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Pinghua (; Yale: ''Pìhng Wá''; sometimes disambiguated as /) is a pair of Sinitic languages spoken mainly in parts of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, with some speakers in
Hunan Hunan () is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territorial and administrative unit of the Roma ...

Hunan
province. Pinghua is a trade language in some areas of Guangxi, where it is spoken as a second language by speakers of
Zhuang languages 220px, Books of Zhuang language The Zhuang languages (autonym Autonym may refer to: * Autonym, the name used by a person to refer to themselves or their language; see Exonym and endonym * Autonym (botany), an automatically created infrageneric ...
. Some speakers of Pinghua are officially classified as Zhuang, and many are genetically distinct from most other
Han Chinese The Han Chinese,
. Huayuqiao.org. Retrieved on 2013-04-26.
Hanzu, or Han people The northern subgroup of Pinghua is centered on and the southern subgroup around Nanning. Southern Pinghua has several notable features such as having four distinct checked tones, and using various loanwords from the
Zhuang languages 220px, Books of Zhuang language The Zhuang languages (autonym Autonym may refer to: * Autonym, the name used by a person to refer to themselves or their language; see Exonym and endonym * Autonym (botany), an automatically created infrageneric ...
, such as the final
particle In the Outline of physical science, physical sciences, a particle (or corpuscule in older texts) is a small wikt:local, localized physical body, object to which can be ascribed several physical property, physical or chemical , chemical properties ...
'' wei'' for imperative sentences.


History and classification

Language surveys in Guangxi during the 1950s recorded varieties of Chinese that had been included in the Yue dialect group but were different from those in Guangdong. Pinghua was designated as a separate dialect group from Yue by the
Chinese Academy of Social Sciences The Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS), is a Chinese research institute and think tank with historical origins in the Academia Sinica Academia Sinica (AS, la, 1=Academia Sinica, 3=Chinese Academy; ), headquartered in Nangang, Taipei ...
in the 1980s and since then has been treated as a separate dialect in textbooks and surveys. Since designation as a separate dialect group, Pinghua has been the focus of increased research. In 2008 a report by the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences of research into Chinese varieties noted an increase in research papers and surveys of Pinghua, from 7 before the 1987 publication of the '' Language Atlas of China'' based on the revised classification, and about 156 between then and 2004. In the 1980s the number of speakers was listed as over 2 million; and by 2016 as 7 million.广西平话研究 Main Editor 余谨 page 24 Pinghua is divided into two mutually unintelligible languages: * The Northern Pinghua (''Guìběi'' ) is spoken in northern Guangxi, around the city of , in close proximity with Southwest Mandarin dialects. **and also in a some places in Hunan, such as Tongdao. **Younian dialect (ethnically Yao) * The Southern Pinghua (''Guìnán'' ) is spoken in southern Guangxi, around the city of Nanning. These varieties form a dialect continuum with Yue varieties spoken in that part of Guangxi (excluding enclaves of Cantonese, such as in Nanning). Yu Jin subdivides this group into three types: ** Yongjiang, spoken along the Yong River (Guangxi), Yong River around Nanning. ** Guandao (官道 "official road"), spoken to the east of Nanning in Laibin and the counties of Heng County, Heng and Binyang County, Binyang, around the road to the Southwest Mandarin-speaking city of Liuzhou. ** Rongjiang, spoken along the Rong River (Guangxi), Rong River to the north of Liuzhou.


Phonology

Nanning Pinghua has a voiceless lateral fricative for Middle Chinese /s/ or /z/, for example in the numbers "three" and "four". This is unlike Standard Cantonese but like some other Yue varieties such as Taishanese.


Tones

Southern Pinghua has six contrasting tones in open syllables, and four in checked syllables, as found in neighbouring Yue varieties such as the Bobai dialect. The split of the lower entering tone is determined by the initial consonant, with the low rising contour occurring after sonorant initials.


Anthropological

Genetically, Pinghua speakers have more in common with non-Han ethnic minorities in southern China than with other Han groups.


References


Further reading

*Xie Jianyou [谢建猷], et al. 2007. ''Studies on the Han Chinese dialects of Guangxi'' [广西汉语方言研究]. Nanning: Guangxi People's Publishing House [广西人民出版社]. *《广西通志·汉语方言志》(续编)课题组 (2013). 广西通志·汉语方言志:续编.第二篇,平话. Nanning: 广西人民出版社. *《广西通志·汉语方言志》(续编)课题组 (2013). 广西通志·汉语方言志:续编.第五篇,桂北土话. Nanning: 广西人民出版社. * *


External links


Classification of Pinghua Dialects
{{Guangxi topics Varieties of Chinese Languages of China Culture in Guangxi