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Pisa
Pisa
(/ˈpiːzə/; Italian pronunciation: [ˈpiːsa; ˈpiːza] ( listen)) is a city in the Tuscany
Tuscany
region of Central Italy
Italy
straddling the Arno
Arno
just before it empties into the Ligurian Sea. It is the capital city of the Province of Pisa. Although Pisa
Pisa
is known worldwide for its leaning tower (the bell tower of the city's cathedral), the city of over 91,104 residents (around 200,000 with the metropolitan area) contains more than 20 other historic churches, several medieval palaces and various bridges across the Arno. Much of the city's architecture was financed from its history as one of the Italian maritime republics. The city is also home of the University of Pisa, which has a history going back to the 12th century and also has the Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, founded by Napoleon in 1810, and its offshoot, the Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies
Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies
as the best sanctioned Superior Graduate Schools in Italy.[2]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Ancient times 1.2 Late Antiquity and Early Middle Ages 1.3 11th century 1.4 12th century 1.5 13th century 1.6 Decline

2 Geography

2.1 Climate

3 Main sights

3.1 Museums 3.2 Educational institutions 3.3 Churches 3.4 Palaces, towers and villas

4 Notable people associated with Pisa 5 Transport

5.1 Travel links 5.2 Pisamover 5.3 Buses 5.4 Trains 5.5 Cars

6 Sports 7 Festivals and cultural events 8 International relations

8.1 Twin towns and sister cities

9 References

9.1 Notes 9.2 Bibliography

10 External links

History[edit] See also: Timeline of Pisa

It has been suggested that this section be split out into another article titled History of Pisa. (Discuss) (May 2017)

Historical affiliations

Roman Republic
Roman Republic
180–27 BC Roman Empire
Roman Empire
27 BC–285 AD Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
285–476 Kingdom of Odoacer
Odoacer
476–493 Ostrogothic Kingdom
Ostrogothic Kingdom
493–553 Eastern Roman Empire
Roman Empire
553–603 Lombard Kingdom 603–773 Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
774–812 March of Tuscany
Tuscany
812–1000 Republic of Pisa
Republic of Pisa
1000–1406 Republic of Florence
Republic of Florence
1406–1532 Duchy of Florence
Duchy of Florence
1532–1569 Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Tuscany
1569–1801 Kingdom of Etruria
Kingdom of Etruria
1801–1807 First French Empire
First French Empire
1807–1815 Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Tuscany
1815–1859 United Provinces of Central Italy
Italy
1859–1860 Kingdom of Italy
Italy
1861–1946 Italian Republic
Italian Republic
1946–present

Ancient times[edit] The origin of the name, Pisa, is a mystery. While the origin of the city had remained unknown for centuries, the Pelasgi, the Greeks, the Etruscans, and the Ligurians had variously been proposed as founders of the city (for example, a colony of the ancient city of Pisa, Greece). Archaeological remains from the 5th century BC confirmed the existence of a city at the sea, trading with Greeks and Gauls. The presence of an Etruscan necropolis, discovered during excavations in the Arena Garibaldi in 1991, confirmed its Etruscan origins. Ancient Roman authors referred to Pisa
Pisa
as an old city. Strabo
Strabo
referred Pisa's origins to the mythical Nestor, king of Pylos, after the fall of Troy. Virgil, in his Aeneid, states that Pisa
Pisa
was already a great center by the times described; the settlers from the Alpheus coast have been credited with the founding of the city in the 'Etruscan lands'. The Virgilian commentator Servius
Servius
wrote that the Teuti, or Pelops, the king of the Pisaeans, founded the town thirteen centuries before the start of the common era. The maritime role of Pisa
Pisa
should have been already prominent if the ancient authorities ascribed to it the invention of the naval ram. Pisa
Pisa
took advantage of being the only port along the western coast from Genoa
Genoa
(then a small village) to Ostia. Pisa
Pisa
served as a base for Roman naval expeditions against Ligurians, Gauls
Gauls
and Carthaginians. In 180 BC, it became a Roman colony under Roman law, as Portus Pisanus. In 89 BC, Portus Pisanus became a municipium. Emperor Augustus fortified the colony into an important port and changed the name in Colonia Iulia obsequens. It is supposed that Pisa
Pisa
was founded on the shore. However, due to the alluvial sediments from the Arno
Arno
and the Serchio, whose mouth lies about 11 kilometres (7 mi) north of the Arno's, the shore moved west. Strabo
Strabo
states that the city was 4.0 kilometres (2.5 mi) away from the coast. Currently, it is located 9.7 kilometres (6 mi) from the coast. However it was a maritime city, with ships sailing up the Arno.[3] In the 90s AD, a baths complex was built in the city. Late Antiquity and Early Middle Ages[edit]

Hypothetical map of Pisa
Pisa
in the 5th century AD

During the later years of the Roman Empire, Pisa
Pisa
did not decline as much as the other cities of Italy, probably thanks to the complexity of its river system and its consequent ease of defence. In the 7th century Pisa
Pisa
helped Pope Gregory I by supplying numerous ships in his military expedition against the Byzantines of Ravenna: Pisa
Pisa
was the sole Byzantine centre of Tuscia
Tuscia
to fall peacefully in Lombard hands, through assimilation with the neighbouring region where their trading interests were prevailing. Pisa
Pisa
began in this way its rise to the role of main port of the Upper Tyrrhenian Sea
Tyrrhenian Sea
and became the main trading centre between Tuscany
Tuscany
and Corsica, Sardinia
Sardinia
and the southern coasts of France
France
and Spain. After Charlemagne
Charlemagne
had defeated the Lombards
Lombards
under the command of Desiderius
Desiderius
in 774, Pisa
Pisa
went through a crisis but soon recovered. Politically it became part of the duchy of Lucca. In 860, Pisa
Pisa
was captured by vikings led by Björn Ironside. In 930 Pisa
Pisa
became the county centre (status it maintained until the arrival of Otto I) within the mark of Tuscia. Lucca
Lucca
was the capital but Pisa
Pisa
was the most important city, as in the middle of 10th century Liutprand of Cremona, bishop of Cremona, called Pisa
Pisa
Tusciae provinciae caput ("capital of the province of Tuscia"), and one century later the marquis of Tuscia was commonly referred to as "marquis of Pisa". In 1003 Pisa
Pisa
was the protagonist of the first communal war in Italy, against Lucca. From the naval point of view, since the 9th century the emergence of the Saracen
Saracen
pirates urged the city to expand its fleet: in the following years this fleet gave the town an opportunity for more expansion. In 828 Pisan ships assaulted the coast of North Africa. In 871 they took part in the defence of Salerno
Salerno
from the Saracens. In 970 they gave also strong support to the Otto I's expedition, defeating a Byzantine fleet in front of Calabrese coasts. 11th century[edit] Main article: Republic of Pisa

Hypothetical map of Pisa
Pisa
in the 11th century AD

The power of Pisa
Pisa
as a mighty maritime nation began to grow and reached its apex in the 11th century when it acquired traditional fame as one of the four main historical Maritime Republics
Maritime Republics
of Italy (Repubbliche Marinare). At that time, the city was a very important commercial centre and controlled a significant Mediterranean
Mediterranean
merchant fleet and navy. It expanded its powers in 1005 through the sack of Reggio Calabria
Calabria
in the south of Italy. Pisa
Pisa
was in continuous conflict with the Saracens, who had their bases in Corsica, for control of the Mediterranean. In 1017 Sardinian Giudicati
Giudicati
were militarily supported by Pisa, in alliance with Genoa, to defeat the Saracen
Saracen
King Mugahid who had settled a logistic base in the north of Sardinia
Sardinia
the year before. This victory gave Pisa
Pisa
supremacy in the Tyrrhenian Sea. When the Pisans subsequently ousted the Genoese from Sardinia, a new conflict and rivalry was born between these mighty marine republics. Between 1030 and 1035, Pisa
Pisa
went on to defeat several rival towns in Sicily
Sicily
and conquer Carthage
Carthage
in North Africa. In 1051–1052 the admiral Jacopo Ciurini conquered Corsica, provoking more resentment from the Genoese. In 1063 admiral Giovanni Orlando, coming to the aid of the Norman Roger I, took Palermo
Palermo
from the Saracen
Saracen
pirates. The gold treasure taken from the Saracens in Palermo
Palermo
allowed the Pisans to start the building of their cathedral and the other monuments which constitute the famous Piazza del Duomo. In 1060 Pisa
Pisa
had to engage in their first battle with Genoa. The Pisan victory helped to consolidate its position in the Mediterranean. Pope Gregory VII recognised in 1077 the new "Laws and customs of the sea" instituted by the Pisans, and emperor Henry IV granted them the right to name their own consuls, advised by a Council of Elders. This was simply a confirmation of the present situation, because in those years the marquis had already been excluded from power. In 1092 Pope Urban II awarded Pisa
Pisa
the supremacy over Corsica
Corsica
and Sardinia, and at the same time raising the town to the rank of archbishopric. Pisa
Pisa
sacked the Tunisian city of Mahdia
Mahdia
in 1088. Four years later Pisan and Genoese ships helped Alfonso VI of Castilla
Alfonso VI of Castilla
to push El Cid out of Valencia. A Pisan fleet of 120 ships also took part in the First Crusade
First Crusade
and the Pisans were instrumental in the taking of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in 1099. On their way to the Holy Land
Holy Land
the ships did not miss the occasion to sack some Byzantine islands: the Pisan crusaders were led by their archbishop Daibert, the future patriarch of Jerusalem. Pisa
Pisa
and the other Repubbliche Marinare
Repubbliche Marinare
took advantage of the crusade to establish trading posts and colonies in the Eastern coastal cities of the Levant. In particular the Pisans founded colonies in Antiochia, Acre, Jaffa, Tripoli, Tyre, Latakia
Latakia
and Accone. They also had other possessions in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and Caesarea, plus smaller colonies (with lesser autonomy) in Cairo, Alexandria
Alexandria
and of course Constantinople, where the Byzantine Emperor
Byzantine Emperor
Alexius I Comnenus granted them special mooring and trading rights. In all these cities the Pisans were granted privileges and immunity from taxation, but had to contribute to the defence in case of attack. In the 12th century the Pisan quarter in the Eastern part of Constantinople
Constantinople
had grown to 1,000 people. For some years of that century Pisa
Pisa
was the most prominent merchant and military ally of the Byzantine Empire, overcoming Venice
Venice
itself. 12th century[edit] In 1113 Pisa
Pisa
and the Pope Paschal II
Pope Paschal II
set up, together with the count of Barcelona
Barcelona
and other contingents from Provence
Provence
and Italy
Italy
(Genoese excluded), a war to free the Balearic Islands from the Moors: the queen and the king of Majorca
Majorca
were brought in chains to Tuscany. Even though the Almoravides
Almoravides
soon reconquered the island, the booty taken helped the Pisans in their magnificent programme of buildings, especially the cathedral and Pisa
Pisa
gained a role of pre-eminence in the Western Mediterranean. In the following years the mighty Pisan fleet, led by archbishop Pietro Moriconi, drove away the Saracens after ferocious combats. Though short-lived, this success of Pisa
Pisa
in Spain
Spain
increased the rivalry with Genoa. Pisa's trade with the Languedoc
Languedoc
and Provence (Noli, Savona, Fréjus
Fréjus
and Montpellier) were an obstacle to the Genoese interests in cities like Hyères, Fos, Antibes
Antibes
and Marseille. The war began in 1119 when the Genoese attacked several galleys on their way to the motherland, and lasted until 1133. The two cities fought each other on land and at sea, but hostilities were limited to raids and pirate-like assaults. In June 1135, Bernard of Clairvaux
Bernard of Clairvaux
took a leading part in the Council of Pisa, asserting the claims of pope Innocent II
Innocent II
against those of pope Anacletus II, who had been elected pope in 1130 with Norman support but was not recognised outside Rome. Innocent II
Innocent II
resolved the conflict with Genoa, establishing the sphere of influence of Pisa
Pisa
and Genoa. Pisa
Pisa
could then, unhindered by Genoa, participate in the conflict of Innocent II
Innocent II
against king Roger II of Sicily. Amalfi, one of the Maritime Republics
Maritime Republics
(though already declining under Norman rule), was conquered on August 6, 1136: the Pisans destroyed the ships in the port, assaulted the castles in the surrounding areas and drove back an army sent by Roger from Aversa. This victory brought Pisa
Pisa
to the peak of its power and to a standing equal to Venice. Two years later its soldiers sacked Salerno.

New city walls, erected in 1156 by Consul Cocco Griffi

In the following years Pisa
Pisa
was one of the staunchest supporters of the Ghibelline
Ghibelline
party. This was much appreciated by Frederick I. He issued in 1162 and 1165 two important documents, with the following grants: apart from the jurisdiction over the Pisan countryside, the Pisans were granted freedom of trade in the whole Empire, the coast from Civitavecchia
Civitavecchia
to Portovenere, a half of Palermo, Messina, Salerno and Naples, the whole of Gaeta, Mazara and Trapani, and a street with houses for its merchants in every city of the Kingdom of Sicily. Some of these grants were later confirmed by Henry VI, Otto IV
Otto IV
and Frederick II. They marked the apex of Pisa's power, but also spurred the resentment of cities like Lucca, Massa, Volterra
Volterra
and Florence, who saw their aim to expand towards the sea thwarted. The clash with Lucca also concerned the possession of the castle of Montignoso
Montignoso
and mainly the control of the Via Francigena, the main trade route between Rome and France. Last but not least, such a sudden and large increase of power by Pisa
Pisa
could only lead to another war with Genoa. Genoa
Genoa
had acquired a largely dominant position in the markets of Southern France. The war began presumably in 1165 on the Rhône, when an attack on a convoy, directed to some Pisan trade centres on the river, by the Genoese and their ally, the count of Toulouse
Toulouse
failed. Pisa
Pisa
on the other hand was allied to Provence. The war continued until 1175 without significant victories. Another point of attrition was Sicily, where both the cities had privileges granted by Henry VI. In 1192, Pisa
Pisa
managed to conquer Messina. This episode was followed by a series of battles culminating in the Genoese conquest of Syracuse in 1204. Later, the trading posts in Sicily
Sicily
were lost when the new Pope Innocent III, though removing the excommunication cast over Pisa
Pisa
by his predecessor Celestine III, allied himself with the Guelph League of Tuscany, led by Florence. Soon he stipulated a pact with Genoa
Genoa
too, further weakening the Pisan presence in Southern Italy. To counter the Genoese predominance in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Pisa
Pisa
strengthened its relationship with their Spanish and French traditional bases (Marseille, Narbonne, Barcelona, etc.) and tried to defy the Venetian rule of the Adriatic Sea. In 1180 the two cities agreed to a non-aggression treaty in the Tyrrhenian and the Adriatic, but the death of Emperor Manuel Comnenus
Manuel Comnenus
in Constantinople
Constantinople
changed the situation. Soon there were attacks on Venetian convoys. Pisa
Pisa
signed trade and political pacts with Ancona, Pula, Zara, Split and Brindisi: in 1195 a Pisan fleet reached Pola to defend its independence from Venice, but the Serenissima managed soon to reconquer the rebel sea town.

View of the Piazza dei Miracoli

One year later the two cities signed a peace treaty which resulted in favourable conditions for Pisa. But in 1199 the Pisans violated it by blockading the port of Brindisi
Brindisi
in Apulia. In the following naval battle they were defeated by the Venetians. The war that followed ended in 1206 with a treaty in which Pisa
Pisa
gave up all its hopes to expand in the Adriatic, though it maintained the trading posts it had established in the area. From that point on the two cities were united against the rising power of Genoa
Genoa
and sometimes collaborated to increase the trading benefits in Constantinople. 13th century[edit] In 1209 there were in Lerici
Lerici
two councils for a final resolution of the rivalry with Genoa. A twenty-year peace treaty was signed. But when in 1220 the emperor Frederick II confirmed his supremacy over the Tyrrhenian coast from Civitavecchia
Civitavecchia
to Portovenere, the Genoese and Tuscan resentment against Pisa
Pisa
grew again. In the following years Pisa clashed with Lucca
Lucca
in Garfagnana
Garfagnana
and was defeated by the Florentines at Castel del Bosco. The strong Ghibelline
Ghibelline
position of Pisa
Pisa
brought this town diametrically against the Pope, who was in a strong dispute with the Empire. And indeed the pope tried to deprive the town of its dominions in northern Sardinia. In 1238 Pope Gregory IX
Pope Gregory IX
formed an alliance between Genoa
Genoa
and Venice against the empire, and consequently against Pisa
Pisa
too. One year later he excommunicated Frederick II and called for an anti-Empire council to be held in Rome
Rome
in 1241. On May 3, 1241, a combined fleet of Pisan and Sicilian ships, led by the Emperor's son Enzo, attacked a Genoese convoy carrying prelates from Northern Italy
Italy
and France, next to the isle of Giglio (Battle of Giglio), in front of Tuscany: the Genoese lost 25 ships, while about thousand sailors, two cardinals and one bishop were taken prisoner. After this outstanding victory the council in Rome
Rome
failed, but Pisa
Pisa
was excommunicated. This extreme measure was only removed in 1257. Anyway, the Tuscan city tried to take advantage of the favourable situation to conquer the Corsican city of Aleria and even lay siege to Genoa
Genoa
itself in 1243. The Ligurian republic of Genoa, however, recovered fast from this blow and won back Lerici, conquered by the Pisans some years earlier, in 1256. The great expansion in the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
and the prominence of the merchant class urged a modification in the city's institutes. The system with consuls was abandoned and in 1230 the new city rulers named a Capitano del Popolo ("People's Chieftain") as civil and military leader. In spite of these reforms, the conquered lands and the city itself were harassed by the rivalry between the two families of Della Gherardesca
Della Gherardesca
and Visconti. In 1237 the archbishop and the Emperor Frederick II intervened to reconcile the two rivals, but the strains did not cease. In 1254 the people rebelled and imposed twelve Anziani del Popolo ("People's Elders") as their political representatives in the Commune. They also supplemented the legislative councils, formed of noblemen, with new People's Councils, composed by the main guilds and by the chiefs of the People's Companies. These had the power to ratify the laws of the Major General Council and the Senate. Decline[edit]

Bonus certificate of Pisa, issued 19. July 1875

It is said that the decline began on August 6, 1284, when the numerically superior fleet of Pisa, under the command of Albertino Morosini, was defeated by the brilliant tactics of the Genoese fleet, under the command of Benedetto Zaccaria
Benedetto Zaccaria
and Oberto Doria, in the dramatic naval Battle of Meloria. This defeat ended the maritime power of Pisa
Pisa
and the town never fully recovered: in 1290 the Genoese destroyed forever the Porto Pisano (Pisa's Port), and covered the land with salt. The region around Pisa
Pisa
did not permit the city to recover from the loss of thousands of sailors from the Meloria, while Liguria guaranteed enough sailors to Genoa. Goods however continued to be traded, albeit in reduced quantity, but the end came when the Arno started to change course, preventing the galleys from reaching the city's port up the river. It seems also that nearby area became infested with malaria. The true end came in 1324 when Sardinia
Sardinia
was entirely lost in favour of the Aragonese. Always Ghibelline, Pisa
Pisa
tried to build up its power in the course of the 14th century and even managed to defeat Florence
Florence
in the Battle of Montecatini (1315), under the command of Uguccione della Faggiuola. Eventually, however, after a long siege, Pisa
Pisa
was occupied by Florentines in 1406: in fact florentines corrupted the Capitano del Popolo ("People's Chieftain") Giovanni Gambacorta that opened by night the city gate of San Marco. Pisa
Pisa
was never conquered by an army. In 1409 Pisa
Pisa
was the seat of a council trying to set the question of the Great Schism. Furthermore, in the 15th century, access to the sea became more and more difficult, as the port was silting up and was cut off from the sea. When in 1494 Charles VIII of France
Charles VIII of France
invaded the Italian states to claim the Kingdom of Naples, Pisa
Pisa
grabbed the opportunity to reclaim its independence as the Second Pisan Republic. But the new freedom did not last long. There were fifteen years of battles and sieges by the Florentine troops led by Antonio da Filicaja, Averardo Salviati and Niccolò Capponi but they never managed to conquer the city. Vitellozzo Vitelli
Vitellozzo Vitelli
with his brother Paolo were the only ones that actually managed to break the strong defences of Pisa
Pisa
and make a breach in the Stampace bastion in the southern west part of the walls, but he did not enter the city. For that they were suspected of treachery and Paolo was put to death. However the resources of Pisa
Pisa
were getting low and, at the end, the city was sold to Visconti family from Milan and eventually to Florence
Florence
again. Its role of major port of Tuscany
Tuscany
went to Livorno. Pisa
Pisa
acquired a mainly cultural role spurred by the presence of the University of Pisa, created in 1343, and later reinforced by the Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa
Pisa
(1810) and Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies
Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies
(1987). Pisa
Pisa
was the birthplace of the important early physicist Galileo Galilei. It is still the seat of an archbishopric. Besides its educational institutions; it has become a light industrial centre and a railway hub. It suffered repeated destruction during World War II. Since the early 1950s the US Army has maintained Camp Darby just outside Pisa
Pisa
which is used by many US military personnel as a base for vacations in the area.[4][5] Geography[edit] Climate[edit] Pisa
Pisa
experiences a borderline humid subtropical (Cfa) and Mediterranean
Mediterranean
climate ( Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
Csa), since only a single month receives less than 40 millimetres (1.6 in). The city is characterized by mild winters and very warm summers. This transitional climate keeps Pisa
Pisa
from enjoying a summer devoid of rain, typical of Central and Southern Italy, as the summer (the driest season) experiences occasional rainshowers. Rainfall peaks in the autumn months.

Climate data for Pisa

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 17.6 (63.7) 21.0 (69.8) 24.0 (75.2) 27.9 (82.2) 30.9 (87.6) 35.0 (95) 37.8 (100) 38.8 (101.8) 36.2 (97.2) 30.2 (86.4) 24.0 (75.2) 20.4 (68.7) 38.8 (101.8)

Average high °C (°F) 11.4 (52.5) 12.6 (54.7) 15.2 (59.4) 17.8 (64) 22.2 (72) 26.0 (78.8) 29.4 (84.9) 29.5 (85.1) 25.7 (78.3) 20.9 (69.6) 15.3 (59.5) 11.8 (53.2) 19.82 (67.67)

Daily mean °C (°F) 6.8 (44.2) 7.6 (45.7) 9.8 (49.6) 12.5 (54.5) 16.4 (61.5) 20.0 (68) 23.1 (73.6) 23.4 (74.1) 20.0 (68) 15.8 (60.4) 10.7 (51.3) 7.6 (45.7) 14.48 (58.05)

Average low °C (°F) 2.2 (36) 2.5 (36.5) 4.4 (39.9) 7.2 (45) 10.7 (51.3) 14.1 (57.4) 16.7 (62.1) 17.2 (63) 14.3 (57.7) 10.7 (51.3) 6.1 (43) 3.4 (38.1) 9.13 (48.44)

Record low °C (°F) −13.8 (7.2) −8.4 (16.9) −8.2 (17.2) −3.2 (26.2) 2.8 (37) 5.8 (42.4) 8.8 (47.8) 8.2 (46.8) 3.8 (38.8) 0.3 (32.5) −7.2 (19) −7.2 (19) −13.8 (7.2)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 63.4 (2.496) 57.5 (2.264) 59.8 (2.354) 89.1 (3.508) 61.5 (2.421) 47.8 (1.882) 25.4 (1) 49.4 (1.945) 101.5 (3.996) 140.3 (5.524) 123.5 (4.862) 74.4 (2.929) 893.6 (35.181)

Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 8.1 7.2 7.6 9.7 7.3 5.2 2.5 3.6 6.3 8.8 9.4 8.5 84.2

Average relative humidity (%) 75 71 70 72 72 70 67 68 71 72 74 76 71.5

Mean monthly sunshine hours 105.4 121.5 151.9 192.0 241.8 267.0 316.2 279.0 219.0 176.7 111.0 93.0 2,274.5

Source #1: Servizio Meteorologico (temperature and precipitation data 1971–2000)[6]

Source #2: Servizio Meteorologico (relative humidity and sun data 1961–1990)[7]

Main sights[edit]

The Monumental Campo Santo in the Piazza del Duomo

Façade of Santa Maria della Spina

St. Francis' Church

Palazzo della Carovana
Palazzo della Carovana
or dei Cavalieri

Cittadella vecchia

While the bell tower of the cathedral, known as "the leaning Tower of Pisa", is the most famous image of the city, it is one of many works of art and architecture in the city's Piazza del Duomo, also known, since the 20th century, as Piazza dei Miracoli
Piazza dei Miracoli
(Square of Miracles), to the north of the old town center. The Piazza del Duomo also houses the Duomo (the Cathedral), the Baptistry and the Campo Santo (the monumental cemetery). The medieval complex includes the above-mentioned four sacred buildings, the hospital and few palaces. All the complex is kept by the Opera (fabrica ecclesiae)
Opera (fabrica ecclesiae)
della Primaziale Pisana, an old non profit foundation that operates since the building of the Cathedral (1063) to the maintenance of the sacred buildings. The area is framed by medieval walls kept by municipality administration. Other interesting sights include:

Knights' Square (Piazza dei Cavalieri), where the Palazzo della Carovana, with its impressive façade designed by Giorgio Vasari
Giorgio Vasari
may be seen. Sited on the square Santo Stefano dei Cavalieri: Church sited on Piazza dei Cavalieri, and also designed by Vasari. It had originally a single nave; two more were added in the 17th century. It houses a bust by Donatello, and paintings by Vasari, Jacopo Ligozzi, Alessandro Fei, and Pontormo. It also contains spoils from the many naval battles between the Cavalieri (Knights of St. Stephan) and the Turks between the 16th and 18th centuries, including the Turkish battle pennant hoisted from Ali Pacha's flagship at the 1571 Battle of Lepanto. St. Sixtus: This small church, consecrated in 1133, is also close to the Piazza dei Cavalieri. It was used as a seat of the most important notarial deeds of the town, also hosting the Council of Elders. It is today one of the best preserved early Romanesque buildings in town. St. Francis: The church of San Francesco may have been designed by Giovanni di Simone, built after 1276. In 1343 new chapels were added and the church was elevated. It has a single nave and a notable belfry, as well as a 15th-century cloister. It houses works by Jacopo da Empoli, Taddeo Gaddi
Taddeo Gaddi
and Santi di Tito. In the Gherardesca Chapel are buried Ugolino della Gherardesca
Ugolino della Gherardesca
and his sons. San Frediano: This ancient church built by 1061, has a basilica interior with three aisles, with a crucifix from the 12th century. Paintings from the 16th century were added during a restoration, including works by Ventura Salimbeni, Domenico Passignano, Aurelio Lomi, and Rutilio Manetti. San Nicola: This ancient church built by 1097, was enlarged between 1297 and 1313 by the Augustinians, perhaps by the design of Giovanni Pisano. The octagonal belfry is from the second half of the 13th century. The paintings include the Madonna with Child by Francesco Traini (14th century) and St. Nicholas Saving Pisa
Pisa
from the Plague (15th century). Noteworthy are also the wood sculptures by Giovanni and Nino Pisano, and the Annunciation
Annunciation
by Francesco di Valdambrino. Santa Maria della Spina: This small white marble church alongside the Arno, is attributed to Lupo di Francesco (1230), is another excellent Gothic building. San Paolo a Ripa d'Arno: The church was founded around 952 and enlarged in the mid-12th century along lines similar to those of the cathedral. It is annexed to the Romanesque Chapel of St. Agatha, with an unusual pyramidal cusp or peak. San Pietro in Vinculis: The church St Peter in Chains, known as San Pierino, is an 11th-century church with a crypt and a cosmatesque mosaic on the floor of the main nave. Borgo Stretto: This medieval borgo or neighborhood contains strolling arcades and the Lungarno, the avenues along the river Arno. It includes the Gothic-Romanesque church of San Michele in Borgo
San Michele in Borgo
(990). Remarkably, there are at least two other leaning towers in the city, one at the southern end of central Via Santa Maria, the other halfway through the Piagge riverside promenade. Medici Palace: The palace was once a possession of the Appiano family, who ruled Pisa
Pisa
in 1392–1398. In 1400 the Medici acquired it, and Lorenzo de' Medici
Lorenzo de' Medici
sojourned here. Orto botanico di Pisa: The botanical garden of the University of Pisa is Europe's oldest university botanical garden. Palazzo Reale: The ("Royal Palace"), once belonged to the Caetani patrician family. Here Galileo Galilei
Galileo Galilei
showed to Grand Duke of Tuscany the planets he had discovered with his telescope. The edifice was erected in 1559 by Baccio Bandinelli
Baccio Bandinelli
for Cosimo I de Medici, and was later enlarged including other palaces. The palace is now a museum. Palazzo Gambacorti: This palace is a 14th-century Gothic building, and now houses the offices of the municipality. The interior shows frescoes boasting Pisa's sea victories. Palazzo Agostini: The palace is a Gothic building also known as Palazzo dell'Ussero, with its 15th-century façade and remains of the ancient city walls dating back to before 1155. The name of the building comes from the coffee rooms of Caffè dell'Ussero, historic meeting place founded on September 1, 1775. Mural Tuttomondo: The modern mural is the last public work of Keith Haring, on the rear wall of the convent of the Church of Sant'Antonio, painted in June 1989.

Museums[edit]

Museo dell'Opera del Duomo: exhibiting among others the original sculptures of Nicola Pisano
Nicola Pisano
and Giovanni Pisano
Giovanni Pisano
and the treasures of the cathedral. Museo delle Sinopie: showing the sinopias from the camposanto, the monumental cemetery. These are red ocher underdrawings for frescoes, made with reddish, greenish or brownish earth colour with water. Museo Nazionale di San Matteo: exhibiting sculptures and paintings from the 12th to 15th centuries, among them the masterworks of Giovanni and Andrea Pisano, the Master of San Martino, Simone Martini, Nino Pisano
Nino Pisano
and Masaccio. Museo Nazionale di Palazzo Reale: exhibiting the belongings of the families that lived in the palace: paintings, statues, armors, etc. Museo Nazionale degli Strumenti per il Calcolo: exhibiting a collection of instruments used in science, between whose a pneumatic machine of Van Musschenbroek and a compass probably belonged to Galileo Galilei. Museo di storia naturale dell'Università di Pisa
Pisa
(Natural History Museum of the University of Pisa), located in the Certosa di Calci, outside the city. It houses one of the largest cetacean skeletons collection in Europe. Palazzo Blu: temporary exhibitions and cultural activities center, located in the Lungarno, in the heart of the old town, the palace is easy recognizable because it is the only blue building. Cantiere delle Navi di Pisa
Pisa
- The Pisa's Ancient Ships Archaeological Area: A museum of 10,650 square meters - 3,500 archaeological excavation, 1,700 laboratories and one restoration center -, that visitors can visit with a guided tour.[8]

Educational institutions[edit] Pisa
Pisa
hosts the University of Pisa, especially renowned in the fields of Physics, Mathematics, Engineering
Engineering
and Computer Science. The Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna and the Scuola Normale Superiore, the Italian academic élite institutions are noted mostly for research and the education of graduate students. Construction of a new leaning tower of glass and steel 57 meters tall, containing offices and apartments was scheduled to start in summer 2004 and take 4 years. It was designed by Dante Oscar Benini and raised criticism.

The Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa
Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa
i.e. Scuola Normale or Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, was founded in 1810, by Napoleonic decree, as a branch of the École Normale Supérieure
École Normale Supérieure
of Paris. Recognized as a "national university" in 1862, one year after Italian unification, and named during that period as "Normal School of the Kingdom of Italy". (Superior Graduate Schools in Italy
Italy
i.e. Scuola Superiore Universitaria)

Located at: Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa
Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa
– Piazza dei Cavalieri, 7 – 56126 Pisa
Pisa
(Italia)

The Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies
Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies
of Pisa
Pisa
or Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna is a special-statute public university located in Pisa, Italy, emerging from Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa
Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa
and operating in the field of applied sciences, (Superior Graduate Schools in Italy i.e. Scuola Superiore Universitaria)

Located at: Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, P.zza Martiri della Libertà, 33 – 56127 – Pisa
Pisa
(Italia)

The University of Pisa
University of Pisa
or Università di Pisa, is one of the oldest universities in Italy. It was formally founded on September 3, 1343 by an edict of Pope Clement VI, although there had been lectures on law in Pisa
Pisa
since the 11th century. The University has Europe's oldest academic botanical garden i.e. Orto botanico di Pisa, founded 1544.

Located at: Università di Pisa
Pisa
– Lungarno Pacinotti, 43 – 56126 Pisa
Pisa
(Italia) Churches[edit]

Baptistry San Francesco San Frediano San Giorgio ai Tedeschi San Michele in Borgo San Nicola San Paolo a Ripa d'Arno San Paolo all'Orto San Piero a Grado San Pietro in Vinculis San Sisto San Zeno Santa Caterina Santa Cristina Santa Maria della Spina Santo Sepolcro

Convent, Pisa, Italy, 1895. Brooklyn Museum Archives, Goodyear Archival Collection (S03_06_01_001 image 291)

Palaces, towers and villas[edit]

Palazzo del Collegio Puteano Palazzo della Carovana Palazzo delle Vedove Torre dei Gualandi Villa di Corliano Leaning Tower of Pisa

Notable people associated with Pisa[edit] For people born in Pisa, see People from the Province of Pisa; among notable non-natives long resident in the city:

Jason Acuña, appears in Jackass Giuliano Amato, politician, former Premier and Minister of Interior Affairs Silvano Arieti, psychiatrist Gaetano Bardini, tenor Sergio Bertoni, footballer Andrea Bocelli, tenor Giosuè Carducci, poet and Nobel Prize winner Massimo Carmassi, architect Giorgio Chiellini, footballer Carlo Azeglio Ciampi
Carlo Azeglio Ciampi
and Giovanni Gronchi, politicians, former Presidents of the Republic of Italy Alessio Corti, mathematician Rustichello da Pisa, writer Enrico Fermi
Enrico Fermi
and Carlo Rubbia, physicists and Nobel Prize winners Leonardo Fibonacci, mathematician Galileo Galilei, physicist Giovanni Gentile, philosopher and politician Orazio Gentileschi, painter Count Ugolino della Gherardesca, noble (see also Dante Alighieri) Camila Giorgi, tennis player Giacomo Leopardi, poet and philosopher Marco Malvaldi, mystery novelist Leo Ortolani, comic writer Antonio Pacinotti, physicist, inventor of the dynamo Andrea Pisano, sculptor Afro Poli, baritone Bruno Pontecorvo, physicist Gillo Pontecorvo, filmmaker Antonio Tabucchi, writer

Transport[edit] Travel links[edit] Pisa
Pisa
is a one-hour drive from Florence
Florence
(86 kilometres (53 mi)). One can also get a train directly to Florence
Florence
from a Central rail station in Pisa
Pisa
( Pisa
Pisa
Centrale). Local buses connect the city of Pisa with all the neighboring cities (come to Pontedera, then take a bus for Volterra, San Miniato, etc.). Taxis come when requested from Pisa International Airport and Central Station. Pisamover[edit] Pisa
Pisa
has an international airport known as Pisa
Pisa
International Airport located in San Giusto neighborhood in Pisa. The airport has a people mover system, called Pisamover, opened in March 2017[9], that connects Airport and Pisa
Pisa
central railway station, that is 2 km (1.2 mi) away, it's based on a driverless "horizontal funicular" that travels the distance in 5 minutes, with a 5 minutes frequency, having an intermediate stop on a parking. Buses[edit]

Urban lines CPT (Compagnia Pisana Trasporti):[10]

Red LAM: Cisanello Hospital - Central Station – Duomo – Parking Pietrasantina Green LAM: San Giusto - Central Station - Pratale Navetta E: Lungarno Pacinotti – Park Brennero – La Fontina Navetta NightLAM: Cisanello–Lungarni (night line) Navetta NightLAM: Pietrasantina–Lungarni (night line) Navetta Torre: Park Pietrasantina – Largo Cocco Griffi (Duomo) Navetta Cisanello Hospital: Park Bocchette – Cisanello (Hospital) Bus n°2: San Giusto – Central Station – Porta a Lucca Bus n°4: Central Station – I Passi Bus n°5: Putignano – Central Station – C.E.P. Bus n°6: Central Station – C.E.P. – Barbaricina Bus n°8: Coltano – Vittorio Emanuele II square Bus n°12: Viale Gramsci – Ospedaletto (Expò) – Bus Deapot CPT Bus n°13: Cisanello Hospital – Piagge – Central Station – Pisanova Bus n°14: Cisanello Hospital – Pisanova – Central Station – Piagge Bus n°16: Viale Gramsci – Ospedaletto – Industrial Zone (some for Località Montacchiello) Bus n°21: Airport – Central Station – C.E.P.–Duomo – I Passi (evening line) Bus n°22: Central Station – Piagge–Pisanova–Cisanello–Pratale (evening line)

Suburban lines CPT to/from Pisa:[10]

Line n°10: Pisa–Tirrenia– Livorno
Livorno
(deviation for La Vettola-San Piero a Grado) Line n°50: Pisa–Collesalvetti–Fauglia–Crespina Line n°51: Collesalvetti–Lorenzana–Orciano Line n°70: Pisa–Gello–Pontasserchio Line n°71: Pisa
Pisa
– Sant'Andrea in Palazzi – Pontasserchio – San Martino Ulmiano: Pisa Line n°80: Pisa–Migliarino–Vecchiano–Filettole Line n°81: Pisa–Pontasserchio–Vecchiano Line n°110: Pisa–Asciano–Agnano Line n°120: Pisa–Calci–Montemagno Line n°140: Pisa–Vicopisano–Pontedera Line n°150: Pisa–Musigliano–Pettori Line n°160: Pisa–Navacchio– Calci
Calci
– Tre Colli Line n°190: Pisa–Cascina–Pontedera Line n°875: Pisa
Pisa
– Arena Metato

Trains[edit] The city is served by two railway stations available for passengers: Pisa
Pisa
Centrale and Pisa
Pisa
San Rossore. Pisa
Pisa
Centrale is the main railway station and is located along the Tyrrhenic railway line. It connects Pisa
Pisa
directly with several other important Italian cities such as Rome, Florence, Genoa, Turin, Naples, Livorno, and Grosseto. Pisa
Pisa
San Rossore links the city with Lucca
Lucca
(20 minutes from Pisa) and Viareggio
Viareggio
and is also reachable from Pisa
Pisa
Centrale. It is a minor railway station located near the Leaning Tower zone. There was another station called Pisa
Pisa
Aeroporto situated next to the Airport with services to Pisa
Pisa
Centrale and Florence. It has been closed on 15 December 2013 for the realization of a people mover. Cars[edit] Pisa
Pisa
has two exits on the A11 Florence- Pisa
Pisa
road and on the A12 Genoa- Livorno
Livorno
road, Pisa
Pisa
Nord and Pisa
Pisa
Centro-aeroporto. Pisa
Pisa
Centro leads visitors to the city centre. Parking: Pratale (San Jacopo), Pietrasantina (Via Pietrasantina), Piazza Carrara, Lungarni. Sports[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (June 2008)

A.C. Pisa 1909
A.C. Pisa 1909
play at the Arena Garibaldi – Stadio Romeo Anconetani, as seen from the Leaning Tower

Football is the main sport in Pisa; the local team, A.C. Pisa, currently[11] plays in the Lega Pro
Lega Pro
(the third highest football division in Italy), and has had a top flight history throughout the 1980s and the 1990s, featuring several world-class players such as Diego Simeone, Christian Vieri
Christian Vieri
and Dunga
Dunga
during this time. The club play at the Arena Garibaldi – Stadio Romeo Anconetani, opened in 1919 and with a capacity of 25,000. Shooting
Shooting
was one of the first sports to have their own association in Pisa. The Società del Tiro a Segno di Pisa
Pisa
was founded on July 9, 1862. In 1885, they acquired their own training field. The shooting range was almost completely destroyed during World War II. In Pisa
Pisa
there was a festival and game fr:Gioco del Ponte (Game of the Bridge) which was celebrated (in some form) in Pisa
Pisa
from perhaps the 1200s down to 1807. From the end of the 1400s the game took the form of a mock battle fought upon Pisa's central bridge (Ponte di Mezzo). The participants wore quilted armor and the only offensive weapon allowed was the targone, a shield-shaped, stout board with precisely specified dimensions. Hitting below the belt was not allowed. Two opposing teams started at opposite ends of the bridge. The object of the two opposing teams was to penetrate, drive back, and disperse the opponents' ranks and to thereby drive them backwards off the bridge. The struggle was limited to forty-five minutes. Victory or defeat was immensely important to the team players and their partisans, but sometimes the game was fought to a draw and both sides celebrated.[12] In 1927 the tradition was revived by college students as an elaborate costume parade. In 1935 Vittorio Emanuele III with the royal family witnessed the first revival of a modern version of the game, which has been pursued in the 20th and 21st centuries with some interruptions and varying degrees of enthusiasm by Pisans and their civic institutions. Festivals and cultural events[edit]

Capodanno pisano (folklore, March 25) Gioco del Ponte (folklore) Luminara di San Ranieri (folklore June 16) Maritime republics
Maritime republics
regatta (Folklore) Premio Nazionale Letterario Pisa Pisa
Pisa
Book Festival Metarock ( Rock music
Rock music
festival) Internet Festival San Ranieri regatta (Folklore) Turn Off Festival ( House music
House music
festival) Nessiáh ( Jewish
Jewish
cultural Festival, November)

International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Italy Twin towns and sister cities[edit] Pisa
Pisa
is twinned with:[13]

Corumbá, Corumbá Acre, Israel Kolding, Denmark, since 2007[13] Santiago de Compostela, since 2010[13] Angers, France, since 1982[13] Jericho, Palestine, since 2000[13] Niles, Illinois, United States, since 1991[13] Coral Gables, Florida, United States Unna, Germany, since 1996[13][14] Cagliari, Italy Ocala, Florida, United States
United States
(Sister City 2004)[13][15]

References[edit] Notes[edit]

^ "Statistiche demografiche ISTAT". demo.istat.it.  ^ Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna di Pisa
Pisa
Archived January 1, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. Information statistics ^ William Heywood (2010). A History of Pisa: Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries. Cambridge University Press. p. 1. ISBN 9781108010139.  ^ "A traveler's oasis in Italy". Wiesbaden.army.mil. Archived from the original on February 19, 2013. Retrieved March 12, 2013.  ^ "Darby Military Community, Camp Darby, Italy, Top Picks". Usag.livorno.army.mil. April 30, 1945. Archived from the original on March 5, 2013. Retrieved March 12, 2013.  ^ "PISA/S.GIUSTO" (PDF). Servizio Meteorologico. Retrieved October 13, 2012.  ^ S. Giusto "Tabella CLINO 1961–1990 Pisa" Check url= value (help). Servizio Meteorologico. Retrieved October 13, 2012.  ^ "Navi Pisane - Le Antiche Navi Romane scoperte a Pisa". www.navipisa.it.  ^ "MM100 PisaMover". LEITNER ropeways.  ^ a b "CPT PISA (gruppo CTT Nord)". www.cpt.pisa.it.  ^ as of 2013[update]–14 ^ Heywood, William. Palio and Ponte: An Account of the Sports of Central Italy
Italy
from the Age of Dante to the XXth Century. London: Methuen & Co. pp. 116–126.  ^ a b c d e f g h " Pisa
Pisa
– Official Sister Cities". © Comune
Comune
di Pisa, Via degli Uffizi, 1 – 56100 Pisa
Pisa
centralino: +39 050 910111. Retrieved January 11, 2016.  ^ "List of Twin Towns in the Ruhr District" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on November 28, 2009. Retrieved October 28, 2009.  ^ "San Rossore Officially Sister City To Ocala". Thoroughbred Times. Retrieved 2007-07-16. "This event is just the beginning of a nice relationship between the city of Ocala and the city of Pisa
Pisa
and San Rossore," Fontanelli said in Italian during the ceremony. 

Bibliography[edit]

See also: Bibliography of the history of Pisa

Renouard, Yves (1969). Les Villes d'Italie de la fin du Xe siècle au début du XIVe siècle (in French).  Official Abitants statistics Pisa
Pisa
Metropolitan Area

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pisa.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Pisa.

Portal
Portal
of Pisa Pisan history portal Official site of the Pisa
Pisa
Tourist Board Official site of the Municipality of Pisa, including webcams Moving Postcards of Pisa Pisa
Pisa
Guide

v t e

Tourism in Pisa

Religious

Churches

Pisa
Pisa
Baptistery Pisa
Pisa
Cathedral S Andrea Forisportam S Antonio Abate S Apollonia S Caterina S Chiara S Cristina S Sepolcro S Domenico S Francesco S Frediano S Michele in Borgo S Giovanni dei Fieri S Paolo a Ripa d'Arno S Paolo all'Orto S Piero a Grado S Jacopo e Filippo S Stefano dei Cavalieri S Martino S Michele degli Scalzi S Sisto S Nicola S Maria della Spina S Zeno

Palaces

della Carovana del Collegio Puteano delle Vedove

Landmarks

Leaning Tower of Pisa Navicelli channel Torre dei Gualandi

Piazzas

Knights' Square Piazza delle Gondole Piazza dei Miracoli Camposanto Monumentale

Museums

Domus Galilaeana National Museum of San Matteo Natural History Museum of the University of Pisa Certosa

Gardens and parks

Orto Botanico

v t e

Tuscany
Tuscany
· Comuni of the Province of Pisa

Bientina Buti Calci Calcinaia Capannoli Casale Marittimo Casciana Terme Lari Cascina Castelfranco di Sotto Castellina Marittima Castelnuovo di Val di Cecina Chianni Crespina Lorenzana Fauglia Guardistallo Lajatico Montecatini Val di Cecina Montescudaio Monteverdi Marittimo Montopoli in Val d'Arno Orciano Pisano Palaia Peccioli Pisa Pomarance Ponsacco Pontedera Riparbella San Giuliano Terme San Miniato Santa Croce sull'Arno Santa Luce Santa Maria a Monte Terricciola Vecchiano Vicopisano Volterra

v t e

Maritime republics

Amalfi Ancona Gaeta Genoa Noli Pisa Ragusa Venice

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 204007255 LCCN: n79034879 ISNI: 0000 0001 2293 2886 GND: 40461

.