electric passenger cars represented 17.17% of all cars in circulation in the country, up from 13.45% in 2019''.

Terminology



Plug-in electric vehicle

A plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) is any motor vehicle with rechargeable battery packs that can be charged from the electric grid, and the electricity stored on board drives or contributes to drive the wheels for propulsion. Plug-in electric vehicles are also sometimes referred to as grid-enabled vehicles (GEV), and the European Automobile Manufacturers Association (ACEA) calls them electrically chargeable vehicles (ECV). PEV is a subcategory of electric vehicles that includes battery electric vehicles (BEVs), plug-in hybrid vehicles, (PHEVs), and electric vehicle conversions of hybrid electric vehicles and conventional internal combustion engine vehicles. Even though conventional hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) have a battery that is continually recharged with power from the internal combustion engine and regenerative braking, they can not be recharged from an off-vehicle electric energy source, and therefore, they do not belong to the category of plug-in electric vehicles. "Plug-in electric drive vehicle" is the legal term used in U.S. federal legislation to designate the category of motor vehicles eligible for federal tax credits depending on battery size and their all-electric range. In some European countries, particularly in France, "electrically chargeable vehicle" is the formal term used to designate the vehicles eligible for these incentives. While the term "plug-in electric vehicle" most often refers to automobiles or "plug-in cars", there are several other types of plug-in electric vehicle, including battery electric multiple units, electric motorcycles and scooters, neighborhood electric vehicles or microcars, city cars, vans, buses, electric trucks or lorries, and military vehicles.

New energy vehicles

In China the term new energy vehicles (NEVs) refers to vehicles that are partially or fully powered by electricity, such as battery electric vehicles (BEVs), plug-in hybrids (PHEVs), and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCEVs). The Chinese government began implementation of its NEV program in 2009 to foster the development and introduction of new energy vehicles. ''See Acronyms and Key Terms, pp. v''

Battery electric vehicles

A battery electric vehicle (BEV) uses chemical energy stored in rechargeable battery packs as its only source for propulsion. BEVs use electric motors and motor controllers instead of internal combustion engines (ICEs) for propulsion. A plug-in hybrid operates as an all-electric vehicle or BEV when operating in charge-depleting mode, but it switches to charge-sustaining mode after the battery has reached its minimum state of charge (SOC) threshold, exhausting the vehicle's all-electric range (AER).

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV or PHV), also known as a plug-in hybrid, is a hybrid electric vehicle with rechargeable batteries that can be restored to full charge by connecting a plug to an external electric power source. A plug-in hybrid shares the characteristics of both a conventional hybrid electric vehicle and an all-electric vehicle: it uses a gasoline engine and an electric motor for propulsion, but a PHEV has a larger battery pack that can be recharged, allowing operation in all-electric mode until the battery is depleted.

Aftermarket conversions

An aftermarket electric vehicle conversion is the modification of a conventional internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) or hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) to electric propulsion, creating an all-electric or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. There are several companies in the U.S. offering conversions. The most common conversions have been from hybrid electric cars to plug-in hybrid, but due to the different technology used in hybrids by each carmaker, the easiest conversions are for 2004–2009 Toyota Prius and for the Ford Escape/Mercury Mariner Hybrid.

Advantages compared to ICE vehicles

PEVs have several advantages. These include improved air quality, reduced greenhouse gas emissions, noise reduction, and national security benefits. According to the Center for American Progress, PEVs are an important part of the group of technologies that will help the U.S. meet its goal under the Paris Agreement, which is a 26-28 percent reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by the year 2025.


Improved air quality


Electric cars, as well as plug-in hybrids operating in all-electric mode, emit no harmful tailpipe pollutants from the onboard source of power, such as particulates (soot), volatile organic compounds, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, ozone, lead, and various oxides of nitrogen. However, like ICE cars, electric cars emit particulates from brake and tyres. Depending on the source of the electricity used to recharge the batteries, air pollutant emissions are shifted to the location of the generation plants where they can be more easily captured from flue gases. Cities with chronic air pollution problems, such as Los Angeles, México City, Santiago, Chile, São Paulo, Beijing, Bangkok and Kathmandu may also gain local clean air benefits by shifting the harmful emission to electric generation plants located outside the cities.


Lower greenhouse gas emissions


Plug-in electric vehicles operating in all-electric mode do not emit greenhouse gases from the onboard source of power, but from the point of view of a well-to-wheel assessment, the extent of the benefit also depends on the fuel and technology used for electricity generation. This fact has been referred to as the long tailpipe of plug-in electric vehicles. From the perspective of a full life cycle analysis, the electricity used to recharge the batteries must be generated from renewable or clean sources such as wind, solar, hydroelectric, or nuclear power for PEVs to have almost none or zero well-to-wheel emissions. In the case of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles operating in hybrid mode with assistance of the internal combustion engine, tailpipe and greenhouse emissions are lower in comparison to conventional cars because of their higher fuel economy. The magnitude of the potential advantage depends on the mix of generation sources and therefore varies by country and by region. For example, France can obtain significant emission benefits from electric and plug-in hybrids because most of its electricity is generated by nuclear power plants; similarly, most regions of Canada are primarily powered with hydroelectricity, nuclear, or natural gas which have no or very low emissions at the point of generation; and the state of California, where most energy comes from natural gas, hydroelectric and nuclear plants can also secure substantial emission benefits. The United Kingdom also has a significant potential to benefit from PEVs as low carbon sources such as wind turbines dominate the generation mix. Nevertheless, the location of the plants is not relevant when considering greenhouse gas emission because their effect is global. Lifecycle GHG emissions are complex to calculate, but compared to ICE cars generally while the EV battery causes higher emissions during vehicle manufacture this excess carbon debt is paid back after several months of driving.


Lower operating and maintenance costs


Internal combustion engines are relatively inefficient at converting on-board fuel energy to propulsion as most of the energy is wasted as heat, and the rest while the engine is idling. Electric motors, on the other hand, are more efficient at converting stored energy into driving a vehicle. Electric drive vehicles do not consume energy while at rest or coasting, and modern plug-in cars can capture and reuse as much as one fifth of the energy normally lost during braking through regenerative braking. Typically, conventional gasoline engines effectively use only 15% of the fuel energy content to move the vehicle or to power accessories, and diesel engines can reach on-board efficiencies of 20%, while electric drive vehicles typically have on-board efficiencies of around 80%. i
''"Plug-in Electric Vehicles: What Role for Washington?"''
/ref> All-electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles also have lower maintenance costs as compared to internal combustion vehicles, since electronic systems break down much less often than the mechanical systems in conventional vehicles, and the fewer mechanical systems onboard last longer due to the better use of the electric engine. PEVs do not require oil changes and other routine maintenance checks.

Less dependence on imported oil

For many developing countries, and particularly for the poorest African countries, oil imports have an adverse impact on the government budget and deteriorate their terms of trade thus jeopardizing their balance of payments, all leading to lower economic growth. Through the gradual replacement of internal combustion engine vehicles for electric cars and plug-in hybrids, electric drive vehicles can contribute significantly to lessen the dependence of the transport sector on imported oil as well as contributing to the development of a more resilient energy supply. ''See Chapter 5: Clean Smart Energy Supply.''i
''"Plug-in Electric Vehicles: What Role for Washington?"''
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Vehicle-to-grid

Plug-in electric vehicles offer users the opportunity to sell electricity stored in their batteries back to the power grid, thereby helping utilities to operate more efficiently in the management of their demand peaks. i
''"Plug-in Electric Vehicles: What Role for Washington?"''
/ref> A vehicle-to-grid (V2G) system would take advantage of the fact that most vehicles are parked an average of 95 percent of the time. During such idle times the electricity stored in the batteries could be transferred from the PEV to the power lines and back to the grid. In the U.S. this transfer back to the grid have an estimated value to the utilities of up to $4,000 per year per car. In a V2G system it would also be expected that battery electric (BEVs) and plug-in hybrids (PHEVs) would have the capability to communicate automatically with the power grid to sell demand response services by either delivering electricity into the grid or by throttling their charging rate.

Disadvantages




Cost of batteries


, plug-in electric vehicles are significantly more expensive as compared to conventional internal combustion engine vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles due to the additional cost of their lithium-ion battery pack. Cost reductions through advances in battery technology and higher production volumes will allow plug-in electric vehicles to be more competitive with conventional internal combustion engine vehicles. Bloomberg New Energy Finance (BNEF) concludes that battery costs are on a trajectory to make electric vehicles without government subsidies as affordable as internal combustion engine cars in most countries by 2022. BNEF projects that by 2040, long-range electric cars will cost less than expressed in 2016 dollars. BNEF expects electric car battery costs to be well below per kWh by 2030, and to fall further thereafter as new chemistries become available.
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Availability of recharging infrastructure


Despite the widespread assumption that plug-in recharging will take place overnight at home, residents of cities, apartments, dormitories, and townhouses do not have garages or driveways with available power outlets, and they might be less likely to buy plug-in electric vehicles unless recharging infrastructure is developed. i
''"Plug-in Electric Vehicles: What Role for Washington?"''
/ref> Electrical outlets or charging stations near their places of residence, in commercial or public parking lots, streets and workplaces are required for these potential users to gain the full advantage of PHEVs, and in the case of EVs, to avoid the fear of the batteries running out energy before reaching their destination, commonly called range anxiety. Even house dwellers might need to charge at the office or to take advantage of opportunity charging at shopping centers. However, this infrastructure is not in place and it will require investments by both the private and public sectors.

Battery swapping

A different approach to resolve the problems of range anxiety and lack of recharging infrastructure for electric vehicles was developed by Better Place but was not successful in the USA in the 2010s. battery swapping is available in China and is planned for other countries.


Potential overload of the electrical grid


The existing electrical grid, and local transformers in particular, may not have enough capacity to handle the additional power load that might be required in certain areas with high plug-in electric car concentrations. As recharging a single electric-drive car could consume three times as much electricity as a typical home, overloading problems may arise when several vehicles in the same neighborhood recharge at the same time, or during the normal summer peak loads. To avoid such problems, utility executives recommend owners to charge their vehicles overnight when the grid load is lower or to use smarter electric meters that help control demand. When market penetration of plug-in electric vehicles begins to reach significant levels, utilities will have to invest in improvements for local electrical grids in order to handle the additional loads related to recharging to avoid blackouts due to grid overload. Also, some experts have suggested that by implementing variable time-of-day rates, utilities can provide an incentive for plug-in owners to recharge mostly overnight when rates are lower. In the 5 years from 2014 to 2019, EVs increased in number and range, and doubled power draw and energy per session. Charging increased after midnight, and decreased in the peak hours of early evening.

Risks associated with noise reduction

Electric cars and plug-in hybrids when operating in all-electric mode at low speeds produce less roadway noise as compared to vehicles propelled by an internal combustion engine, thereby reducing harmful noise health effects. However, blind people or the visually impaired consider the noise of combustion engines a helpful aid while crossing streets, hence plug-in electric cars and conventional hybrids could pose an unexpected hazard when operating at low speeds. Several tests conducted in the U.S. have shown that this is a valid concern, as vehicles operating in electric mode can be particularly hard to hear below for all types of road users and not only the visually impaired. Technical Report DOT HS 811 204 At higher speeds the sound created by tire friction and the air displaced by the vehicle start to make sufficient audible noise. Therefore in the 2010s laws were passed in many countries mandating warning sounds at low speeds.

Risks of battery fire

Lithium-ion batteries may suffer thermal runaway and cell rupture if overheated or overcharged, and in extreme cases this can lead to combustion. To reduce these risks, lithium-ion battery packs contain fail-safe circuitry that shuts down the battery when its voltage is outside the safe range. Several plug-in electric vehicle fire incidents have taken place since the introduction of mass-production plug-in electric vehicles in 2008. Most of them have been thermal runaway incidents related to the lithium-ion batteries. Both General Motors and Nissan have published a guide for firefighters and first responders to properly handle a crashed plug-in electric-drive vehicle and safely disable its battery and other high voltage systems.


Car dealers’ reluctance to sell


With the exception of Tesla Motors, almost all new cars in the United States are sold through dealerships, so they play a crucial role in the sales of electric vehicles, and negative attitudes can hinder early adoption of plug-in electric vehicles. Dealers decide which cars they want to stock, and a salesperson can have a big impact on how someone feels about a prospective purchase. Sales people have ample knowledge of internal combustion cars while they do not have time to learn about a technology that represents a fraction of overall sales. As with any new technology, and in the particular case of advanced technology vehicles, retailers are central to ensuring that buyers, especially those switching to a new technology, have the information and support they need to gain the full benefits of adopting this new technology. There are several reasons for the reluctance of some dealers to sell plug-in electric vehicles. PEVs do not offer car dealers the same profits as a gasoline-powered cars. Plug-in electric vehicles take more time to sell because of the explaining required, which hurts overall sales and sales people commissions. Electric vehicles also may require less maintenance, resulting in loss of service revenue, and thus undermining the biggest source of dealer profits, their service departments. According to the National Automobile Dealers Association (NADS), dealers on average make three times as much profit from service as they do from new car sales.

Government incentives and policies

Several national, provincial, and local governments around the world have introduced policies to support the mass market adoption of plug-in electric vehicles. A variety of policies have been established to provide direct financial support to consumers and manufacturers; non-monetary incentives; subsidies for the deployment of charging infrastructure; procurement of electric vehicle for government fleets; and long term regulations with specific targets. Financial incentives for consumers aim to make plug-in electric car purchase price competitive with conventional cars due to the still higher up front cost of electric vehicles. Among the financial incentives there are one-time purchase incentives such as tax credits, purchase grants, exemptions from import duties, and other fiscal incentives; exemptions from road, bridge and tunnel tolls, and from congestion pricing fees; and exemption of registration and annual use vehicle fees. Some countries, like France, also introduced a bonus-malus based tax system that penalize fossil-fuel vehicle sales. , monetary incentives for electrically chargeable vehicles are available, among others, in several European Union member states, China, the United States, the UK, Japan, Norway, some provinces in Canada, South Korea, India, Israel, Colombia, and Costa Rica. Among the non-monetary incentives there are several perks such allowing plug-in vehicles access to bus lanes and high-occupancy vehicle lanes, free parking and free charging. In addition, in some countries or cities that restrict private car ownership (purchase quota system for new vehicles), or have implemented permanent driving restrictions (no-drive days), the schemes often exclude electric vehicles from the restrictions to promote their adoption. For example in Beijing, the license plate lottery scheme specifies a fixed number of vehicle purchase permits each year, but to promote the electrification of its fleet, the city government split the number of purchase permits into two lots, one for conventional vehicles, and another dedicated for all-electric vehicle applicants. Available online 24 February 2020. In the case of cities with driving alternate-days based on the license plate number, such as San José, Costa Rica, since 2012, São Paulo and Bogotá since 2014, and Mexico City since 2015, all-electric vehicles were excluded from the driving restrictions. Some government have also established long term regulatory signals with specific target timeframes such as ZEV mandates, national or regional emissions regulations, stringent fuel economy standards, and the phase out of internal combustion engine vehicle sales. For example, Norway set a national goal that all new car sales by 2025 should be zero emission vehicles (electric or hydrogen). Also, some cities are planning to establish zero-emission zones (ZEZ) restricting traffic access into an urban cordon area or city center where only zero-emission vehicles (ZEVs) are allowed access. In such areas, all internal combustion engine vehicles are banned. , Oxford is slated to be the first city to implement a ZEZ scheme, beginning with a small area scheduled to go into effect by mid 2021. The plan is to expand the clean air zone gradually into a much larger zone, until the ZEZ encompasses the majority of the city center by 2035. , other cities planning to gradually introduce ZEZ, or partial or total ban fossil fuel powered vehicles include, among others, Amsterdam (2030), Athens (2025), Barcelona (2030), Brussels (2030/2035), Copenhagen (2030), London (2020/2025), Los Angeles (2030), Madrid (2025), Mexico City (2025), Milan (2030), Oslo (2024/2030), Paris (2024/2030), Quito (2030), Rio de Janeiro (2030), Rome (2024/2030), Seattle (2030), and Vancouver (2030).

Production plug-in electric vehicles available

During the 1990s several highway-capable plug-in electric cars were produced in limited quantities, all were battery electric vehicles. PSA Peugeot Citroën launched several electric "Électrique" versions of its models starting in 1991. Other models were available through leasing mainly in California. Popular models included the General Motors EV1 and the Toyota RAV4 EV. Some of the latter were sold to the public and were still in use by the early 2010s. In the late 2000s began a new wave of mass production plug-in electric cars, motorcycles and light trucks. However, , most electric vehicles in the world roads were low-speed, low-range neighborhood electric vehicles (NEVs) or electric quadricycles. Sales of low-speed electric vehicles experienced considerable growth in China between 2012 and 2016, with an estimated NEV stock between 3 million to 4 million units, with most powered by lead-acid batteries. , according to the International Energy Agency, there were about 250 models of highway-capable plug-in electric passenger cars available for sale in the world, up from 70 in 2014. ''See Statistical annex, pp. 247–252 (See Tables A.1 and A.12). The global stock of plug-in electric passenger vehicles totaled 7.2 million cars at the end of 2019, of which, 47% were on the road in China. The stock of plug-in cars consist of 4.8 million battery electric cars (66.6%) and 2.4 million plug-in hybrids (33.3%). In addition, the stock of light commercial plug-in electric vehicles in use totaled 378 thousand units in 2019, and about half a million electric buses were in circulation, most of which are in China.'' There are also available several commercial models of electric light commercial vehicles, plug-in motorcycles, all-electric buses, and plug-in heavy-duty trucks. The Renault–Nissan–Mitsubishi Alliance is the world's leading light-duty electric vehicle manufacturer. Since 2010, the Alliance's global all-electric vehicle sales totaled almost 725,000 units, including those manufactured by Mitsubishi Motors through December 2018, now part of the Alliance. ''As of December 2018, a total of 724,905 electric vehicles have been sold by the Alliance since 2010.'' Its best selling all-electric Nissan Leaf was the world's top selling plug-in electric car in 2013 and 2014. Tesla is the world's second largest plug-in electric passenger car manufacturer with global sales since 2012 of over 532,000 units . Its Model S was the world's top selling plug-in car in 2015 and 2016, ''See also detailed 2016 sales and cumulative global sales in the two graphs.'' and its Model 3 was the world's best selling plug-in electric car in 2018. Ranking next is BYD Auto with more than 529,000 plug-in passenger cars delivered in China through December 2018. Its Qin plug-in hybrid is the company's top selling model with almost 137,000 units sold in China through December 2018. , the BMW Group had sold more than 356,000 plug-in cars since inception of the BMW i3, accounting for global sales its BMW i cars, BMW iPerformance plug-in hybrid models, and MINI brand plug-ins. ''The BMW Group sold 142,617 plug-in electric cars in 2018, and cumulative sales since inception of the BMW i3 totaled over 356,000 BMW and MINI electrified vehicles. BMW set a target of cumulative sales of 500,000 units by the end of 2019.'' BYD Auto ended 2015 as the world's best selling manufacturer of highway legal light-duty plug-in electric vehicles, with 61,722 units sold, followed by Tesla, with 50,580 units. ''The Tesla Model S was the top selling plug-in electric car in 2015 with 50,366 units sold, followed by the Nissan Leaf (about 43,000), the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV (over 40,000), the BYD Qin (31,898) and the BMW i3 (24,057). The Model S is also the second-best seller ever with 107,148 sales since its mid-2012 launch, behind the Nissan Leaf and ahead of GM’s Volt/Ampera family, credited with 106,000 sales. '' ''BYD Auto delivered 31,898 Qins, 18,375 Tangs, and 7,029 e6s during 2015. Added to that are small numbers of the T3 small commercial van and e5 battery-electric compact sedan, along with 2,888 Denza EV compact hatchbacks built by its joint venture with Daimler. Altogether, BYD sold a total of 61,722 light-duty plug-in electric vehicles in China in 2015.'' ''BYD Auto delivered 69,222 new energy vehicles in China in 2015, including buses, of which, a total of 61,722 were passenger vehicles, mostly plug-in hybrids, led by the Qin and Tang.'' BYD was again the world's top selling plug-in car manufacturer in 2016, with 101,183 units delivered, one more time followed again by Tesla with 76,243 units. ''BYD sold more than 100,000 new energy passenger cars in China in 2016, about 30,000 more units than Tesla Motors. The BYD Tang was the top selling plug-in car in China in 2016 with 31,405 units delivered.'' In 2017 BYD ranked for the third consecutive year as the global top plug-in car manufacturer with 113,669 units delivered. BAIC ranked second with 104,520 units. "BYD sold 108,612 passenger plug-in cars in China in 2017, enough to make it the world's top selling plug-in car manufacturer for the third year in a row." The BAIC EC-Series all-electric city car ranked as the world's top selling plug-in car in 2017 with 78,079 units sold in China. After 10 years in the market, Tesla was the world's top selling plug-in passenger car manufacturer in 2018, both as a brand and by automotive group, with 245,240 units delivered and a market share of 12% of all plug-in cars sold globally in 2018. "Tesla led plug-in car sales among automotive groups in 2018, with 245,240 units delivered, followed by BYD with 229,338, and the Renault-Nissan Alliance with 192,711." ''The global share of plug-in electric cars by brand in 2018 was led by Tesla with 12%, followed by BYD with 11%, BMW with 9%, BAIC with 6%, and Roewe and Nissan, both with 5%.'' BYD Auto ranked second with 227,152 plug-in passenger cars sold worldwide, representing a market share of 11%. ''BYD Auto sold 247,811 new energy vehicles in 2018 (including commercial heavy-duty vehicles), up 118% from 2018, of which, 227,152 were passenger cars, consisting of 103,263 units all-electric cars and 123,889 units were plug-in hybrid vehicles. In addition, 20,659 new energy commercial vehicles were sold in 2018.''

Sales and main markets

The global stock of plug-in electric vehicles between 2005 and 2009 consisted exclusively of all-electric cars, totaling about 1,700 units in 2005, and almost 6,000 in 2009. The plug-in stock rose to about 12,500 units in 2010, of which, only 350 vehicles were plug-in hybrids. ''See pp. 4–5, and 24–25 and Statistical annex, pp. 34–37''. By comparison, during the Golden Age of the electric car at the beginning of the 20th century, the EV stock peaked at approximately 30,000 vehicles. After the introduction of the first mass-production plug-in cars by major carmakers in late 2010, plug-in car global sales went from about 50,000 units in 2011, to 125,000 in 2012, almost 213,000 in 2013, and over 315,000 units in 2014. By mid-September 2015, the global stock of highway legal plug-in electric passenger cars and utility vans reached the one million sales milestone, ''Cumulative global sales totaled about 1,004,000 highway legal plug-in electric passenger cars and light-duty vehicles by mid-September 2015.'' almost twice as fast as hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). Light-duty plug-in electric vehicle sales in 2015 increased to more than 565,000 units in 2015, about 80% from 2014, driven mainly by China and Europe. Both markets passed in 2015 the U.S. as the largest plug-in electric car markets in terms of total annual sales, with China ranking as the world's best-selling plug-in electric passenger car country market in 2015. About 775,000 plug-in cars and vans were sold in 2016, and cumulative global sales passed the 2 million milestone by the end of 2016. ''An estimated 2,032,000 highway-legal plug-in passenger cars and vans have been sold worldwide at the end of 2016. The top selling markets are China (645,708 new energy cars, including imports), Europe (638,000 plug-in cars and vans), and the United States (570,187 plug-in cars). The top European country markets are Norway (135,276), the Netherlands (113,636), France (108,065), and the UK (91,000). Total Chinese sales of domestically produced new energy vehicles, including buses and truck, totaled 951,447 vehicles. China was the top selling plug-in car market in 2016, and also has the world's largest stock of plug-in electric cars.'' The global market share of the light-duty plug-in vehicle segment achieved a record 0.86% of total new car sales in 2016, up from 0.62% in 2015 and 0.38% in 2014. Cumulative global light-duty plug-in vehicle sales passed the 3 million milestone in November 2017. "The number of fully electric and plug-in hybrid cars on the world’s roads passed the 3 million mark in November 2017." About 1.2 million plug-ins cars and vans were sold worldwide in 2017, with China accounting for about half of global sales. The plug-in car segment achieved a 1.3% market share. ''Global registrations totaled around 1.2 million units in 2017, 57 % higher than 2016. These include all global BEV and PHEV passenger cars sales, light trucks in USA/Canada and light commercial vehicle in Europe. The segment market share was 1.3%, and in December the global plug-in share touched the 2 % mark for the first time.'' Plug-in passenger car sales totaled just over 2 million in 2018, with a market share of 2.1%. The global stock reached 5.3 million light-duty plug-in vehicles in December 2018. ''A total of 1.45 million light-duty pure electric vehicles were sold in 2018.'' Despite the rapid growth experienced, the plug-in electric car segment represented just about 1 out of every 250 vehicles on the world's roads by the end of 2018. By the end of 2019 the stock of light-duty plug-in vehicles totaled 7.55 million units, consisting of 4.79 million all-electric cars, 2.38 million plug-in hybrid cars, and 377,970 electric light commercial vehicles. Plug-in passenger cars still represented less than 1% of the world's car fleet in use. In addition, there were about half a million electric buses in circulation in 2019, most of them in China. In 2020, global cumulative sales of light-duty plug-in vehicles passed the 10 million unit milestone. All-electric cars have outsold plug-in hybrids for several years, and by the end of 2019, the shift towards battery electric cars continued. The global ratio between all-electrics (BEVs) and plug-in hybrids (PHEVs) went from 56:44 in 2012, to 60:40 in 2015, increased to 66:34 in 2017, and rose to 69:31 in 2018, and reached 74:26 in 2019. ''See Exhibit 1: Global electric-vehicle sales, 2010-17''. Out of the 7.2 million plug-in passenger cars in use at the end of 2019, two thirds were all-electric cars (4.8 million). Since 2016, China has the world's largest fleet of light-duty plug-in electric vehicles, after having overtaken during 2016 both the U.S. and Europe in terms of cumulative sales. The fleet of Chinese plug-in passenger cars represented 46.7% of the global stock of plug-in cars at the end of 2019. Europe listed next with 24.8%, followed by the U.S. with 20.2% of the global stock in use. , 25 cities accounted for 44% of the world's stock of plug-in electric cars, while representing just 12% of world passenger vehicle sales. Shanghai led the world with cumulative sales of over 162,000 electric vehicles since 2011, followed by Beijing with 147,000 and Los Angeles with 143,000. Among these cities, Bergen has the highest market share of the plug-in segment, with about 50% of new car sales in 2017, followed by Oslo with 40%. ''Click on "Download File" to get the full report, 15 pp.''

China

, China had the world's largest stock of highway legal plug-in passenger cars with 4.6 million units, corresponding to 42% of the global plug-in car fleet in use. Domestically produced cars account for about 96% of new energy car sales in China ''Sales of plug-in electric cars in China, including imports, totaled 600,174 units in 2017. The BAIC EC-Series was the top selling plug-in with 78,079 units sold in China, making the city car the world's top selling plug-in car in 2017. The top selling plug-in hybrid was the BYD Song PHEV with 30,920 units. BYD Auto was the top selling car manufacturer. Foreign brands captured only about 4% of plug-in sales in 2017, with about half by Tesla. The Chinese plug-in car market represented roughly half of the 1.2 million plug-ins sold worldwide in 2017.'' A particular feature of the Chinese passenger plug-in market is the dominance of small entry level vehicles. China also dominates the plug-in light commercial vehicle and electric bus deployment, with its stock reaching over 500,000 buses in 2019, 98% of the global stock, and 247,500 electric light commercial vehicles, 65% of the global fleet. In addition, the country also leads sales of medium- and heavy duty electric trucks, with over 12,000 trucks sold, and nearly all battery electric. Since 2011, combined sales of all classes of new energy vehicles (NEV) totaled almost 5.5 million at the end of 2020. ''Sales of new energy vehicles totaled 1,206,000 units in 2019, down 4.0% from 2018, and includes 2,737 fuel cell vehicles. Battery electric vehicle sales totaled 972,000 units (down 1.2%) and plug-in hybrid sales totaled 232,000 vehicles (down 14.5%). Sales figures include passenger cars, buses and commercial vehicles.''. Of these, there were 4.9 million new energy vehicles in use at the end of 2020, accounting for 1.75% of all vehicles on the road in China. The BAIC EC-Series all-electric city car was China's the top selling plug-in car in 2017 and 2018, and also the world's top selling plug-in car in 2017. BYD Auto was the world's top selling car manufacturer in 2016 and 2017. ''Sales of new energy passenger cars totaled 1,016,002 units in 2018.The BAIC EC series ranked as China's top selling plug-in car in 2018 with 90,637 units delivered.'' ''Sales of the BAIC EC series totaled 78,079 cars in 2018 and ranked as China's top selling plug-in car.'' In 2020, the Tesla Model 3 listed as the best-selling plug-in car with 137,459 units. ''See table: Top 10 NEV sold in China in 2020.''

Europe

Europe had 3.26 million plug-in electric passenger cars and light commercial vehicles in circulation at the end of 2020, consisting of 1,722,003 fully electric passenger cars, 1,394,915 plug-in hybrid cars, and 146,611 all-electric light commercial vehicles. Filters: Elecricity/EU + UK + EFTA + Turkey/2020 (YTD) - See grahp "AF Fleet M1 Electricity (2020) Total number AF passenger cars in the fleet": BEV=1,722,003 and 1,394,915 PHEVs (Total=3,116,918 plug-in passenger cars on the road) Filters: Elecricity/EU + UK + EFTA + Turkey/2020 (YTD) - See grahp "AF Fleet Electricity (2020)": BEV=146,611 (total number AF light commercial vehicles) and "AF New Registrations Electricity (2020)": BEV=37,535 (newly registered AF light commercial vehicles) The European stock of plug-in passenger is the world's second largest market after China, accounting for 25% of the global stock in 2019. Europe also has the second largest electric light commercial vehicle stock, 31% of the global stock in 2019. In 2020, and despite the strong decline in global car sales brought by the COVID-19 pandemic, annual sales of plug-in passenger cars in Europe surpassed the 1 million mark for the first time. In addition, Europe outsold China in 2020 as the world's largest plug-in passenger car market for the first time since 2015. ''Global sales of plug-ins cars totaled 3 million in 2020, 43% up from 2018. The market share of plug-in vehicles reached 4.2% of the global market, up from 2.5% in 2019. Tesla was the best selling brand with almost 500,000 units delivered. '' The plug-in car segment had a market share of 1.3% of new car registrations in 2016, rose to 3.6% in 2019, and achieved 11.4% in 2020. Figures includes the European Union, EFTA (Norway, Switzerland, Iceland) and the UK, using available registration data from the European Automobile Manufacturers Association (ACEA). The largest country markets in the European region in terms of EV stock and annual sales are Germany, Norway, France, the UK, the Netherlands, and Sweden. Germany surpassed Norway in 2019 as the best selling plug-in market, leading both the all-electric and the plug-in hybrid segments in Europe. and in 2020 listed as the top selling European country market for the second consecutive year.

=Germany

= , cumulative registrations in Germany totaled 700,419 plug-in electric passenger cars since 2010, consisting of 362,559 all-electric cars and 337,860 plug-in hybrids, allowing the country to rank as the European market with the largest stock of plug-in cars. ''A total of 29,436 plug-in hybrids and 25,056 all-electric cars were registered in Germany in 2017.'' ''Click on the tab Kraftstoffarten for the market shares by fuel: Electric was 1.0% in 2018, and plug-in hybrid was 0.9%'' ''See the tab Kraftsoffarten: A total of 45,348 plug-in hybrids (market share 1.3%) and 63,321 all-electric cars (market share 1.8%) were registered in Germany in 2019.'' ''A total of 394,632 plug-in electric passenger cars were registered in Germany in 2021, consisting of 200,469 plug-in hybrids (6.9% market share) and 194,163 all-electric cars (6.7% market share).'' In addition, Germany had a stock of 21,890 light-duty electric commercial vehicles in 2019, the second largest in Europe after France. There were 588,944 plug-in cars in circulation on January 1, 2021, representing 1.2% of all cars on the road in Germany, up from 0.5% the previous year. ''The term electric drive used by KBA includes battery-electric, plug-in and fuel-cell cars.'' Germany listed as the top selling plug-in car market in the European continent in 2019 and achieved a market share of 3.10%. Despite the global decline in car sales brought by the COVID-19 pandemic, the segment market share achieved a record 13.6% in 2020. with a record volume of 394,632 plug-in passenger cars registered in 2020, up 263% from 2019, allowing Germany to be listed for a second year running as the best selling European plug-in market. Both years, the German market led both the fully electric and plug-in hybrid segments. See infograh "Parc Roulant et Immatriculations Annuelles depuis Janvier 2010" - ''As of December 2020, there were 470,295 plug-in electric cars and utility vans, consisting of 337,986 all-electric cars and vans, and 132,309 plug-in hybrids registered since 2010.''

= Norway

= , a total of 508,425 light-duty plug-in electric vehicles have been registered in Norway since 2010. ''Place the pointing device over the graph to show the cumulative number of electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids in Norway at the end of each year registered since 2010. , cumulative light-duty plug-in electric vehicle registrations totaled 489,669 units, consisting of 346,822 all-electric battery electric vehicles and 142,847 plug-in hybrids.'' ''A total of 9,255 plug-in cars and vans were sold in January 2021, including used imports.'' ''A total of 9,501 plug-in cars and vans were sold in February 2021, including used imports.'' Until 2019, Norway ranked as the European country with the largest stock of plug-in cars in use. Norwegian cumulative registrations of light-duty plug-ins consists of 359,352 all-electric passenger cars and vans, and 149,073 plug-in hybrids, including both new and used imports registrations. The Norwegian plug-in car segment market share has been the highest in the world for several years, reaching 39.2% in 2017, up from 29.1% in 2016, 49.1% in 2018, rose to 55.9% in 2019, and achieved 74.7% in 2020, meaning that three out of every four new passenger car sold in Norway in 2020 was a plug-in electric. In January 2017 the electric-drive segment surpassed combined conventional internal combustion engine sales for the first time ever, achieving a combined market share of 51.4% of new car sales. In October 2018, Norway became the first country where 1 in every 10 passenger cars in use was a plug-in electric vehicle. and more than 15% of all passenger cars on Norwegian roads were plug-ins by the end 2020. The Norwegian fleet of plug-in electric cars is one of the cleanest in the world because 98% of the electricity generated in the country comes from hydropower. ''TØI report 1492/2016. See pp. 1.'' Norway is the country with the largest EV ownership per capita in the world.

= France

= , there were 504,354 light-duty plug-in electric vehicles in use in France, consisting of 354,729 all-electric passenger cars and commercial vans, and 149,625 plug-in hybrids.. See infograh "Parc Roulant et Immatriculations Annuelles depuis Janvier 2010" - ''As of February 2021, a total of 504,354 plug-in electric passenger cars and commercial vans were registered in France, consisting of 354,729 all-electric cars and vans, and 149,625 plug-in hybrids in circulation.'' Of these, over 50,000 were all-electric light commercial vehicles. The market share of all-electric passenger cars increased from 0.30% of new car registered in 2012, to 0.59% in 2014. ''See "Ventes de voitures électriques en 2016/2015, 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011 and 2010" It shows all electric car registrations between 2010 and 2016.'' After the introduction of the super-bonus for the scrappage of old diesel-power cars in 2015, sales of both pure electric cars and plug-in hybrids surged, rising the market share to 1.17% in 2015,'' A total of 5,006 plug-in hybrids were registered in France in 2015.'' climbed to 2.11% in 2018, and achieved a record market share of 2.8% in 2019. Despite the global strong decline in car sales brought by the COVID-19 pandemic, plug-in electric car sales in France during the first six months of 2020 achieved a record sales volume of 65,267 units, and a market share of 9.1%. See infograh "Parc Roulant et Immatriculations Annuelles depuis Janvier 2010" - As of June 2020, there were 344,725 plug-in electric cars and utility vans, consisting of 267,120 all-electric cars and vans, and 77,605 plug-in hybrids registered since 2010. , France is the country with the world's second largest stock of light-duty electric commercial vehicles after China, with 49,340 utility vans in use. The market share of all-electric utility vans reached a market share of 1.22% in 2014, and 1.77% in 2018.'' A total of 53,745 light-duty plug-in electric vehicles were registered in France in 2018 consisting of 31,055 all-electric cars plus 1,148 REx vehicles, 8,103 electric utility vans, and 13,439 plug-in hybrid cars. The plug-in car segment achieved a market share of 2.1% of new car registrations in the country in 2018. Includes revised figures for 2017'' ''See "Ventes d’utilitaires électriques en 2016/2015/2014 for all-electric utility van registrations. Light-duty electric vehicles reached a 1.22% market share of new van sales in the country in 2014, and rose to 1.30% in 2015.''

= United Kingdom

= , there were about 450,000 light-duty plug-in electric vehicles on British roads, consisting of around 210,000 fully electric vehicles and 240,000 plug-in hybrids, of which, over 10,000 were plug-in commercial vans. A surge of plug-in car sales took place in Britain beginning in 2014. Total registrations went from 3,586 in 2013, to 37,092 in 2016, and rose to 59,911 in 2018.''Registrations in 2017 totaled 47,263 plug-in electric vehicles consisting of 13,597 all-electric cars and 33,6663 plug-in hybrids. Of these, a total of 45,187 cars were eligible for the Plug-in Car Grant. Since its launch in 2011, a total of 127,509 cars eligible for the PICG have been registered through December 2017. A total of 2,540,617 new cars were registered in 2017, resulting in a plug-in electric car market share of 1.86% of new car sales.'' The market share of the plug-in segment went from 0.16% in 2013 to 0.59% in 2014, and achieved 2.6% in 2018. ''A total of 2,254 plug-in electric cars were registered in 2013''. ''A total of 14,518 plug-in electric cars were registered during 2014, consisting of 6,697 pure electrics and 7,821 plug-in hybrids, up from 3,586 plug-in electric cars were registered in 2013. A total of 2,476,435 new cars were registered in 2014''.''Registrations in 2018 totaled 59,911 plug-in electric vehicles consisting of 15,474 all-electric cars and 44,437 plug-in hybrids. A total of 2,367,147 new cars were registered in 2018, resulting in a plug-in electric car market share of 2.53% of new car sales.'' The segment market share was 3.1% in 2019, and rose to a record 10.7% in 2020. , the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV is the all-time top selling plug-in car in the UK over 46,400 units registered, followed by the Nissan Leaf more than 31,400 units.

= Netherlands

= , there were 297,380 highway-legal light-duty plug-in electric vehicles on the Dutch roads, consisting of 182,481 all-electric cars, 182,481 plug-in hybrids, and 6,247 all-electric light utility vans. When all other classes of vehicles are accounted for (buses, trucks, motorcycles, quadricycles, etc.), the Dutch plug-in electric-drive fleet in use climbs to 382,721 units. '', there were 297,380 highway-legal light-duty plug-in electric vehicles registered (in use) in the Netherlands, consisting of 182,481 fully electric cars, 108,652 plug-in hybrids, and 6,247 all-electric light utility vans. The total number of all classes of plug-in electric vehicles (including buses, heavy-duty truck, mopeds, etc.) on the road totaled 382,721 units. Source includes figures from 2016 to 2020. Sales of plug-in passenger cars totaled 87,946 vehicles and the segment market share was 24.6%.'' , the Netherlands had the second largest plug-in ownership per capita in the world after Norway. '', Norway had a concentration of registered plug-in cars per 1,000 people of 21.52, the Netherlands of 5.63, California of 5.83, and the United States national average was 1.52.'' Plug-in sales fell sharply in 2016 due to changes in tax rules, and as a result of the change in government's incentives, the plug-in market share declined from 9.9% in 2015, to 6.7% in 2016, and fell to 2.6% in 2017. '', the United States is the leading country market with a stock of about 450,000 highway legal light-duty plug-in electric vehicles delivered since 2008. China ranks second with around 300,000 units sold since 2011, followed by Japan with about 150,000 plug-in units sold since 2009, both through March 2016. European sales are led by Norway with over 100,000 units registered by the end of April 2016.'' The intake rate rose to 6.5% in 2018 in anticipation of another change in tax rules that went into effect in January 2019, '', there were 145,882 highway legal light-duty plug-in electric vehicles registered in the Netherlands, consisting of 97,702 plug-in hybrids, 44,984 pure electric cars, and 3,196 all-electric light utility vans. With a total of 24,273 Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEVs registered by the end of December 2018, the plug-in hybrid is the all-time top selling plug-in electric vehicle in the Netherlands. The Tesla Model S is the best selling all-electric car with 12,990 units registered.'' and increased to 14.9% in 2019, and rose to a record 24.6% in 2020.

United States

, cumulative sales of highway legal plug-in electric cars in the U.S. totaled 1,769,953 units since 2010. Since December 2016 the U.S. has the world's third largest stock of plug-in passenger cars, after having being overtook by Europe in 2015 and China during 2016. California is the largest plug-in regional market in the country, with 803,816 plug-in cars registered up until December 2020, 46% of national sales. ''National sales 2020: 322,442, cumulative sales 1,786,258. California sales 2020: 145,099, cumulative sales 803,816.'' Nationwide sales of plug-in electric car sales totaled 157,181 units in 2016, ''Plug-in electric car sales in the U.S. totaled 157,181 units, consisting of 84,246 all-electric cars and 72,935 plug-in hybrids. The plug-in car segment achieved a market share of 0.90% of new car sales. December sales totaled 23,288 units with a market share of 1.39%. The top selling model in 2016 was the Tesla Model S with 29,156 units sold, followed by the Chevrolet Volt(24,739) and the Tesla Model X (18,028).'' rose to 199,818 in 2017, and achieved a record of 361,307 units in 2018. Sales declined to 329,528 units in 2019. The market share of plug-in electric passenger cars increased from 0.14% of new car sales in 2011 to 0.75% in 2014. ''Plug-in electric car sales in the U.S. totaled 114,248 units in 2015, consisting of 71,105 all-electric cars and 43,143 plug-in hybrids, with corresponding market shares of 0.25% and 0.41%. Sales in 2014 totaled 123,347 units.'' ''See the section: December 2012 Plug-in Electric Car Sales Numbers. A total of 53,172 plug-in electric vehicles were sold during 2012. Sales of the Fisker Karma, Coda and Wheego are not included, as these carmakers do not report monthly sales on a regular basis.'' The segment's market share fell to 0.66% in 2015, then increased to 0.90% in 2016, reached 1.13% in 2017, ''The plug-in car segment achieved a market share of 1.13% of new car sales in 2017.'' and achieved 2.1% in 2018. The Tesla Model 3 electric car has been the best selling plug-in car in the U.S. for two consecutive years, 2018 and 2019. ''See Graph: "Top 10 U.S. Plug-in cars (cumulative sales)" and "U.S. Plug-in Car Sales (cumulative)"'' ''See Chart: "2019 Monthly/Q4 Sales Chart : Annual" - Cumulative sales in the U.S. totaled 329,528 units in 2019, and the top selling models were the Tesla Model 3 with 158,925 units, the Toyota Prius Prime with 23,630, The Tesla Model X with 19,225, the Chevrolet Bolt EV with 16,418 and the Tesla Model S with 14,100 units.'' Cumulative sales of the Model 3 surpassed in 2019 the discontinued Chevrolet Volt plug-in hybrid to become the all-time best selling plug-in car in the country, with an estimated 300,471 units delivered since inception, followed by the Tesla Model S all-electric car with about 157,992, and the Chevrolet Volt with 157,054.


Japan


, Japan had a stock of plug-in passenger cars of 294,000 units on the road, consisting of 152,320 all-electric cars (51.8%) and 141,680 plug-in hybrids (48.2%). The fleet of electric light commercial vehicles in use totaled 8,720 units in 2019. Plug-in sales totaled 24,660 units in 2015 and 24,851 units in 2016. The rate of growth of the Japanese plug-in segment slowed down from 2013, with annual sales falling behind Europe, the U.S. and China during 2014 and 2015. ''About 520,000 highway legal light-duty plug-in electric vehicles were sold worldwide in 2015, with cumulative global sales reaching 1,235,000. The United States was the leading market with 411,120 units sold since 2008, followed by China with 258,328 units sold since 2011. Japan ranks third, followed by the Netherlands (88,991), Norway (77,897), France (74,291), and the UK (53,254). Over 21,000 units were sold in Japan in 2015.'' The segment market share fell from 0.68% in 2014 to 0.59% in 2016. ''See pp. 5–7, 12–22, 27–28, and Statistical annex, pp. 49–51''. Sales recovered in 2017, with almost 56,000 plug-in cars sold, and the segment's market share reached 1.1%. ''About 56,000 plug-in electric cars were sold in Japan in 2017.'' Sales fell slightly in 2018 to 52,000 units with a market share of 1.0%. ''A total of 52,013 plug-in cars were sold in Japan in 2018, with a market share of 1.0%. The Nissan Leaf was the top selling plug-in model with 25,722 units, followed by the Prius PHEV with 12,401 units.'' The decline in plug-in car sales reflects the Japanese government and the major domestic carmakers decision to adopt and promote hydrogen fuel cell vehicles instead of plug-in electric vehicles.

Top selling PEV models



All-electric cars and vans

The Tesla Model 3 surpassed the Nissan Leaf in early 2020 to become the world's all-time best selling electric car, and global cumulative sales totaled more than 800,000 through December 2020. "Global sales totaled 3,124,793 plug-in passenger cars in 2020, with a BEV to PHEV ratio of 69:31, and a global market share of 4%. The world's top selling plug-in car was the Tesla Model 3 with 365,240 units delivered, and Tesla was the top selling manufacturer of plug-in passenger cars in 2019 with 499,535 units, followed by VW with 220,220." The Model 3 has been the world's best selling plug-in electric car for three consecutive years, from 2018 to 2020. The United States is the leading market with an estimated 395,000 units sold, ''At the end of 2019, the all-time top selling plug-in cars in the U.S. were the Tesla Model 3 with 300,471 units, Tesla Model S with 157,992, Chevrolet Volt with 157,054 units, Nissan Leaf with 141,907 and the Toyota Prius PHV with 109,003 (by September 2019).'' ''According to Experian, in 2020 the top U.S. EVs by registrations were the Tesla Model 3 with 95,135 units.'' followed by the European market with over 180,000 units delivered, both through December 2020. ''Sales of the Tesla Model 3 in Europe totaled 94,495 units in 2019 (Europe 23) and topped sales in the region in the EV segment.'' The Model 3 was the best-selling plug-in car in China in 2020, with 137,459 units sold. ''See table: Top 10 NEV sold in China in 2020.'' Global sales of the Nissan Leaf totaled 500,000 units by December 2020, 10 years after its inception. Europe is the world's largest Leaf market with more than 180,000 units sold through December 2020, ''According to Jato Dynamics, 85,713 Tesla Model 3 cars and 30,916 Leafs were sold in Europe in 2020.'' of which, over 65,500 units have been registered in Norway, the leading European country market. ''The Nissan Leaf is the all-time best selling electric car in Norway, with 65,528 units registered through 2020.'' , U.S. sales totaled 151,471 units, and sales in Japan totaled 146,216 units. Ranking third is the all-electric Tesla Model S with global deliveries of 263,504 units . "Tesla sold its 200,000 Model S in the fourth quarter of 2017, in October or early November, becoming the second plug-in car to cross this sales threshold after the Nissan Leaf (300,000 units by early 2017). , Tesla reported global sales of 212,874 Model S cars." The United States is its leading market with about 157,992 units delivered through 2019. Europe's all-time top selling all-electric light utility vehicle is the Renault Kangoo Z.E., with global sales of over 57,500 units through November 2020. The following table presents global sales of the top selling highway-capable electric cars and light utility vehicles produced since the introduction of the first modern production all-electric car, the Tesla Roadster, in 2008 and December 2020. The table includes all-electric passenger cars and utility vans with cumulative sales of about or over 150,000 units.

Plug-in hybrids

The Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV is the world's all-time best selling plug-in hybrid according to JATO Dynamics. Global sales achieved the 250,000 unit milestone in May 2020. Europe is the Outlander P-HEV leading market with 126,617 units sold through January 2019, followed by Japan with 42,451 units through March 2018. ''See tables in pp. 3-4.'' European sales are led by the UK with 36,237 units delivered, followed by the Netherlands with 25,489 units, both through March 2018. Ranking second is the Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid (Toyota Prius Prime) with about 225,000 units sold worldwide of both generations through December 2020. The United States is the market leader with over 93,000 units delivered through December 2018. Japan ranks next with about 61,200 units through December 2018, followed by Europe with almost 14,800 units through June 2018. ''Toyota sold 1,693 Prius PHEV during the first half of 2018.'' Combined global sales of the Chevrolet Volt and its rebadged models totaled about 186,000 units by the end of 2018, including about 10,000 Opel/Vauxhall Amperas sold in Europe through June 2016. ''Global cumulative sales of plug-in electric vehicles totaled about 1.9 million units through November 2016. The Nissan Leaf is the world's leading plug-in car with more than 240,000 units delivered. , the Tesla Model S ranks next with over 151,000, followed by the Vollt/Ampera family of vehicles with 130,500 vehicles sold including over 10,000 Opel/Vauxhall Amperas sold in Europe, the Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV with about 116,500 units, and the Toyota Prius PHV with about 76,200.'' Volt sales are led by the United States with 157,054 units delivered through December 2019, followed by Canada with 17,311 units through November 2018. Until the end of 2018, the Chevrolet Volt family listed as the world's top selling plug-in hybrid, when it was surpassed by the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV. The following table presents plug-in hybrid models with cumulative global sales of around or more than 100,000 units since the introduction of the first modern production plug-in hybrid car, the BYD F3DM, in 2008 up until December 2019:

See also

*All-electric vehicle (EV) or battery electric vehicle (BEV) *Battery electric multiple unit *Electric car *Electric car use by country *Electric vehicle battery *Electric vehicle warning sounds *Hybrid tax credit (U.S.) *List of electric cars currently available *List of modern production plug-in electric vehicles *Neighborhood electric car * New energy vehicles in China *Plug In America *Plug-in hybrid vehicle, (PHEV) *RechargeIT (Google.org PHEV program) *Renewable energy by country

References



External links


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Clean Vehicle Rebate Project website

Competitive Electric Town Transport
Institute of Transport Economics (TØI), Oslo, August 2015.
Cradle-to-Grave Lifecycle Analysis of U.S. Light-Duty Vehicle-Fuel Pathways: A Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Economic Assessment of Current (2015) and Future (2025–2030) Technologies
(includes BEVs and PHEVs), Argonne National Laboratory, June 2016.
Driving Electrification – A Global Comparison of Fiscal Incentive Policy for Electric Vehicles
International Council on Clean Transportation, May 2014.

Tugce Yuksel and Jeremy Michalek, Carnegie Mellon University. 2015
eGallon Calculator: Compare the costs of driving with electricity
U.S. Department of Energy
Electric Vehicle Timeline: Electric Cars, Plug-In Hybrids, and Fuel Cell Vehicles (1900–2014)
Union of Concerned Scientists
EV Everywhere Grand Challenge Blueprint
U.S. Department of Energy, January 2013.
From Fiction to Reality: The Evolution of Electric Vehicles 2013 – 2015
JATO Dynamics, November 2015.
Global EV Outlook 2013– Understanding the Electric Vehicle Landscape to 2020
International Energy Agency (IEA), April 2013
Hybrid and Electric Vehicles – The Electric Drive Gains Traction
IA-HEV, International Energy Agency (IEA), May 2013
Influence of driving patterns on life cycle cost and emissions of hybrid and plug-in electric vehicle powertrains
Carnegie MellonVehicle Electrification Group
Modernizing vehicle regulations for electrification
International Council on Clean Transportation, October 2018.
NHTSA Interim Guidance Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles Equipped with High Voltage Batteries – Vehicle Owner/General Public

NHTSA Interim Guidance Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles Equipped with High Voltage Batteries – Law Enforcement/Emergency Medical Services/Fire Department

New Energy Tax Credits for Electric Vehicles purchased in 2009

Overview of Tax Incentives for Electrically Chargeable Vehicles in the E.U.

PEVs Frequently Asked Questions

Plug-in Electric Vehicles: Challenges and Opportunities
American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, June 2013
Powering Ahead – The future of low-carbon cars and fuels
the RAC Foundation and UK Petroleum Industry Association, April 2013.
Plugging In: A Consumer's Guide to the Electric Vehicle
Electric Power Research Institute
Plug-in America website

Plug-in Cars website

Plug-in Electric Vehicle Deployment in the Northeast
Georgetown Climate Center
Plug-In Electric Vehicles: A Case Study of Seven Markets
(Norway, Netherlands, California, United States, France, Japan, and Germany), UC Davis, October 2014.
Plug-in Tracker: A comprehensive list of highway-capable PEVs (cars and trucks, 2- and 3-wheeled and commercial vehicles)

Plug-in List of Registered Charging Stations in the USA

RechargeIT plug-in driving experiment (Google.org)

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April 2014
UK Plug-in Car Grant website

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U.S. Federal & State Incentives & Laws

U.S. State and Federal Incentives for EVs, PHEVs and Charge Stations



Belfer Center">Will Electric Cars Transform the U.S. Vehicle Market? Belfer Center
, Harvard University

Books

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