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PINOCCHIO (/pɪˈnoʊkioʊ/ ; Italian: ), the name a variant of common pinolo ("pine seed"), or "pine's eye" ("occhio", the Italian word for eye), is a fictional character and the protagonist of the children's novel The Adventures of Pinocchio
The Adventures of Pinocchio
(1883) by Italian writer Carlo Collodi
Carlo Collodi
. Carved by a woodcarver named Geppetto in a village near Florence
Florence
, he was created as a wooden puppet but dreamed of becoming a real boy. He lies often.

Pinocchio
Pinocchio
is a cultural icon . As one of the most reimagined characters in children's literature, his story has been adapted into other media.

CONTENTS

* 1 Fictional character biography

* 1.1 Clothing and character * 1.2 The nose

* 2 Literary analysis

* 3 Media portrayals

* 3.1 Earliest adaptations * 3.2 Disney\'s version * 3.3 Later 20th-century adaptations * 3.4 21st-century adaptations

* 4 Popular culture * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links

FICTIONAL CHARACTER BIOGRAPHY

Pinocchio, by Carlo Chiostri (1901)

Pinocchio's characterization varies across interpretations, but some aspects of his character are consistent across all adaptations. He is consistently shown to be a creation as a puppet by Geppetto , and the size of his nose changing due to his lies or stress. Main article: The Adventures of Pinocchio
The Adventures of Pinocchio

Pinocchio
Pinocchio
is known for having a short nose that becomes longer when he is under stress (chapter 3), especially while lying. In the original tale, Collodi describes him as a "rascal," "imp," "scapegrace," "disgrace," "ragamuffin," and "confirmed rogue," with even his father, carpenter Geppetto, referring to him as a "wretched boy." Upon being born, Pinocchio
Pinocchio
immediately laughs derisively in his creator's face, whereupon he steals the old man's wig.

Pinocchio's bad behavior, rather than being charming or endearing, is meant to serve as a warning. Collodi originally intended the story, which was first published in 1881, to be a tragedy. It concluded with the puppet’s execution. Pinocchio’s enemies, the Fox and the Cat, bind his arms, pass a noose around his throat, and hang him from the branch of an oak tree.

a tempestuous northerly wind began to blow and roar angrily, and it beat the poor puppet from side to side, making him swing violently, like the clatter of a bell ringing for a wedding. And the swinging gave him atrocious spasms...His breath failed him and he could say no more. He shut his eyes, opened his mouth, stretched his legs, gave a long shudder, and hung stiff and insensible.

CLOTHING AND CHARACTER

Pinocchio
Pinocchio
is a wooden marionette (a puppet that is manipulated with wires) and not a hand puppet (directly controlled from inside by the puppeteer's hand). But the piece of wood from which he is derived is animated, and so Pinocchio
Pinocchio
moves independently. Basically good, he often gets carried away by bad company and is prone to lying. His nose will become longer and longer once he starts lying to others. Because of these characteristics he often finds himself in trouble, from which, however, he always manages to get out. Pinocchio
Pinocchio
undergoes transformations during the novel: he promises The Fairy with Turquoise Hair to become a real boy, flees with Candlewick to the Land of Toys , becomes a donkey, joins a circus, and becomes a puppet again. In the last chapter, out of the mouth of The Terrible Dogfish
The Terrible Dogfish
with Geppetto, finally stops being a puppet and becomes a real boy (thanks to the intervention of the Fairy in a dream).

In the novel, Pinocchio
Pinocchio
is often depicted with a pointy hat, a jacket and a pair of colored, knee-length pants. In the Disney
Disney
version, the appearance is very different, and the character is dressed in Tyrolean style, with Lederhosen
Lederhosen
and a hat with a feather.

THE NOSE

Pinocchio's nose is his best-known characteristic. It grows in length when he tells a lie: this appears in chapter XVI. It should be noted how Collodi himself, in Note gaie claims how "to hide the truth of a speculum animae (mirror of the soul) face is added to the true nose another papier-mache nose". There is an inconsistency, however, because his nose grows when it is first carved by Geppetto, without Pinocchio
Pinocchio
ever lying.

The nose only appears a couple of times in the story, but it reveals the Blue Fairy's power over Pinocchio
Pinocchio
when he acts disobediently. After struggling and weeping over his deformed nose, the Blue Fairy summons woodpeckers to peck it back to normal.

LITERARY ANALYSIS

Some literary analysts have described Pinocchio
Pinocchio
as an epic hero. Like many Western literary heroes, such as Odysseus
Odysseus
, Pinocchio
Pinocchio
descends into hell; he also experiences rebirth through metamorphosis, a common motif in fantasy literature.

Jordan B. Peterson , in his book Maps of Meaning: The Architecture of Belief and on his Youtube
Youtube
channel uploads his University of Toronto lectures where examines the transcendent literary and meta aspects of the story.

Throughout the work, Collodi chastises Pinocchio
Pinocchio
for his lack of moral fiber and his persistent rejection of responsibility and desire for fun. Since Collodi frequently wrote in support of Italian Unification and the new state that was to arise from it, the book may be seen as having been influential in nation-building. Before writing Pinocchio, Collodi had written a series of pedagogic story books for use in the new nation's elementary schools. The series was called Il viaggio per l'Italia di Giannettino ("Little Johnny's voyage through Italy").

The structure of the story of Pinocchio
Pinocchio
follows that of the folk-tales of peasants who venture out into the world but are naively unprepared for what they find, and get into ridiculous situations. At the time of the writing of the book, this was a serious problem, arising partly from the industrialization of Italy , which led to a growing need for reliable labour in the cities; the problem was exacerbated by similar, more or less simultaneous, demands for labour in the industrialization of other countries. One major effect was the emigration of much of the Italian peasantry to cities and to foreign countries such as the United States.

The main imperatives demanded of Pinocchio
Pinocchio
are to work, be good, and study. And in the end Pinocchio's willingness to provide for his father and devote himself to these things transforms him into a real boy with modern comforts.

MEDIA PORTRAYALS

EARLIEST ADAPTATIONS

* Pinocchio
Pinocchio
first appeared in a cinematic adaptation in Pinocchio (1911), an Italian live-action silent film , directed by Giulio Antamoro . The character is performed by French-Italian comedian Ferdinand Guillaume. * The children's novel The Golden Key, or the Adventures of Buratino (1936) is a free retelling of the story of Pinocchio
Pinocchio
by Russian writer Aleksey Nikolayevich Tolstoy
Aleksey Nikolayevich Tolstoy
. Some of the adventures are derived from Collodi, but many are either omitted or added. Pinocchio
Pinocchio
(Buratino) does not reform himself nor becomes a real human. For Tolstoy, Pinocchio
Pinocchio
as a puppet is a positive model of creative and non-conformist behavior. * A 1936 adaptation The Adventures of Pinocchio
The Adventures of Pinocchio
(Le avventure di Pinocchio) was planned in Italy by Raoul Verdini and Umberto Spano, but it was never entirely completed and is now considered lost . Only the original script and a couple of still frames are all that survived of the film. * The Golden Key (Zolotoy Klyuchik) is a 1939 Russian movie combining live action and stop-motion animation, directed by Aleksandr Ptushko . The story is based on the novel The Golden Key, or the Adventures of Buratino (1936) by Aleksey Nikolayevich Tolstoy
Aleksey Nikolayevich Tolstoy
. Pinocchio
Pinocchio
( Buratino ) is a puppet, voiced by actress Olga Shaganova-Obraztsova .

DISNEY\'S VERSION

Pinocchio
Pinocchio
as seen in Walt Disney
Disney
's Pinocchio
Pinocchio

When The Walt Disney
Disney
Company was developing the story for their film version of Pinocchio
Pinocchio
(1940) they intended to keep the obnoxious aspects of the original character, but Walt Disney
Disney
himself felt that this made the character too unlikable, so alterations were made to incorporate traits of mischief and innocence to make Pinocchio
Pinocchio
more likable. Pinocchio
Pinocchio
was voiced by Dickie Jones . Today, the film is considered one of the finest Disney
Disney
features ever made, and one of the greatest animated films of all time , with a rare 100% rating on the website Rotten Tomatoes
Rotten Tomatoes
. In the video game adaptation of the film, Pinocchio
Pinocchio
lives out (mostly) the same role as the film, traveling through the world filled with temptations and battling various forces. This incarnation later appeared in Who Framed Roger Rabbit voiced by Peter Westy, Disney\'s House of Mouse voiced by Michael Welch , and Kingdom Hearts
Kingdom Hearts
voiced by Seth Adkins . Elijah Wood portrayed the real-boy version of Pinocchio
Pinocchio
in the live-action segments for the updated Jiminy Cricket
Jiminy Cricket
educational serials "I'm No Fool" and "You" in addition to the new shorts of "I'm No Fool" in the early 1990s. Pinocchio
Pinocchio
makes also cameo appearances in Aladdin , Teacher\'s Pet and Tangled . In the video game Epic Mickey: Power of Illusion Pinocchio is featured as one of the many iconic Disney
Disney
characters kidnapped by the evil witch Mizrabel in her plot to dominate their world; he is imprisoned alongside Genie in the Cave of Wonders until eventually being rescued by Mickey Mouse .

LATER 20TH-CENTURY ADAPTATIONS

* The first child actor to portray Pinocchio
Pinocchio
was Alessandro Tommei in the 1947 Italian film The Adventures of Pinocchio
The Adventures of Pinocchio
(Le avventure di Pinocchio), directed by Gianetto Guardone .

Totò
Totò
portrayed Pinocchio
Pinocchio
in Toto in Color

* Italian comedian Totò
Totò
portrayed Pinocchio
Pinocchio
in the 1952 film Toto in Color ( Totò
Totò
a colori). * Actor Mel Blanc
Mel Blanc
voiced Pinocchio
Pinocchio
in a 1953 radio adaptation of the story. This is the second adaptation of Pinocchio
Pinocchio
with Mel Blanc involved, as Blanc voiced Gideon the Cat in the 1940 Disney
Disney
film until all of his lines were deleted, save for three hiccups. * Musician and comedian Spike Jones portrayed Pinocchio
Pinocchio
in the first television adaptation, a satirical version aired 24 April 1954 as an episode of The Spike Jones Show . * Pinocchio
Pinocchio
was portrayed by thirteen-year-old Andrew Irvine as 'Nokie' in the 1955 ITV children's series Round at the Redways. * Mickey Rooney
Mickey Rooney
was Pinocchio
Pinocchio
in the television musical adaptation Pinocchio
Pinocchio
(1957), directed by Paul Bogart , aired 13 October 1957. * In the 1959 Italian television series The Adventures of Pinocchio (Le avventure di Pinocchio), directed by Enrico D\'Alessandro and Cesare Emilio Gaslini , Pinocchio
Pinocchio
is portrayed by Carlo Chamby. * The Adventures of Buratino (Priklyucheniya Buratino) is a 1959 Soviet animated feature film directed by Dmitriy Babichenko and Ivan Ivanov-Vano . The story is based on the novel The Golden Key, or the Adventures of Buratino (1936) by Aleksey Nikolayevich Tolstoy
Aleksey Nikolayevich Tolstoy
. Pinocchio
Pinocchio
( Buratino ) is voiced by actress Nina Gulyaeva and in the 1998 shortened English-dubbed version ( Pinocchio
Pinocchio
and the Golden Key ), by child actor Joseph Mazzello . * The New Adventures of Pinocchio
Pinocchio
(1960–61) is an American animated television series. Pinocchio
Pinocchio
is voiced by actress Joan Fowler . * In Pinocchio
Pinocchio
(1965), the character is portrayed by actor John Joy . * In the Belgian-American animation Pinocchio in Outer Space (1965), the character is voiced by actor Peter Lazer . * Pinocchio
Pinocchio
(Turlis Abenteuer) (1967) is an East German film, directed by Walter Beck. Pinocchio
Pinocchio
(Turli) is a puppet, voiced by actress Gina Presgott . In the final scene, as a boy, he is portrayed by Uwe Thielisch. * De avonturen van Pinokkio (1968–69) is a Dutch TV miniseries. Pinocchio
Pinocchio
is portrayed by actress Wieteke van Dort . * Pinocchio
Pinocchio
(1968) is an American musical TV film, directed by Sid Smith . It was aired 8 December 1968 in the series Hallmark Hall of Fame . Pinocchio
Pinocchio
is portrayed by actor Peter Noone
Peter Noone
.

Pinocchio
Pinocchio
and Geppetto in Pinocchio: The Series

* Tatsunoko Productions
Tatsunoko Productions
created a 52 episodes anime series entitled Pinocchio: The Series , first aired in 1972. This series has a distinctly darker, more sadistic theme, and portrays the main character, Pinocchio
Pinocchio
(Mokku), as suffering from constant physical and psychological abuse and freak accidents. Pinocchio
Pinocchio
was voiced by actress Yuko Maruyama and in the 1992 English-dubbed version by actor Thor Bishopric .

Pinocchio
Pinocchio
as portrayed in Giuliano Cencis' Un burattino di nome Pinocchio
Pinocchio

* Pinocchio
Pinocchio
(Un burattino di nome Pinocchio) (1972) is an Italian animated film, directed by Giuliano Cenci . Pinocchio
Pinocchio
is voiced by actress Roberta Paladini with Pamelyn Ferdin doing his English-voice dub. * The Adventures of Pinocchio
The Adventures of Pinocchio
(Le avventure di Pinocchio) (1972) is an Italian television miniseries, directed by Luigi Comencini
Luigi Comencini
. Pinocchio
Pinocchio
was portrayed by child actor Andrea Balestri . * Pinocchio
Pinocchio
and His Magic Show is a 1976 American movie. Pinocchio is a puppet, voiced by actress Ellen Prince . * The Adventures of Buratino (Priklyucheniya Buratino) is a 1975 Soviet children's musical film directed by Leonid Nechayev
Leonid Nechayev
. The story is based on the novel The Golden Key, or the Adventures of Buratino (1936) by Aleksey Nikolayevich Tolstoy
Aleksey Nikolayevich Tolstoy
. Pinocchio
Pinocchio
( Buratino ) is portrayed by child actor Dmitri Iosifov . * Another anime series starring Pinocchio, entitled Piccolino no Bōken , was produced by Nippon Animation in 1976. * Pinocchio
Pinocchio
is a 1976 American television musical film, directed by Ron Field and Sid Smith , aired 27 March 1976. Pinocchio
Pinocchio
is portrayed by actress Sandy Duncan
Sandy Duncan
. * Pinocchio
Pinocchio
is a 1978 American television miniseries in 4 episodes, directed by Barry Letts . Pinocchio
Pinocchio
is a puppet voiced by actress Rosemary Miller . In the final scene he is portrayed by child actor Joshua White . * In 1980 Pinocchio
Pinocchio
appeared in the " Señor Wences
Señor Wences
" episode of The Muppet Show , performed by Steve Whitmire
Steve Whitmire
. His puppet was built by Bob Payne . * In the 1980 animation Pinocchio\'s Christmas , directed by Jules Bass and Arthur Rankin Jr.
Arthur Rankin Jr.
, Pinocchio
Pinocchio
is voiced by child actor Todd Porter . * Pinocchio
Pinocchio
appeared in the French-Dutch TV musical film Abbacadabra (1983), directed by Rien vam Wijk . He was portrayed by actor Nico Haak . * Pinocchio
Pinocchio
(1984) is an episode of the American television series Faire Tale Theatre , directed by Peter Medak . Pinocchio
Pinocchio
is portrayed by actor Paul Reubens . * Pinocho is a 1986 Argentinian movie, directed by Alejandro Malowichi . Pinocchio
Pinocchio
is portrayed by actress Soledad Silveyra . * Pinocchio
Pinocchio
appeared in Filmation
Filmation
's 1987 epic animated film Pinocchio
Pinocchio
and the Emperor of the Night voiced by Scott Grimes . * In the 1988 animation The Adventures of Pinocchio
The Adventures of Pinocchio
, directed by Ippei Kuri and Jim Terry , Pinocchio
Pinocchio
is voiced by actress Danielle Romeo . * In 1976 Pinocchio
Pinocchio
appeared in a News Flash segment on Sesame Street , performed by Frank Oz
Frank Oz
. * Pinocchio
Pinocchio
appeared in the 1993 direct-to-video adaptation by GoodTimes Entertainment , voiced by Jeannie Elias . * He appeared in the horror film Pinocchio\'s Revenge (1996) played by Verne Troyer
Verne Troyer
and voiced by Dick Beals . He appears as a killer puppet. * He was portrayed by Jonathan Taylor Thomas
Jonathan Taylor Thomas
in the film The Adventures of Pinocchio
Pinocchio
(1996). Thomas also voiced the title character's puppet form. In the 1999 sequel The New Adventures of Pinocchio
Pinocchio
, Pinocchio
Pinocchio
was played by Gabriel Thomson (who also voiced his puppet form). * Pinocchio
Pinocchio
was featured in a 1997 episode of the animated series Happily Ever After: Fairy Tales for Every Child , voiced by actor Will Smith . * He was portrayed by actor Carmelo Bene in the Italian TV movie Pinocchio
Pinocchio
ovvero lo spettacolo della provvidenza (1999).

21ST-CENTURY ADAPTATIONS

* Child actor Seth Adkins portrayed Pinocchio
Pinocchio
in the television musical film Geppetto (2000) and as a guest star, in an episode of The Drew Carey Show , aired 1 March 2000. He also voiced the character in the video-game Kingdom Hearts
Kingdom Hearts
(2002). * As a child actor, Michael Welch voiced Pinocchio
Pinocchio
in 4 episodes of the animated series Disney\'s House of Mouse (2001-2002) and in the animation Mickey\'s Magical Christmas: Snowed in at the House of Mouse (2001). * Pinocchio
Pinocchio
appeared as a supporting character in the animated films Shrek
Shrek
(2001), Shrek
Shrek
2 (2004), Shrek
Shrek
the Third (2007), and Shrek Forever After (2010), voiced by Cody Cameron . He was also featured in other animated shorts and videos of the same series: Shrek
Shrek
in the Swamp Karaoke Dance Party (2001), Shrek
Shrek
4-d (2003), Far Far Away Idol (2004), Shrek
Shrek
the Halls (2007), Scared Shrekless (2010), Donkey\'s Christmas Shrektacular (2010), and Thriller Night (2013). * Actor Roberto Benigni
Roberto Benigni
portrayed Pinocchio
Pinocchio
in the 2002 Italian movie Pinocchio
Pinocchio
film, while the English dub voice was provided by Breckin Meyer
Breckin Meyer
. * Pinocchio
Pinocchio
appeared as a villain in two episodes of The Grim Adventures of Billy & Mandy (2004 Geppetto had been charged with making a magic cabinet to allow Snow White and series protagonist Emma Swan to escape the curse, but Geppetto arranged for Pinocchio
Pinocchio
to enter the cabinet instead as he feared that his son would cease to exist if the curse was cast as there would have been no way for him to be born without magic. August begins to return to his wooden state towards the end of the first season due to his selfishness, but following his near death by Tamara , the Blue Fairy restored Pinocchio
Pinocchio
to his child self for his compassion and courage and he resumes living with Geppetto. In the fourth season , he was restored to his adult state by Rumplestiltskin so that he could torture him for information about the Author. In the sixth season , it was revealed that August was the one who inspired Emma to take on the surname Swan after he shared with her the fairy tale The Ugly Duckling when they were kids. * In the 2012 Italian animated adaptation ( Pinocchio
Pinocchio
), directed by Enzo D\'Alò , Pinocchio
Pinocchio
is voiced by child actors Gabriele Caprio (Italian original version) and Robert Naylor (English dub voice). * Pinocchio
Pinocchio
was the subject of the 2015 satirical novel Splintered: A Political Fairy Tale by Thomas London . * In 2016, Robert Downey Jr. signed on to play both Pinocchio
Pinocchio
and Geppetto in an updated version directed by Ben Stiller
Ben Stiller
set to release early 2018. He will be joined on screen with Adam Driver as Jimmeny Cricket and Amy Adams as the Blue Fairy. * Actor Sigurður Þór Óskarsson portrayed Pinocchio
Pinocchio
in an episode (New Kid in Town) of the TV series LazyTown , aired 5 October 2014. * Part 6 of Jojo\'s Bizarre Adventure features an evil version of Pinocchio, brought to life by Bohemian Rhapsody. * Musical " Pinocchio
Pinocchio
- Superstar" produced by Norberto Bertassi and performed by young talents association Teatro. Premiered on 20 July 2016 in Mödling, Austria.

POPULAR CULTURE

A giant statue of Pinocchio
Pinocchio
in the park Parco di Pinocchio, Collodi .

* The story is set in a villa in Collodi , where Carlo Collodi
Carlo Collodi
had spent his youth, in 1826. This villa is now named Villa Pinocchio.

"Una probabile morte di Pinocchio", Walther Jervolino , oil on canvas

* In the paintings series "La morte di Pinocchio", Walther Jervolino , an Italian painter and engraver, shows Pinocchio
Pinocchio
being executed with arrows or decapitated, thus presenting an alternative story ending. * 12927 Pinocchio
Pinocchio
, a main-belt asteroid discovered on September 30, 1999 by M. Tombelli and L. Tesi at San Marcello Pistoiese , was named after Pinocchio. * In Avengers: Age of Ultron
Ultron
, the story of Pinocchio
Pinocchio
is referenced to symbolize the cybernetic villain Ultron
Ultron
becoming free of his masters (the Avengers ) orders'. A dark version of the Disney Pinocchio
Pinocchio
song "I\'ve Got No Strings " is also quoted by him, and used in promotional material for the film. * In A.I. Artificial Intelligence
A.I. Artificial Intelligence
, the story of Pinocchio
Pinocchio
is woven throughout the story as a robot, an artificial boy, struggles to become real through a search for the Blue Fairy.

SEE ALSO

* Children\'s literature portal * Fictional characters portal

Wikimedia Commons has media related to PINOCCHIO .

* Pinocchio
Pinocchio
paradox

REFERENCES

* ^ "Oxford Learner\'s Dictionaries Find the meanings, definitions, pictures, pronunciation of words at OxfordLearnersDictionaries.com". Oxfordadvancedlearnersdictionary.com. 2014-10-16. Retrieved 2015-10-01. * ^ Joy Lo Dico. "Classics corner: Pinocchio
Pinocchio
by Carlo Collodi
Carlo Collodi
Culture". The Guardian. Retrieved 2015-10-01. * ^ A B jkk, kkk (2015-02-06). "What the Original "Pinocchio" Really Says About Lying". The New Yorker. Retrieved 2015-10-01. * ^