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The PILLARS OF HERCULES (Latin : Columnae Herculis, Greek : Ἡράκλειοι Στῆλαι, Arabic : أعمدة هرقل / Aʿmidat Hirqul, Spanish : Columnas de Hércules) was the phrase that was applied in Antiquity to the promontories that flank the entrance to the Strait of Gibraltar
Strait of Gibraltar
. The northern Pillar, Calpe Mons, is the Rock of Gibraltar
Rock of Gibraltar
(part of the British overseas territory
British overseas territory
of Gibraltar ). A corresponding North African peak not being predominant, the identity of the southern Pillar, Abila Mons, has been disputed throughout history, with the two most likely candidates being Monte Hacho in Ceuta
Ceuta
and Jebel Musa in Morocco
Morocco
.

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Pillars as a portal * 3 Phoenician connection * 4 The Pillars in Syriac geography * 5 Dante\'s Inferno * 6 Sir Francis Bacon\'s Novum Organum
Novum Organum
* 7 In architecture * 8 See also * 9 References

HISTORY

Modern conjectural depiction of the lost western section of the Tabula Peutingeriana
Tabula Peutingeriana
, showing a representation of the Pillars of Hercules
Hercules
(Columne Ercole).

According to Greek mythology
Greek mythology
adopted by the Etruscans
Etruscans
and Romans, when Hercules
Hercules
had to perform twelve labours , one of them (the tenth) was to fetch the Cattle of Geryon
Geryon
of the far West and bring them to Eurystheus
Eurystheus
; this marked the westward extent of his travels. A lost passage of Pindar
Pindar
quoted by Strabo
Strabo
was the earliest traceable reference in this context: "the pillars which Pindar
Pindar
calls the 'gates of Gades' when he asserts that they are the farthermost limits reached by Heracles." Since there has been a one-to-one association between Heracles
Heracles
and Melqart
Melqart
since Herodotus
Herodotus
, the "Pillars of Melqart" in the temple near Gades/Gádeira (modern Cádiz
Cádiz
) have sometimes been considered to be the true Pillars of Hercules.

According to Plato
Plato
's account, the lost realm of Atlantis
Atlantis
was situated beyond the Pillars of Hercules, in effect placing it in the realm of the Unknown. Renaissance tradition says the pillars bore the warning Ne plus ultra (also Non plus ultra, "nothing further beyond"), serving as a warning to sailors and navigators to go no further.

According to some Roman sources, while on his way to the garden of the Hesperides
Hesperides
on the island of Erytheia
Erytheia
, Hercules
Hercules
had to cross the mountain that was once Atlas . Instead of climbing the great mountain, Hercules
Hercules
used his superhuman strength to smash through it. By doing so, he connected the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and formed the Strait of Gibraltar
Strait of Gibraltar
. One part of the split mountain is Gibraltar
Gibraltar
and the other is either Monte Hacho
Monte Hacho
or Jebel Musa . These two mountains taken together have since then been known as the Pillars of Hercules, though other natural features have been associated with the name. Diodorus Siculus
Diodorus Siculus
, however, held that instead of smashing through an isthmus to create the Straits of Gibraltar, Hercules narrowed an already existing strait to prevent monsters from the Atlantic Ocean from entering the Mediterranean Sea.

PILLARS AS A PORTAL

*

Device of Charles V in Seville
Seville
's city hall. *

The columns as depicted in the Spanish coat of arms .

The Pillars appear as supporters of the coat of arms of Spain , originating in the impresa of Spain's sixteenth century king Charles I , who was also the Holy Roman Emperor as Charles V . It bears the motto Plus Ultra , Latin for further beyond, implying that the pillars were a gateway. Coat of arms of Cádiz
Cádiz
.

PHOENICIAN CONNECTION

Beyond Gades, several important Mauritanian colonies (in modern-day Morocco
Morocco
) were founded by the Phoenicians as the Phoenician merchant navy pushed through the Pillars of Hercules
Hercules
and began constructing a series of bases along the Atlantic coast starting with Lixus in the north, then Chellah
Chellah
and finally Mogador
Mogador
.

Near the eastern shore of the island of Gades/Gadeira (modern Cádiz , just beyond the strait) Strabo
Strabo
describes the westernmost temple of Tyrian Heracles
Heracles
, the god with whom Greeks associated the Phoenician and Punic Melqart
Melqart
, by interpretatio graeca . Strabo
Strabo
notes that the two bronze pillars within the temple, each eight cubits high, were widely proclaimed to be the true Pillars of Hercules
Hercules
by many who had visited the place and had sacrificed to Heracles
Heracles
there. But Strabo believes the account to be fraudulent, in part noting that the inscriptions on those pillars mentioned nothing about Heracles, speaking only of the expenses incurred by the Phoenicians in their making. The columns of the Melqart
Melqart
temple at Tyre were also of religious significance. Limoges enamel
Limoges enamel
depicting Hercules carrying the two columns, by Couly Nouailher, mid-16th century ( Walters Art Museum
Walters Art Museum
).

THE PILLARS IN SYRIAC GEOGRAPHY

Syriac scholars were aware of the Pillars through their efforts to translate Greek scientific works into their language as well as into Arabic. The Syriac compendium of knowledge known as Ktaba d'ellat koll 'ellan. "The Cause of all Causes", is unusual in asserting that there were three, not two, columns

DANTE\'S INFERNO

In Inferno XXVI Dante Alighieri
Dante Alighieri
mentions Ulysses in the pit of the Fraudulent Counsellors and his voyage past the Pillars of Hercules. Ulysses justifies endangering his sailors by the fact that his goal is to gain knowledge of the unknown. After five months of navigation in the ocean, Ulysses sights the mountain of Purgatory
Purgatory
but encounters a whirlwind from it that sinks his ship and all on it for their daring to approach Purgatory
Purgatory
while alive, by their strength and wits alone. The title page of Sir Francis Bacon
Sir Francis Bacon
's Instauratio Magna, 1620.

SIR FRANCIS BACON\'S NOVUM ORGANUM

The Pillars appear prominently on the engraved title page of Sir Francis Bacon 's Instauratio Magna ("Great Renewal"), 1620, an unfinished work of which the second part was his influential Novum Organum . The motto along the base says Multi pertransibunt et augebitur scientia ("Many will pass through and knowledge will be the greater"). The image was based on the use of the pillars in Spanish and Habsburg propaganda.

IN ARCHITECTURE

On the Spanish coast at Los Barrios
Los Barrios
are Torres de Hercules
Hercules
which are twin towers that were inspired by the Pillars of Hercules. These towers were the tallest in Andalusia until Cajasol Tower was completed in Seville
Seville
in 2015.

SEE ALSO

* Dollar sign
Dollar sign

REFERENCES

Wikimedia Commons has media related to PILLARS OF HERCULES .

* ^ Strabo
Strabo
summarizes the dispute in Geographia 3.5.5. * ^ Strabo, 3.5.5; the passage in Pindar
Pindar
has not been traced. * ^ Walter Burkert (1985). Greek Religion. Harvard University Press. p. 210. ISBN 978-0-674-36281-9 . Retrieved 2 November 2012. * ^ Seneca, Hercules
Hercules
Furens 235ff.; Seneca, Hercules
Hercules
Oetaeus 1240; Pliny, Nat. Hist. iii.4. * ^ "Close to the Pillars there are two isles, one of which they call Hera's Island; moreover, there are some who call also these isles the Pillars." (Strabo, 3.5.3.); see also H. L. Jones\' gloss on this line in the Loeb Classical Library. * ^ Diodorus 4.18.5. * ^ C. Michael Hogan, Mogador, Megalithic Portal, ed. Andy Burnham, 2007 * ^ ( Strabo
Strabo
3.5.2–3 * ^ Strabo
Strabo
3.5.5–6 * ^ Adam C. McCollum. (2012). A Syriac Fragment from The Cause of All Causes on the Pillars of Hercules. ISAW Papers, 5. .

* v * t * e

Gibraltar
Gibraltar
topics

HISTORY

* Neanderthals of Gibraltar
Gibraltar
* Timeline (sieges ) * Pillars of Hercules * First Siege of Gibraltar
Gibraltar
* Battle of Gibraltar
Gibraltar
* Capture of Gibraltar
Gibraltar
* George Rooke
George Rooke
* Treaty of Utrecht
Treaty of Utrecht
* Thirteenth Siege of Gibraltar
Gibraltar
* Great Siege * George Augustus Eliott * Gibraltar
Gibraltar
real (currency) * World War II * Nationality * Genoese in Gibraltar
Gibraltar
* Maltese in Gibraltar
Gibraltar
* Explosion of the RFA Bedenham * Operation Flavius ( Death on the Rock
Death on the Rock
) * Aurora incident * New Flame incident * Fedra incident

GEOGRAPHY

GENERAL

* Climate

* Geology

* Azores– Gibraltar
Gibraltar
Transform Fault * Gibraltar
Gibraltar
Arc

ENVIRONMENT

* Birds

* Mammals

* Barbary macaques

* Reptiles and amphibians * Candytuft (Iberis gibraltarica) * Botanic Gardens * Ornithological border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

NATURAL

* Bay of Gibraltar
Gibraltar
* Catalan Bay
Catalan Bay
* Eastern Beach * Gorham\'s Cave * Rock of Gibraltar
Rock of Gibraltar
* St. Michael\'s Cave * Sandy Bay * Vanguard Cave
Vanguard Cave
* Windmill Hill

BUILT

* Bristol Hotel * City Hall * The Convent * Garrison Library * King George V Hospital * Moorish Castle
Moorish Castle
* The Rock Hotel * St. Bernard\'s Hospital

POLITICS

GENERAL

* Constitution Order

* 1969 * 2006

* Law

* Court system * LGBT rights

* Passport

PEOPLE

* Chief Minister * Governor * Mayor

POLITICS

* Black Swan Project
Black Swan Project
controversy

* Disputed status

* isthmus

* Elections

* 2007 * 2011 * 2015

* Parliament

* Speaker

* Political parties

* Sovereignty
Sovereignty
referendums

* 1967 * 2002

* EU Referendum

* European Union (Referendum) Act 2016 (Gibraltar)

MILITARY

* British Forces Gibraltar
Gibraltar
* Gibraltar
Gibraltar
Defence Police * Gibraltar
Gibraltar
Squadron * Napier of Magdala Battery * RAF Gibraltar
Gibraltar
* Royal Gibraltar
Gibraltar
Police * Royal Gibraltar
Gibraltar
Regiment

ECONOMY

GENERAL

* Banks

* Gibraltar
Gibraltar
pound

* coins

* Stock Exchange * Taxation * Tourism

COMMUNICATIONS

* .gi (Internet domain) * Gibraltar
Gibraltar
Broadcasting Corporation * Gibraltar
Gibraltar
Chronicle * Gibtelecom
Gibtelecom
* Panorama * Regulatory Authority

* Royal Gibraltar
Gibraltar
Post Office

* Postage stamps and history * Postal Orders * Study Circle

* Telephone numbers

TRANSPORT

* Airport * Cable car * Gibraltar–Spain border
Gibraltar–Spain border
* Vehicle registration plates

CULTURE

GENERAL

* Cuisine

* Education

* University of Gibraltar
Gibraltar

* Miss Gibraltar
Gibraltar

* Music

* Llévame Donde Nací

* National Day

DEMOGRAPHICS

* Gibraltarians
Gibraltarians

* list * in the UK

* Gibraltarian status

* Languages

* English * Llanito
Llanito

RELIGION

CHRISTIANITY

* Anglicanism

* Diocese in Europe * Bishop diocesan * Bishop suffragan * Cathedral of the Holy Trinity

* St. Andrew\'s Church (Church of Scotland) * Methodism

* Roman Catholicism

* Diocese * Bishop * Cathedral of St. Mary the Crowned
Cathedral of St. Mary the Crowned
* Our Lady of Europe
Our Lady of Europe
* Shrine of Our Lady of Europe
Our Lady of Europe

* Trafalgar Cemetery

OTHER FAITHS

* Hinduism

* Islam

* Ibrahim-al-Ibrahim Mosque

* Judaism

* Great Synagogue

SPORT

BY SPORT

* Basketball

* Cricket

* national team

* Cycling

* Football

* Football Association * national team

* Petanque

* Rugby union

* Campo Gibraltar
Gibraltar
RUFC

* Commonwealth Games * Island Games * Records in athletics * Victoria Stadium

SYMBOLS

* Anthem * Coat of arms

* Official flag

* other flags

* CATEGORY * COMMONS * PORTAL * WIKIPROJECT

* v * t * e

Ceuta
Ceuta

ARCHITECTURE

* Anyera * Arab Baths * Bienes de interés cultural in Ceuta
Ceuta
* Casa de los Dragones * Cathedral of St Mary of the Assumption * Ceuta
Ceuta
border fence * Ceuta
Ceuta
Heliport * Church of San Francisco * Shrine of Our Lady of Africa * Ermita de San Antonio * Estadio Alfonso Murube * Hotel Tryp Ceuta
Ceuta
* Lighthouse of Punta Almina * Military Museum of the Legion * Monumento del Llano Amarillo * Mosque of Muley El Mehdi * Palace of Assembly of Ceuta
Ceuta
* Parque Marítimo del Mediterráneo * Plaza de África * Royal Walls of Ceuta
Ceuta
* Marinid Walls of Ceuta
Ceuta

GEOGRAPHY

* Bay of Ceuta
Ceuta
* Benzú
Benzú
* Isla de Santa Catalina * Monte Hacho
Monte Hacho
* Peninsula of Almina * Perejil Island * Pillars of Hercules * Playa Benítez * Playa Calamocarro * Playa del Chorillo * Playa El Desnarigado * Playa El Tarajal * Playa Miramar * Playa de la Ribera * Playa del Sarchal * Playa San Amaro * Playa Tramaguera * Port of Ceuta
Ceuta
* Príncipe * Punta Blanca * Tingitana Peninsula * Valla de Ceuta
Ceuta

HISTORY

* Roman Ceuta
Ceuta
* Banu Isam * Battle of Ceuta
Ceuta
* Daniel and Companions * Julian, Count of Ceuta
Ceuta
* Kingdom of the Algarve * Roman Catholic Diocese of Ceuta
Ceuta
* Siege of Ceuta
Ceuta
(1419) * Sieges of Ceuta
Ceuta
(1694–1727) * Taifa of Ceuta
Ceuta
* Treaty of Lisbon (1668) * Vidal Marín del Campo

POLITICS

* 2007 Morocco–Spain diplomatic conflict
2007 Morocco–Spain diplomatic conflict
* Caballas Coalition * Ceuta
Ceuta
(Spanish Congress Electoral District) * Ceutan Democratic Union * Movement for Dignity and Citizenship * Elections to the Ceuta
Ceuta
Assembly, 2011 * List of governors of Ceuta
Ceuta
* Mayor-President of Ceuta
Ceuta
* Statute of Autonomy of Ceuta
Ceuta
* Democratic and Social Party of Ceuta
Ceuta
* Socialist Party of the People of Ceuta
Ceuta
* Union of Muslims of Ceuta
Ceuta

SPORT

* AD Ceuta
Ceuta
* AD Ceuta
Ceuta
FC * AgD Ceuta
Ceuta
* Ceuta
Ceuta
Football Federation * Ceuta-Melilla derby * Divisiones Regionales de Fútbol in Ceuta
Ceuta
and Melilla * Estadio Alfonso Murube

OTHER

* Africa Star
Africa Star
* Coat of arms of Ceuta
Ceuta
* Flag of Ceuta
Ceuta
* Haketia
Haketia
* Medalla de la Autonomía de Ceuta
Ceuta
* Radio Televisión Ceuta
Ceuta
* Victimes de nos richesses

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