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The Pitjantjatjara (English: /pɪtʃəntʃəˈtʃɑːrə/,[1] Aboriginal pronunciation: [ˈpɪɟanɟaɟaɾa] or [ˈpɪɟanɟaɾa]) are an Aboriginal people of the Central Australian desert. They are closely related to the Yankunytjatjara and Ngaanyatjarra and their languages are, to a large extent, mutually intelligible (all are varieties of the Western Desert language). They refer to themselves as Anangu (people). The Pitjantjatjara live mostly in the northwest of South Australia, extending across the border into the Northern Territory to just south of Lake Amadeus, and west a short distance into Western Australia. The land is an inseparable and important part of their identity, and every part of it is rich with stories and meaning to Anangu.[2] They have, for the most part, given up their nomadic hunting and gathering lifestyle but have retained their language and much of their culture in spite of increasing influences from the broader Australian community. Today there are still about 4,000 Anangu living scattered in small communities and outstations across their traditional lands, forming one of the most successful joint land arrangements in Australia with Aboriginal Traditional Owners.

Contents

1 Pronunciation 2 Etymology 3 Language 4 Some major communities 5 History

5.1 Recognition of sacred sites

6 Notable people 7 See also 8 Notes

8.1 Citations

9 Sources 10 External links

Pronunciation[edit] The ethnonym Pitjantjatjara is usually pronounced (in normal, fast speech) with elision of one of the repeated syllables -tja-, thus: pitjantjara. In more careful speech all syllables will be pronounced.[3] Etymology[edit] The name Pitjantjatjara derives from the word pitjantja, a nominalised form of the verb 'go' which, combined with the comitative suffix -tjara means something like ' pitjantja-having' (i.e. the variety that uses the word pitjantja for 'go'). This distinguishes it from its near neighbour Yankunytjatjara which has yankunytja for the same meaning.[4] This naming strategy is also the source of the names of Ngaanyatjarra and Ngaatjatjarra but in that case the names contrast the two languages based on their words for 'this' (respectively, ngaanya and ngaatja). The two languages Pitjantjatjara and Yankunytjatjara may be grouped together under the name Nyangatjatjara (indicating that they have nyangatja for 'this') which then contrasts them with Ngaanyatjarra and Ngaatjatjarra.[3] Language[edit] Pitjantjatjara is used as a general term for a number of closely related dialects which together, according to Ronald Trudinger were 'spoken over a wider area of Australia than any other Aboriginal language'.[5] With Yankunytjatjara it shares an 80% overlap in vocabulary.[4] Some major communities[edit] See WARU community directory[6] for a complete list

in South Australia type 2

in the Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara, including:

Ernabella also called Pukatja Amata Kalka Pipalyatjara

Yalata Oak Valley

In the Northern Territory

Docker River Areyonga Mutitjulu

In Western Australia

Wingellina also called Irruntju

History[edit] A 73,000-square-kilometre tract of land was established in the north west of South Australia for the Pitjantjatjara in 1921 after they lost much land due to hostile encroachment by hunters and ranchers. Extended droughts in the 1920s and between 1956 and 1965 in their homelands in the Great Victoria and Gibson Deserts led many Pitjantjatjara, and their traditionally more westerly relations, the Ngaanyatjarra, to move east towards the railway between Adelaide and Alice Springs in search of food and water, thus mixing with the most easterly of the three, the Yankunytjatjara. They refer to themselves as Anangu, which originally just meant people in general, but has now come to imply an Aboriginal person or, more specifically, a member of one of the groups that speaks a variety of the Western Desert Language. In response to continuing outside pressures on the Anangu, the South Australian Government gave its support to a plan by the Presbyterian Church to set up the Ernabella Mission in the Musgrave Ranges as a safe haven. This mission, largely due to the actions of their advocate, Dr. Charles Duguid, was ahead of the times in that there was no systematic attempt to destroy Aboriginal culture, as was common on many other missions. From 1950 onwards, many Anangu were forced to leave their homelands due to British nuclear tests at Maralinga. Some Anangu were subsequently contaminated by the nuclear fallout from the atomic tests, and many have died as a consequence.[7] Their experience of issues of land rights and native title in South Australia has been unique. After four years of campaigning and negotiations with government and mining groups, the Pitjantjatjara Land Rights Act was passed on 19 March 1981, granting freehold title over 103,000 square kilometres of land in the northwestern corner of South Australia. The Maralinga Tjarutja Land Rights Act, 1984 (SA) granted freehold title of an area of 80,764 square kilometres to Maralinga Tjarutja.[8] The subsequently named Mamungari Conservation Park) with 21,357.8 km² was transferred to the Maralinga Tjarutja in 2004. Recognition of sacred sites[edit]

Pitjantjatjara people (Anangu) live in the area around Uluru and south to the Great Australian Bight

The sacred sites of Uluru (Ayers Rock) and Kata Tjuta (the Olgas) possess important spiritual and ceremonial significance for the Anangu with more than forty named sacred sites and eleven separate Tjurkurpa (or 'Dreaming') tracks in the area, some of which lead as far as the sea. Ayers Rock and The Olgas are separated from the Pitjantjatjara Lands by the border between the Northern Territory and South Australia and have become a major tourist attraction and a National Park. The Central Land Council laid claim to the Uluṟu-Kata Tjuṯa National Park and some adjoining vacant Crown land in 1979, but this claim was challenged by the Northern Territory government. After years of intensive lobbying by the Land Council, on 11 November 1983, Prime Minister Bob Hawke announced that the Federal Government intended to transfer inalienable freehold title to them. He agreed to ten main points they had demanded in exchange for a lease-back arrangement to the Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service in a "joint-management" régime where Anangu would have a majority on the Board of Management. This was implemented in 1985, after further negotiations extended the lease period from 50 to 99 years and agreement was reached on the retention of tourists' access to Ayers Rock. The Arrernte land is aboriginal land in central Australia. It is controlled by Arrernte Council which in turn is controlled by Central Land Council from Alice Springs. Notable people[edit]

Isaac Yamma, a country singer Trevor Adamson, a country/gospel singer Frank Yamma, an early proponent of singing Western style songs in traditional language Rene Kulitja, an artist, a famous design is Yananyi Dreaming, which covers a Qantas Boeing 737 Ginger Wikilyiri, an artist Walter Pukutiwara, an artist Hector Burton, an artist Ruby Williamson, an artist, known for acrylic works Tjunkaya Tapaya, a batik artist Tiger Palpatja, an artist Tony Tjamiwa, also known as Tony Curtis, a traditional healer and storyteller Anmanari Brown, pioneering artist Wawiriya Burton, an artist, known for acrylic works Jimmy James OAM, a tracker Dickie Minyintiri, an award-winning artist, and sacred lawman Wingu Tingima, an artist Malpiya Davey, also known as Irpintiri Davey, an artist, known for ceramic artworks Malya Teamay, an Aboriginal Australian artist, and Uluṟu-Kata Tjuṯa National Park management board member Yannima Tommy Watson, known as Tommy Watson, an artist Harry Tjutjuna, an artist Angkaliya Curtis, an artist Ian Abdulla, an award-winning author, and artist Bart Willoughby, a musician, noted for his pioneering fusion of reggae

See also[edit]

Australia portal Indigenous peoples of Australia portal

Wiltja, a shelter made by the Pitjantjatjara people and other indigenous Australian groups

Notes[edit]

Citations[edit]

^ Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student's Handbook, Edinburgh ^ Kimber, R. G., Man from Arltunga, Hesperian Press, Carlisle, Western Australia, 1986, esp. chapter 12 ^ a b Goddard 1985. ^ a b Goddard 2010, p. 871. ^ Trudinger 1943, p. 205. ^ WARU community directory Archived 19 February 2014 at Archive.is ^ Tame & Robotham 1982. ^ Government of South Australia.

Sources[edit]

Bates, Daisy (1918). "Aborigines of the West Coast of South Australia; vocabularies and ethnological notes". Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia. Adelaide. 42: 152–167.  Berndt, Ronald M. (September 1941). "Tribal Migrations and Myths Centring on Ooldea, South Australia". Oceania. 12 (1): 1–20. JSTOR 40327930.  Duguid, Charles (1972). Doctor and the Aborigines. Rigby. ISBN 0-85179-411-4.  Fry, H. K. (June 1934). "Kinship in Western Central Australia". Oceania. 4 (4): 472–478. JSTOR 27976165.  Glass, Amee; Hackett, Dorothy (1979). Ngaanyatjarra texts. New Revised edition of Pitjantjatjara texts (1969). Canberra: Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies. ISBN 0-391-01683-0.  Goddard, Cliff (1985). A Grammar of Yankunytjatjara. Institute for Aboriginal Development Press. ISBN 0-949659-32-0.  Goddard, Cliff (1996). Pitjantjatjara/Yankunytjatjara to English Dictionary. Alice Springs: IAD Press. ISBN 0-949659-91-6.  Goddard, Cliff (2010). "Pitjantjatjara/Yankunytjatjara". In Brown, Keith; Ogilvie, Sarah. Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World. Elsevier. pp. 871–876. ISBN 978-0-080-87775-4.  Hilliard, Winifred M. (1976) [First published 1968]. The People in Between: The Pitjantjatjara People of Ernabella. Seal Books. ISBN 0-7270-0159-0.  (reprint) Isaacs, Jennifer (1992). Desert Crafts: Anangu Maruku Punu. Doubleday. ISBN 0-86824-474-0.  Kavanagh, Maggie (1990). Minyma Tjuta Tjunguringkula Kunpuringanyi: Women Growing Strong Together. Ngaanyatjarra, Pitjantjatjara, Yankunytjatjara Women's Council 1980-1990. ISBN 0-646-02068-4.  "Maralinga Tjarutja Land Rights Act 1984". Government of South Australia, Attorney-General's Department. Retrieved 16 August 2016.  Tame, Adrian; Robotham, F.P.J. (1982). MARALINGA: British A-Bomb Australian Legacy. Melbourne: Fontana / Collins. ISBN 0-00-636391-1.  Tindale, Norman Barnett (1974). "Pitjandjara (SA)". Aboriginal Tribes of Australia: Their Terrain, Environmental Controls, Distribution, Limits, and Proper Names. Australian National University Press. ISBN 978-0-708-10741-6.  Toyne, Phillip; Vachon, Daniel (1984). Growing Up the Country: The Pitjantjatjara struggle for their land. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-007641-7.  Trudinger, Ronald M. (March 1943). "Grammar of the Pitjantjatjara Dialect, Central Australia". Oceania. 13 (3): 205–223. JSTOR 40327992.  Wallace, Phil; Wallace, Noel (1977). Killing Me Softly: The Destruction of a Heritage. Melbourne: Thomas Nelson. ISBN 0-17-005153-6.  Woenne-Green, Susan; Johnston, Ross; Sultan, Ros; Wallis, Arnold (1993). Competing Interests: Aboriginal Participation in National Parks and Conservation Reserves in Australia - A Review. Fitzroy, Victoria: Australian Conservation Foundation. ISBN 0-85802-113-7. 

External links[edit]

Ngapartji Online course of Pitjantjatjara language, and related performance event Web portal for Anangu Pitjantjatjara, Yankunytjatjara and Ngaanyatjarra peoples, communities and organisations Yalata Land Management Pitjantjatjara entry in the AusAnthrop database Pitjantjatjara People at Agreements, Treaties and Negotiated Settlements (ATNS)

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Aboriginal peoples in the Northern Territory

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Peoples

Adnyamathanha Antakirinja Arabana Barngarla Bungandidj Danggali Dieri Erawirung Jarildekald, (including the Mulbarapa) Kaurna Kokatha Kuyani Malyangapa Maralinga Tjarutja Meintangk Mirning Narungga Nauo Ngaanyatjarra Ngadjuri Ngaiawang Ngalea Ngameni Nganguruku Ngaralta Ngarkat Ngarrindjeri Ngawait Ngintait Ngurunta Nukunu Peramangk Pilatapa Pitjantjatjara Portaulun Potaruwutj Ramindjeri Tanganekald Tirari Wailpi Warki Western Desert people Wirangu Wongkanguru Yandruwandha Yankuntjatjarra Yardliyawara Yauraworka

Communities

APY Lands:

Amaṯa Iltur Indulkana Kalka Kaltjiti (Fregon) Kaṉpi Makiri Mimili Mintabie Nyapaṟi Pipalyatjara Pukatja (Ernabella) Umuwa Watarru Yunyarinyi

Other:

Akenta (Poonindie) Colebrook Davenport (Umeewarra) Gerard Killalpaninna Koonibba Nepabunna Oak Valley Point Pearce Raukkan (Point McLeay) Yalata

Notable people

Ian Abdulla Jimmy Baker Maringka Baker Poltpalingada Booboorowie (Tom Walker) Iris Burgoyne Peter Burgoyne Shaun Burgoyne Hector Burton Kevin Buzzacott Nyakul Dawson Gladys Elphick Adam Goodes Ruby Hammond Ruby Hunter Tjungkara Ken Natascha McNamara Lewis O'Brien Lowitja O'Donoghue Nura Rupert Eileen Yaritja Stevens David Unaipon James Unaipon Gavin Wanganeen Ginger Wikilyiri Chad Wingard Tjayanka Woods

Organisations

Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara Aṉangu schools Gerard Community Council Kupa Piṯi Kungka Tjuṯa Maralinga Tjarutja List of Aboriginal schools

Religion and culture

Arkaroo 'Dreamtime' (muda, mura-mura, tjukurrpa, etc.) Tjilbruke Muldjewangk Ngiṉṯaka Wati-kutjara

Indigenous protected areas:

Watarru Mount Willoughby

Languages

Adnyamathanha Antakirinja Arabana Barngarla Dieri Kaurna Narangga Ngadjuri Ngamini (Yarluyandi) Ngarrindjeri Wangkangurru Western Desert language (dialects: Pitjantjatjara, Yankunytjatjara) Wirangu Yarli (Malyangapa)

Language groups:

Lower Murray languages Thura-Yura languages Sign languages

Words:

Anangu (Western Desert language) Nunga (Aboriginal English)

Laws

Aboriginal Heritage Act 1988 Aṉangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara Land Rights Act 1981 Laws concerning Indigenous Australians

Cases:

List of native title claims in South Australia

History

Aborigines' Friends' Association Australian frontier wars Hindmarsh Island Bridge controversy (Royal Commission) History of South Australia Maria massacre Waterloo Bay massacre Avenue Range Station massacre

By state or territory New South Wales Northern Territory Queensland South Australia Tasmania Victoria Western Australia

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Indigenous peoples of Western Australia

Peoples

Amangu Arnga Baada/Bardi Badimaya Bailgu Baiyungu Ballardong Binigura Bunuba Bununa Djaberadjabera Djaru Djaui Doolboong Dyiwali Gija Gooniyandi Gugadja Ildawongga Inawongga Inggarda Jaburara Jadira Jukun Kalaako Kalamaia Kambure Kaneang Karajarri Kariera Kartudjara Keiadjara Koara Koreng Kurajarra Kurrama Madoitja Maduwongga Maia Malgana Malgaru Malngin Mandara Mandi Mandjildjara Mandjindja Mangala Mantjintjarra Ngalia Mardudunera Martu Mineng Miriwung Mirning Miwa Murunitja Nakako Nanda Nangatadjara Nangatara Ngaanyatjarra Ngaatjatjarra Ngadjunmaia Ngalea Ngarinjin Ngarla Ngarlawongga Ngolibardu Ngombal Ngurlu Ngurrara Niabali Nimanburu Ninanu Njakinjaki Njunga Nokaan Noongar Nyamal Nyangumarta Nyigina Nyulnyul Panyjima Pibelmen Pindiini Pindjarup Pini Pintupi Pitjantjatjara Putidjara Spinifex Tedei Tenma Thalandji Tharrkari Tjalkadjara Tjeraridjal Tjurabalan Tjuroro Umiida Unggarranggu Unggumi Waljen Walmadjari Wardal Wariangga Warrwa Watjarri Wangai Wanman Wenamba Whadjuk Widi Wiilman Wilawila Wirdinya Wirngir Worrorra Wudjari Wunambal Wurla Yamatji Yawijibaya Yawuru Yeidji Yindjibarndi Yinikutira Yued

Languages

Badimaya language Martu Wangka Noongar language

History

Flying Foam massacre Forrest River massacre Pinjarra massacre

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