Pinhel
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Pinhel () is a
municipality A municipality is usually a single having status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordinate. The term ''municipality'' may also mean the governing or ruling body of a gi ...
, former Catholic bishopric and present Latin
titular see A titular see in various churches is an episcopal see The seat or ''cathedra'' of the Bishop of Rome in the Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran An episcopal see is, in the usual meaning of the phrase, the area of a bishop's ecclesiastical jurisdi ...
in the
central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), center of some place or (mathematical) object. Central may also refer to: Directions and generalised locations * Central Africa, a region in the centre of Africa ...
subregion of
Beira Interior Norte 250px, Map showing the location of the Beira Interior Norte subregion Beira Interior Norte () is a former Portuguese subregion (NUTS level 3) in the Centro Region The Central Region ( pt, Região do Centro, ) or Central Portugal is one of the sta ...
, in Portugal. The municipality population in 2011 was 9,627,Instituto Nacional de Estatística
/ref> in an area of 484.52 km2. The urban centre of Pinhel had about 3500 residents in 2001.


History

The origins of this municipality date back to the Calcolithic period, as many of the remnants of ancient cultures from this period remain: namely the rock-art engravings and paintings that line the Côa valley in Cidadelhe. Part of the historic
district of Guarda The Districts of Portugal, district of Guarda ( pt, Distrito de Guarda ) is located in the Centro, Portugal, Centro Region of Portugal, except Vila Nova de Foz Côa, which is in the Norte, Portugal, Norte Region. The district capital and most popu ...
, the region obtained its name for many pine forests that covered the region's hills and mountains. There are also several references to a pre-Roman or Roman presence, suggesting a continual occupancy since this period. During the medieval period, owing to the defensive requirements of the fledgling nation, several fortified centres developed, including the Pinhel, but also along a line that included: Trancoso, Marialva, Guarda, Castelo Rodrigo, Almeida and Castelo Mendo. The
Castle of Pinhel Image:Castelo de Pinhel.jpg, 250px, Keep of the Pinhel Castle. The Castle of Pinhel ( pt, Castelo de Pinhel) is a Portugal, Portuguese Castles in Portugal, castle in the Freguesia (Portugal), civil parish of Pinhel (parish), Pinhel, in the Concelho, ...
dates from the reign of King Denis and the keep tower from his descendant, King
Manuel IManuel I may refer to: *Manuel I Comnenus, Byzantine emperor (1143–1180) *Manuel I of Trebizond, Emperor of Trebizond (1228–1263) *Manuel I of Portugal, King of Portugal (1496–1521) *Manuel I, Patriarch of Lisbon (1800–1869) {{hndis, Manuel ...

Manuel I
. Pinhel's strategic position, along the frontier with Spain, made the monarchs of Portugal retain many of these fortifications, as well as allowing the development of their territorial claims. The historical centre, with its narrow roadways, were adapted from the morphology of the terrain, with many patrimonial references to the medieval and modern eras. The homes of the city of Pinhel, some dating from the 16th century, includes some lost references to the presence of a Jewish population at one time, such as along the ''Rua de Santa Maria''. Pinhel was, for a long time, the seat of its own diocese, before being incorporated into the
Diocese of Guarda The Roman Catholic Diocese of Guarda ( la, Dioecesis Aegitaniensis) is a diocese located in central eastern Portugal, a suffragan in the Ecclesiastical province of the Latin Patriarchate of Lisbon in southern Portugal. The present episcopal seat i ...
. The 17th and 18th century were periods of growth for the region, dominated the construction of estates, scattered in many of the historic corners of the municipality, some monumental and decorative. The urbanized area of Pinhel, the city of Pinhel, was elevated to this status in 1770.


Ecclesiastical History

In 1770.08.25 a bishopric was established as Diocese of Pinhel / Pinhelen(sis) (Latin adjective), on territory split off from the
Diocese of Lamego The Diocese of Lamego ( la, Dioecesis Lamacensis) is a Roman Catholic Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancient ...
, apparently as
suffraganIn the Anglican Communion The Anglican Communion is the third largest Christian Full communion, communion after the Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox Churches, Eastern Orthodox Church. Founded in 1867 in London, the communion has more tha ...
of the Metropolitan
Archdiocese of Braga The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Braga ( la, Archidioecesis Bracarensis) is an archdiocese of the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church in Portugal. Its suffragans are the dioceses of diocese of Aveiro, Aveiro, diocese of Bragança-Miranda, of Braga ...
. The Church of the Saviour (Portuguese: Igreja do Salvador) served as
cathedral A cathedral is a church (building), church that contains the ''cathedra'' () of a bishop, thus serving as the central church of a diocese, Annual Conference, conference, or episcopate. Churches with the function of "cathedral" are usually spec ...

cathedral
, until its demolition and substitution as such in 1797 by the convent church of St. Louis (Portuguese: Igreja de São Luís) as ordered by bishop Don Bernardo Bernardino Beltrão Freire. It was suppressed on 1881.09.30, its territory being merged into the
Diocese of Guarda The Roman Catholic Diocese of Guarda ( la, Dioecesis Aegitaniensis) is a diocese located in central eastern Portugal, a suffragan in the Ecclesiastical province of the Latin Patriarchate of Lisbon in southern Portugal. The present episcopal seat i ...
.


Residential Bishops of Pinhel

* João Rafael de Mendonça (1771.06.17 – 1771.07.29), next Bishop of Roman Catholic Diocese of Porto (Portugal) (1771.07.29 – death 1793.06.06) * Cristóvão de Almeida Soares (1773.03.08 – death 1782.02.11) * José António Pinto de Mendonça Arrais (1782.12.16 – 1797.12.18), next Bishop of Roman Catholic Diocese of Guarda, Guarda (Portugal) (1797.12.18 – death 1822.04.19) * Bernardo Bernardino Beltrão Freire (1797.12.18 – death 1828.07.19) * Leonardo de Sousa Brandão (1832.12.17 – death 1838) *''Apostolic Administrator Father António Mendes Bello (1874 – 1881), Titular Archbishop of Mytilene (1884.03.24 – 1884.11.13) as Auxiliary Bishop of Patriarchate of Lisboa (Lisbon, Portugal) (1884.03.24 – 1884.11.13), next Archbishop-Bishop of Roman Catholic Diocese of Faro, Diocese of Faro (Algarve, Portugal) (1884.11.13 – 1907.12.19), Latin Patriarch of Patriarchate of Lisboa, Lisboa (Lisbon, Portugal) (1907.12.19 – 1929.08.05), created Cardinal-Priest of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro (1914.09.08 – 1929.08.05).


Titular see

In 1969 the diocese was nominally restored as Latin Titular bishopric of Pinhel (Português) / Pinhelen(sis) (Latin). It has had the following incumbents, so far of the fitting Episcopal (lowest) order : * Thomas Kiely Gorman (1969.08.22 – resigned 1971.01.21) on emeritate, formerly Bishop of Roman Catholic Diocese of Reno, Reno (USA) (1931.04.24 – 1952.02.08), Titular Bishop of Rhasus (1952.02.08 – 1954.08.29) as Coadjutor Bishop of Roman Catholic Diocese of Dallas–Fort Worth, Dallas–Fort Worth (Texas, USA) (1952.02.08 – 1954.08.29), succeeding as last Bishop of Dallas–Fort Worth (1954.08.29 – 1969.08.09), restyled 'first' Bishop of Roman Catholic Diocese of Dallas, Dallas (USA) (1969.08.09 – 1969.08.22); died 1980 * Mervyn Alban Alexander (1972.03.08 – 1974.12.20) as Auxiliary Bishop of Roman Catholic Diocese of Clifton, Diocese of Clifton (England, UK) (1972.03.08 – 1974.12.20), succeeding as Bishop of Clifton (1974.12.20 – retired 2001.02.27); died 2010 * Hugo Mark Gerbermann, Maryknoll Fathers (M.M.) (1975.07.22 – death 1996.10.19) as Auxiliary Bishop of Roman Catholic Archdiocese of San Antonio, Archdiocese of San Antonio (USA) (1975.07.22 – 1982.06.30) and on emeritate; previously Titular Bishop of Amathus in Palæstina (1962.06.06 – 1967.12.23) as only Bishop-Prelate of Territorial Prelature of Huehuetenango (Guatemala) (1961.08.08 – 1967.12.23) promoted first Bishop of Huehuetenango (1967.12.23 – 1975.07.22) * Manuel José Macário do Nascimento Clemente (1999.11.06 – 2007.02.22) as Auxiliary Bishop of Lisboa Patriarchate (Portugal) (1999.11.06 – 2007.02.22), next Bishop of Roman Catholic Diocese of Porto, Porto (Portugal) (2007.02.22 – 2013.05.18), Vice-President of Episcopal Conference of Portugal (2011 – 2013.06.19), Latin Patriarch of Lisbon Patriarchate (Portugal) (2013.05.18 – ...), President of Episcopal Conference of Portugal (2013.06.19 – ...), created Cardinal-Priest of S. Antonio in Campo Marzio (2015.02.14 [2015.06.14] – ...) * Guillermo Martín Abanto Guzmán (2009.01.30 – 2012.10.30) as Auxiliary Bishop of Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Lima, Archdiocese of Lima (Peru) (2009.01.30 – 2012.10.30), next Military Ordinary of Military Ordinariate of Peru, Peru (Peru) (2012.10.30 – retired 2013.07.27) * Jorge Estrada Solórzano (2013.05.28 – ...), Auxiliary Bishop of Roman Catholic Archdiocese of México, Archdiocese of (Ciudad) México (Mexico), no previous prelature.


Geography

The municipality of Pinhel is geographically delimited, in its entirety para two waterways: the ''Ribeira do Massueime'' (in the west) and east by the Côa River. It is located in the central part of the district of Guarda and confined by the municipalities of Almeida Municipality, Almeida, Figueira de Castelo Rodrigo Municipality, Figueira de Castelo Rodrigo, Vila Nova de Foz Côa Municipality, Vila Nova de Foz Côa, Meda Municipality, Meda, Trancoso Municipality, Portugal, Trancoso and Guarda Municipality, Portugal, Guarda. The area includes a superficial area of , divided into 18 civil parishes, as well as one urban parish, the city/seat of Pinhel. The municipality is accessed by a rail-line, the Vila Franca das Naves line for , by the A25 roadway (connecting Pinhel and Pínzio, and internationally by its connection to Vilar Formoso, . The northern part of the municipality is part of the Prehistoric Rock-Art Site of the Côa Valley, an archaeological and geological park known for its inscribed rock formations, created by primitive cultures along the Côa valley. This area, along with Foz Coa has been declared a UNESCO World Heritage site for these primitive engravings. Pinhel is surrounded by Guarda Municipality, Portugal, Guarda, Trancoso Municipality, Portugal, Trancoso, Almeida, Portugal, Almeida, Figueira de Castelo Rodrigo, Mêda and Vila Nova de Foz Côa, all those municipalities of the
district of Guarda The Districts of Portugal, district of Guarda ( pt, Distrito de Guarda ) is located in the Centro, Portugal, Centro Region of Portugal, except Vila Nova de Foz Côa, which is in the Norte, Portugal, Norte Region. The district capital and most popu ...
.


Climate


Parishes

Administratively, the municipality is divided into 18 civil parishes (''freguesia (Portugal), freguesias''): * Alto do Palurdo * Alverca da Beira / Bouça Cova * Atalaia e Safurdão * Ervedosa * Freixedas * Lamegal * Lameiras * Manigoto * Pala * Pinhel * Pínzio * Souro Pires * Sul de Pinhel * Terras de Massueime * Valbom / Bogalhal * Vale do Côa * Vale do Massueime * Vascoveiro


Architecture

See above for church buildings. In addition, the following buildings and structures have been classified as national patrimony: *
Castle of Pinhel Image:Castelo de Pinhel.jpg, 250px, Keep of the Pinhel Castle. The Castle of Pinhel ( pt, Castelo de Pinhel) is a Portugal, Portuguese Castles in Portugal, castle in the Freguesia (Portugal), civil parish of Pinhel (parish), Pinhel, in the Concelho, ...
( pt, Castelo de Pinhel).


Notable people

* José Dias Coelho (1923 in Pinhel – 1961) a Portuguese painter and sculptor, an anti-fascist and member of the Portuguese Communist Party, PCP


See also

* List of Catholic dioceses in Portugal * Pinhel wine * Pinhel IPR


References


Sources and external links


GCatholic, with Google satellite photo - episcopal see of Pinhel

Photos from Pinhel


{{Authority control Pinhel, Municipalities of Guarda District Cities in Portugal