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Planctomycetes are a phylum of aquatic bacteria and are found in samples of brackish, and marine and fresh water. They reproduce by budding. In structure, the organisms of this group are ovoid and have a holdfast, at the tip of a thin cylindrical extension from the cell body called the stalk, at the nonreproductive end that helps them to attach to each other during budding. Cavalier-Smith
Cavalier-Smith
has postulated that the Planctomycetes are within the clade Planctobacteria
Planctobacteria
in the larger clade Gracilicutes, but this is not generally accepted.

Contents

1 Structure 2 Molecular Signatures 3 Life cycle 4 Phylogeny 5 Taxonomy 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

Structure[edit] For a long time bacteria belonging to this group were considered to lack peptidoglycan, (also called murein) in their cell walls, which is an important heteropolymer present in most bacterial cell walls that serves as a protective component. It was thought that instead their walls were made up of glycoprotein which is rich in glutamate. Recently, however, representatives of all three clades within the Planctomycetes were found to possess peptidoglycan-containing cell walls.[1][2] Planctomycetes have a distinctive morphology with the appearance of membrane-bound internal compartments, often referred to as the paryphoplasm (ribosome-free space), pirellulosome (ribosome-containing space) and nucleoid (condensed nucleic acid region, in these species surrounded by a double membrane).[3][4] Until the discovery of the Poribacteria, planctomycetes were the only bacteria known with these apparent internal compartments.[5] Three-dimensional electron tomography reconstruction of a representative species, Gemmata obscuriglobus, has yielded varying interpretations of this observation. One 2013 study found the appearance of internal compartments to be due to a densely invaginated but continuous single membrane, concluding that only the two compartments typical of Gram-negative
Gram-negative
bacteria - the cytoplasm and periplasm - are present. However, the excess membrane triples the surface area of the cell relative to its volume, which may be related to Gemmata's sterol biosynthesis abilities.[6] A 2014 study using similar methods reported confirmation of the earlier enclosed compartment hypothesis.[7] It has recently been shown that Gemmata obscuriglobus
Gemmata obscuriglobus
is able to take in large molecules via a process which in some ways resembles endocytosis, the process used by eukaryotic cells to engulf external items.[8][9] Molecular Signatures[edit] Although the Planctomycetes are renowned for their unusual cellular characteristics, their distinctness from all other bacteria is additionally supported by the shared presence of two conserved signature indels (CSIs).[10] These CSIs demarcate the group from neighboring phyla within the PVC group.[11] An additional CSI has been found that is shared by all Planctomycetes species, with the exception of Kuenenia stuttgartiensis, which is in line with the observation that K. stuttgartiensis forms a deep branch within the phylum. A conserved signature indel has also been found to be shared by the entire PVC group, including Planctomycetes.[10][11] Planctomycetes also harbours an important conserved signature protein that has been characterized to play an important housekeeping function that is exclusive to members belonging to the PVC clade.[12] Life cycle[edit] The life cycle of many planctomycetes involves alternation between sessile cells and flagellated swarmer cells. The sessile cells bud to form the flagellated swarmer cells which swim for a while before settling down to attach and begin reproduction. Phylogeny[edit] See also: Bacterial taxonomy The phylogeny based on the work of the All-Species Living Tree Project.[13]

Phycisphaerae

Phycisphaera mikrensis

Tepidisphaera mucosa

"Planctomycetia"

Planctopirus limnophila

Schlesneria paludicola

Gimesia maris

Planctomicrobium piriforme

Rubinisphaera brasiliensis

Rhodopirellula

R. rosea

R. baltica

R. rubra

R. lusitana

Pirellula staleyi

Blastopirellula

B. cremea

B. marina

Gemmata
Gemmata
obscuriglobus

Telmatocola sphagniphila

Zavarzinella formosa

Isosphaera pallida

Aquisphaera giovannonii

Singulisphaera

S. acidiphila

S. rosea

Taxonomy[edit] The currently accepted taxonomy is based on the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LSPN)[14] and the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI).[15]

Phylum
Phylum
"Planctomycetes" Garrity & Holt 2001 emend. Ward 2011 [Planctomycetaeota Oren et al. 2015]

Class Phycisphaerae Fukunaga et al. 2010

Order Tepidisphaerales Kovaleva et al. 2015

Family Tepidisphaeraceae Kovaleva et al. 2015

Genus Tepidisphaera Kovaleva et al. 2015

Species Tepidisphaera mucosa Kovaleva et al. 2015

Order Phycisphaerales Fukunaga et al. 2010

Family Phycisphaeraceae Fukunaga et al. 2010

Genus Algisphaera Yoon, Jang & Kasai 2014

Species Algisphaera agarilytica Yoon, Jang & Kasai 2014

Genus Phycisphaera Fukunaga et al. 2010

Species Phycisphaera mikurensis Fukunaga et al. 2010

Class Planctomycetacia Cavalier-Smith
Cavalier-Smith
2002

Species ?"Candidatus Nostocoida limicola III" ♠ Liu et al. 2001 Species ?"Candidatus Nostocoida acidiphila" ♠ Kulichevskaya et al. 2012 Order "Brocadiales" Jetten et al. 2011

Family "Brocadiaceae" Jetten et al. 2011

Genus "Candidatus Anammoxoglobus" Kartal et al. 2006

Species "Candidatus Anammoxoglobus propionicus" Kartal et al. 2006

Genus "Candidatus Brocadia" Jetten et al. 2001

Species "Candidatus B. anammoxidans" Jetten et al. 2001 Species "Candidatus B. brasiliensis" Araujo et al. 2011 Species "Candidatus B. caroliniensis" Species "Candidatus B. fulgida" Kartal et al. 2004 Species "Candidatus B. sinica" Hu et al. 2010

Genus "Candidatus Jettenia" Quan et al. 2008

Species "Candidatus Jettenia asiatica" Quan et al. 2008 Species "Candidatus Jettenia caeni" Ali et al. 2015 Species "Candidatus Jettenia moscovienalis" Nikolaev et al. 2015

Genus "Candidatus Kuenenia" Schmid et al. 2000

Species "Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis" Schmid et al. 2000

Genus "Candidatus Scalindua" Schmid et al. 2003

Species "Candidatus S. arabica" Woebken et al. 2008 Species "Candidatus S. marina" Van de Vossenberg et al. 2007 Species "Candidatus S. profunda" Van De Vossenberg et al. 2008 Species "Candidatus S. richardsii" Fuchsman et al. 2012 Species "Candidatus S. wagneri" Schmid et al. 2003 Species "Candidatus S. sorokinii" Kuypers et al. 2003 Species Candidatus S. brodae Schmid et al. 2003

Order Planctomycetales Schlesner & Stackebrandt 1987 emend. Ward 2011

Family Planctomycetaceae Schlesner & Stackebrandt 1987 emend. Scheuner et al. 2014 [Isosphaeraceae Kulichevskaya et al. 2015]

Genus "Bythopirellula" ♠ Storesund & Ovreas 2013

Species "Bythopirellula goksoyri" ♠ Storesund & Ovreas 2013

Genus "Candidatus Anammoximicrobium" ♠ Khramenkov et al. 2013

Species "Candidatus Anammoximicrobium moscowii" ♠ Khramenkov et al. 2013

Genus Aquisphaera Bondoso et al. 2011

Species Aquisphaera giovannonii Bondoso et al. 2011

Genus Blastopirellula Schlesner et al. 2004

Species B. cremea Lee et al. 2013 Species B. marina (Schlesner 1987) Schlesner et al. 2004 [Pirellula marina (Schlesner 1987) Schlesner & Hirsch 1987; Pirella marina Schlesner 1987 ill.]

Genus Gemmata
Gemmata
Franzmann and Skerman 1985

Species Gemmata obscuriglobus
Gemmata obscuriglobus
Franzmann & Skerman 1985

Genus Gimesia Scheuner et al. 2015 [Planctomyces maris (ex Bauld & Staley 1976) Bauld & Staley 1980]

Species Gimesia maris Scheuner et al. 2015 [Planctomyces maris (ex Bauld & Staley 1976) Bauld & Staley 1980]

Genus Isosphaera Giovannoni et al. 1995

Species Isosphaera pallida (ex Woronichin 1927) Giovannoni et al. 1995 nom. rev. ["Isocystis pallida" Woronichin 1927; "Torulopsidosira pallida" (Woronichin 1927) Geitler 1963]

Genus Paludisphaera Kulichevskaya et al. 2015

Species Paludisphaera borealis Kulichevskaya et al. 2015

Genus Pirellula Schlesner & Hirsch 1987 emend. Schlesner et al. 2004 [Pirella Schlesner & Hirsch 1984 non Bainier 1883]

Species Pirellula staleyi Schlesner & Hirsch 1987 [Pirella staleyi Schlesner & Hirsch 1984 ill.]

Genus Planctomicrobium Kulichevskaya et al. 2015

Species Planctomicrobium piriforme Kulichevskaya et al. 2015

Genus Planctomyces Gimesi 1924

Species P. bekefii ♪ Gimesi 1924 (type sp.) ["Blastocaulis sphaerica" Henrici & Johnson 1935; "Acinothrix globulifera" Novácek 1938; "Planctomyces subulatus" Wawrik 1952; "Planctomyces crassus" Hortobágyi 1965] Species P. guttaeformis ♪ (ex Hortobágyi 1965) Starr and Schmidt 1984 Species P. stranskae ♪ (ex Wawrik 1952) Starr and Schmidt 1984

Genus Planctopirus Scheuner et al. 2015

Species Planctopirus limnophila corrig. (Hirsch & Muller 1986) Scheuner et al. 2015 [Planctomyces limnophilus Hirsch and Müller 1986]

Genus Rhodopirellula Schlesner et al. 2004

Species R. baltica Schlesner et al. 2004 (type sp.) Species R. caenicola Yoon et al. 2015 Species R. rosea Roh et al. 2014 Species R. rubra Bondoso et al. 2014 Species R. lusitana Bondoso et al. 2014 Species "R. europaea" ♠ Frank 2011 Species "R. islandica" ♠ Kizina et al. 2015 Species "R. maiorica" ♠ Frank 2011 Species "R. sallentina" ♠ Frank 2011

Genus Roseimaritima Bondoso et al. 2015

Species Roseimaritima ulvae Bondoso et al. 2015

Genus Rubinisphaera Scheuner et al. 2015

Species Rubinisphaera brasiliensis (Schlesner 1990) Scheuner et al. 2015 [Planctomyces brasiliensis Schlesner 1990]

Genus Rubripirellula Bondoso et al. 2015

Species Rubripirellula obstinata Bondoso et al. 2015

Genus Schlesneria Kulichevskaya et al. 2007

Species Schlesneria paludicola Kulichevskaya et al. 2007

Genus Singulisphaera Kulichevskaya et al. 2008 emend. Kulichevskaya et al. 2012

Species "S. mucilaginosa" ♠ Zaicnikova et al. 2011 Species S. acidiphila Kulichevskaya et al. 2008 (type sp.) Species S. rosea Kulichevskaya et al. 2012

Genus Telmatocola Kulichevskaya et al. 2012

Species Telmatocola sphagniphila Kulichevskaya et al. 2012

Genus Thermogutta Slobodkina et al. 2015

Species T. hypogea Slobodkina et al. 2015 Species T. terrifontis Slobodkina et al. 2015

Genus Thermostilla Slobodkina et al. 2015

Species Thermostilla marina Slobodkina et al. 2015

Genus Zavarzinella Kulichevskaya et al. 2009

Species Zavarzinella formosa Kulichevskaya et al. 2009

Notes: ♠ Strains found at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) but not listed in the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LSPN) ♪ Prokaryotes where no pure (axenic) cultures are isolated or available, i. e. not cultivated or can not be sustained in culture for more than a few serial passages See also[edit]

Anammox, an anaerobic ammonium oxidation process, only found in the bacteria of this phylum List of bacterial orders

References[edit]

^ Jeske, O., Schueler, M., Schumann, P., Schneider, A., Boedeker, C., Jogler, M., Bollschweiler, D., Rohde, M., Mayer, C., Engelhardt, H., Spring, S. & Jogler, C. (2015). " Planctomycetes do possess a peptidoglycan cell wall". Nature Communications. 6: 7116. doi:10.1038/ncomms8116. PMC 4432640 . PMID 25964217. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ van Teeseling, M.C.F., Mesman, R.J., Kuru, E., Espaillat, A., Cava, F., Brun, Y.V., VanNieuwenhze, M.S., Kartal, B & van Niftrik, L. (2015). " Anammox
Anammox
Planctomycetes have a peptidoglycan cell wall". Nature Communications. 6: 6878. doi:10.1038/ncomms7878. PMC 4432595 . PMID 25962786. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ Lindsay, M. R.; Webb, R. I.; Strous, M; Jetten, M. S.; Butler, M. K.; Forde, R. J.; Fuerst, J. A. (2001). "Cell compartmentalisation in planctomycetes: Novel types of structural organisation for the bacterial cell". Archives of Microbiology. 175 (6): 413–29. doi:10.1007/s002030100280. PMID 11491082.  ^ Glöckner, F. O.; Kube, M; Bauer, M; Teeling, H; Lombardot, T; Ludwig, W; Gade, D; Beck, A; Borzym, K; Heitmann, K; Rabus, R; Schlesner, H; Amann, R; Reinhardt, R (2003). "Complete genome sequence of the marine planctomycete Pirellula sp. Strain 1". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 100 (14): 8298–303. doi:10.1073/pnas.1431443100. PMC 166223 . PMID 12835416.  ^ Fieseler, L; Horn, M; Wagner, M; Hentschel, U (June 2004). "Discovery of the novel candidate phylum "Poribacteria" in marine sponges". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 70 (6): 3724–32. doi:10.1128/aem.70.6.3724-3732.2004. PMC 427773 . PMID 15184179.  ^ Santarella-Mellwig, R., Pruggnaller, S., Roos, N., Mattaj, I., & Devos, D. (2013). "Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Bacteria
Bacteria
with a Complex Endomembrane System". PLoS Biology. 11: e1001565. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001565. PMC 3660258 . PMID 23700385. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ Sagulenko, E; Morgan, G. P.; Webb, R. I.; Yee, B; Lee, K. C.; Fuerst, J. A. (2014). "Structural studies of planctomycete Gemmata obscuriglobus support cell compartmentalisation in a bacterium". PLoS ONE. 9 (3): e91344. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0091344. PMC 3954628 . PMID 24632833.  ^ Lonhienne, Thierry G. A.; Sagulenko, Evgeny; Webb, Richard I.; Lee, Kuo-Chang; Franke, Josef; Devos, Damien P.; Nouwens, Amanda; Carroll, Bernard J. & Fuerst, John A. (2010). "Endocytosis-like protein uptake in the bacterium Gemmata
Gemmata
obscuriglobus". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 107 (29): 12883–12888. doi:10.1073/pnas.1001085107. PMC 2919973 . PMID 20566852.  ^ Williams, Caroline (2011). "Who are you calling simple?". New Scientist. 211 (2821): 38–41. doi:10.1016/S0262-4079(11)61709-0  ^ a b Gupta RS, Bhandari V, Naushad HS (2012). "Molecular Signatures for the PVC Clade (Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, Chlamydiae, and Lentisphaerae) of Bacteria
Bacteria
Provide Insights into Their Evolutionary Relationships". Front Microbiol. 3: 327. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2012.00327. PMC 3444138 . PMID 23060863.  ^ a b Gupta RS (2016). "Impact of genomics on the understanding of microbial evolution and classification: the importance of Darwin's views on classification". FEMS Microbiol Rev. 40 (4): 520–53. doi:10.1093/femsre/fuw011. PMID 27279642.  ^ Lagkouvardos I, Jehl MA, Rattei T, Horn M (2014). "Signature protein of the PVC superphylum". Appl Environ Microbiol. 80 (2): 440–445. doi:10.1128/AEM.02655-13. PMC 3911108 . PMID 24185849.  ^ "16S rRNA-based LTP release 123 (full tree)" (PDF). Silva Comprehensive Ribosomal RNA Database. Retrieved 2016-03-20.  ^ J.P. Euzéby. "Planctomycetes". List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN). Retrieved 2016-03-20.  ^ Sayers; et al. "Planctomycetes". National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) taxonomy database. Retrieved 2016-03-20. 

External links[edit]

Beyond Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes : Planctomycetes and Cell Organization. Gemmata
Gemmata
at Microbewiki

v t e

Prokaryotes: Bacteria
Bacteria
classification (phyla and orders)

Domain Archaea Bacteria Eukaryota (Supergroup Plant Hacrobia Heterokont Alveolata Rhizaria Excavata Amoebozoa Opisthokonta

Animal Fungi)

G-/ OM

Terra-/ Glidobacteria (BV1)

Eobacteria

Deinococcus–Thermus

Deinococcales Thermales

Chloroflexi

Anaerolineales Caldilineales Chloroflexales Herpetosiphonales Dehalococcoidales Ktedonobacterales Thermogemmatisporales Thermomicrobiales Sphaerobacterales

other glidobacteria

Thermodesulfobacteria thermophiles

Aquificae Thermotogae

Cyanobacteria

Proteobacteria (BV2)

Alpha

Caulobacterales Kiloniellales Kordiimonadales Magnetococcales Parvularculales Rhizobiales Rhodobacterales Rhodospirillales Rickettsiales Sneathiellales Sphingomonadales

Beta

Burkholderiales Hydrogenophilales Methylophilales Neisseriales Nitrosomonadales Procabacteriales Rhodocyclales

Gamma

Acidithiobacillales Aeromonadales Alteromonadales Cardiobacteriales Chromatiales Enterobacteriales Legionellales Methylococcales Oceanospirillales Orbales Pasteurellales Pseudomonadales Salinisphaerales Thiotrichales Vibrionales Xanthomonadales

Delta

Bdellovibrionales Desulfarculales Desulfobacterales Desulfovibrionales Desulfurellales Desulfuromonadales Myxococcales Syntrophobacterales Syntrophorhabdales

Epsilon

Campylobacterales Nautiliales

Zeta

Mariprofundales

BV4

Spirochaetes

Spirochaetes

Sphingobacteria (FCB group)

Fibrobacteres Chlorobi

Chlorobiales Ignavibacteriales

Bacteroidetes

Bacteroidales Cytophagales Flavobacteriales Sphingobacteriales

Planctobacteria/ (PVC group)

Chlamydiae Lentisphaerae

Lentisphaerales Oligosphaerales Victivallales

Planctomycetes

Phycisphaerales Planctomycetales

Verrucomicrobia

Puniceicoccales Opitutales Chthoniobacterales Verrucomicrobiales

"Poribacteria"

Other GN

Acidobacteria

Acidobacteriales Acanthopleuribacterales Holophagales Solibacterales

Armatimonadetes

Armatimonadales Chthonomonadales Fimbriimonadales

Caldiserica Chrysiogenetes Deferribacteres Dictyoglomi Elusimicrobia Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Synergistetes

G+/ no OM

Firmicutes (BV3)

Bacilli

Bacillales Lactobacillales

Clostridia

Clostridiales Halanaerobiales Thermoanaerobacteriales Natranaerobiales

Erysipelotrichia

Erysipelotrichiales

Thermolithobacteria

Thermolithobacterales

Tenericutes/ Mollicutes

Mycoplasmatales Entomoplasmatales Anaeroplasmatales Acholeplasmatales Haloplasmatales

Negativicutes

Selenomonadales

Actinobacteria (BV5)

Actinobacteria

Actinomycetales Bifidobacteriales

Acidimicrobiia

Acidimicrobiales

Coriobacteriidae

Coriobacteriales

Nitriliruptoria

Euzebyales Nitriliruptorales

Rubrobacteria

Gaiellales Rubrobacterales Thermoleophilales Solirubrobacterales

Incertae sedis

†Archaeosphaeroides †Eobacterium †Leptotrichites

Source: Bergey's Manual (2001–2012). Alternative views: Wikispecies.

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Planctomycetes

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q18674594 EoL: 7716 iNaturalist: 151858 ITIS: 9

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