HOME
The Info List - Pig


--- Advertisement ---



A pig is any of the animals in the genus Sus, within the even-toed ungulate family Suidae. Pigs include the domestic pig and its ancestor, the common Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa), along with other species. Related creatures outside the genus include the peccary, the babirusa, and the warthog. Pigs, like all suids, are native to the Eurasian and African continents. Juvenile pigs are known as piglets.[1] Pigs are highly social and intelligent animals.[2] With around 1 billion individuals alive at any time, the domestic pig is among the most populous large mammals in the world.[3][4] Pigs are omnivores and can consume a wide range of food.[5] Biologically, pigs are very similar to humans, thus are frequently used for human medical research.[6]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Description and behaviour 3 Distribution and evolution 4 Habitat and reproduction 5 Diet and foraging 6 Relationship with humans

6.1 Use in human healthcare

7 Species 8 Domestic pigs 9 Cultural and religious reference to pigs

9.1 In folklore, folkways, and mythology 9.2 In religion

10 Environmental impacts 11 Health issues 12 See also 13 References 14 External links

Etymology The Online Etymology Dictionary
Online Etymology Dictionary
provides anecdotal evidence as well as linguistic, saying that the term derives

probably from Old English *picg, found in compounds, ultimate origin unknown. Originally "young pig" (the word for adults was swine). Apparently related to Low German
Low German
bigge, Dutch big ("but the phonology is difficult" -- OED). ... Another Old English word for "pig" was fearh, related to furh "furrow," from PIE *perk- "dig, furrow" (source also of Latin
Latin
porc-us "pig," see pork). "This reflects a widespread IE tendency to name animals from typical attributes or activities" [Roger Lass]. Synonyms grunter, oinker are from sailors' and fishermen's euphemistic avoidance of uttering the word pig at sea, a superstition perhaps based on the fate of the Gadarene swine, who drowned.[7]

The Online Etymology Dictionary
Online Etymology Dictionary
also traces the evolution of sow, the term for a female pig, through various historical languages:

Old English sugu, su "female of the swine," from Proto-Germanic *su- (cognates: Old Saxon, Old High German
Old High German
su, German Sau, Dutch zeug, Old Norse syr), from PIE root *su- (cognates: Sanskrit
Sanskrit
sukarah "wild boar, swine;" Avestan
Avestan
hu "wild boar;" Greek hys "swine;" Latin
Latin
sus "swine", suinus "pertaining to swine"; Old Church Slavonic
Old Church Slavonic
svinija "swine;" Lettish sivens "young pig;" Welsh hucc, Irish suig "swine; Old Irish socc "snout, plowshare"), possibly imitative of pig noise; note that Sanskrit
Sanskrit
sukharah means "maker of (the sound) su.[7]

It is entirely likely that the word to call pigs, "soo-ie," is similarly derived. Description and behaviour

Skull of domestic pig. ( Sus scrofa
Sus scrofa
domesticus).

A typical pig has a large head with a long snout that is strengthened by a special prenasal bone and by a disk of cartilage at the tip.[8] The snout is used to dig into the soil to find food and is a very acute sense organ. There are four hoofed toes on each foot, with the two larger central toes bearing most of the weight, but the outer two also being used in soft ground.[9] The dental formula of adult pigs is 3.1.4.33.1.4.3, giving a total of 44 teeth. The rear teeth are adapted for crushing. In the male, the canine teeth form tusks, which grow continuously and are sharpened by constantly being ground against each other.[8] Occasionally, captive mother pigs may savage their own piglets, often if they become severely stressed.[10] Some attacks on newborn piglets are non-fatal. Others may cause the death of the piglets and sometimes, the mother may eat the piglets. It is estimated that 50% of piglet fatalities are due to the mother attacking, or unintentionally crushing, the newborn pre-weaned animals.[11] Distribution and evolution

With around 1 billion individuals alive at any time, the domestic pig is one of the most numerous large mammals on the planet.[3][4] The ancestor of the domestic pig is the wild boar, which is one of the most numerous and widespread large mammals. Its many subspecies are native to all but the harshest climates of continental Eurasia
Eurasia
and its islands and Africa
Africa
as well, from Ireland and India to Japan and north to Siberia. Long isolated from other pigs on the many islands of Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines, pigs have evolved into many different species, including wild boar, bearded pigs, and warty pigs. Humans have introduced pigs into Australia, North and South America, and numerous islands, either accidentally as escaped domestic pigs which have gone feral, or as wild boar. Habitat and reproduction The wild pig (Sus scrofa) can take advantage of any forage resources. Therefore, it can live in virtually any productive habitat that can provide enough water to sustain large mammals such as pigs. If there is increased foraging of wild pigs in certain areas, it can cause a nutritional shortage which can cause the pig population to decrease. If the nutritional state returns to normal, the pig population will most likely rise due to the pigs' naturally increased reproduction rate.[12] Diet and foraging Pigs are omnivores, which means that they consume both plants and animals. In the wild, they are foraging animals, primarily eating leaves, roots, fruits, and flowers, in addition to some insects and fish. As livestock, pigs are fed mostly corn and soybean meal[13] with a mixture of vitamins and minerals added to the diet. Traditionally, they were raised on dairy farms and called "mortgage lifters", due to their ability to use the excess milk as well as whey from cheese and butter making combined with pasture.[14] Older pigs will consume three to five gallons of water per day.[15] When kept as pets, the optimal healthy diet consists mainly of a balanced diet of raw vegetables, although some may give their pigs conventional mini pig pellet feed.[16] Relationship with humans

A pig trained to find truffles.

Domesticated pigs, especially miniature breeds, are commonly kept as pets,[17] and are known to be one of the most intelligent domesticated animal species in the world.[18][better source needed] Domestic pigs are raised commercially as livestock; materials that are garnered include their meat (known as pork), leather, and their bristly hairs which are used to make brushes. Because of their foraging abilities and excellent sense of smell, they are used to find truffles in many European countries. Both wild and feral pigs are commonly hunted. The relatively short, stiff, coarse hairs of the pig are called bristles, and were once so commonly used in paintbrushes that in 1946 the Australian Government launched Operation Pig
Pig
Bristle. In May 1946, in response to a shortage of pig bristles for paintbrushes to paint houses in the post-World War II construction boom, the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) flew in 28 short tons of pig bristles from China, their only commercially available source at the time.[19] Use in human healthcare Main article: Domestic pig
Domestic pig
§ In human healthcare Human skin is very similar to pig skin, therefore pig skin has been used in many preclinical studies.[20][21] In addition to providing use in biomedical research[22][20][21] and for drug testing,[23] genetic advances in human healthcare have provided a pathway for domestic pigs to become xenotransplantation candidates for humans.[24] Species

Pig
Pig
'oink'

Oink!

Problems playing this file? See media help.

Bearded pigs (Sus barbatus)

Skeleton of foot.

The genus Sus is currently thought to contain eight living species. A number of extinct species (†) are known from fossils.

Sus ahoenobarbus
Sus ahoenobarbus
Huet, 1888 – Palawan bearded pig †Sus australis Han, 1987 – Early Pleistocene of China Sus barbatus
Sus barbatus
Müller, 1838 – Bornean bearded pig †Sus bijiashanensis Han et al., 1975 – Early Pleistocene of China † Sus bucculentus
Sus bucculentus
Heude, 1892 – Heude's pig
Heude's pig
or Indo-Chinese (or Vietnam) warty pig Sus cebifrons
Sus cebifrons
Heude, 1888 – Visayan warty pig Sus celebensis
Sus celebensis
Müller & Schlegel, 1843 – Celebes warty pig
Celebes warty pig
or Sulawesi warty pig †Sus falconeri – Pleistocene
Pleistocene
of the Siwalik region, India †Sus houi Qi et al., 1999 – Pleistocene
Pleistocene
of China †Sus hysudricus[citation needed] †Sus jiaoshanensis Zhao, 1980 – Early Pleistocene of China †Sus liuchengensis Han, 1987 – Early Pleistocene of China †Sus lydekkeri Zdansky, 1928 – Pleistocene
Pleistocene
of China †Sus offecinalis Koenigswald, 1933 – China Sus oliveri
Sus oliveri
Groves, 1997 – Oliver's warty pig
Oliver's warty pig
or Mindoro warty pig †Sus peii Han, 1987 – Early Pleistocene of China Sus philippensis
Sus philippensis
Nehring, 1886 – Philippine warty pig Sus scrofa
Sus scrofa
Wild boar
Wild boar
Linnaeus, 1758

Sus scrofa
Sus scrofa
domestica Erxleben, 1777 – Domestic pig
Domestic pig
(sometimes treated as a full species)

†Sus subtriquetra Xue, 1981 † Sus strozzi
Sus strozzi
Forsyth Major, 1881 - Pliocene and Early Pleistocene of Europe Sus verrucosus
Sus verrucosus
Boie, 1832 – Javan warty pig †Sus xiaozhu Han et al., 1975 – Early Pleistocene of China

The pygmy hog, formerly Sus salvanius is now placed in the monotypic genus Porcula.[25] Domestic pigs

Swedish pig farmer with piglet. Early 20th century

Green glazed toilet with pigsty model. China, Eastern Han dynasty 25–220 CE

Main article: Domestic pig Pigs have been domesticated since ancient times in the Old World. Archaeological evidence suggests that pigs were being managed in the wild in a way similar to the way they are managed by some modern New Guineans from wild boar as early as 13,000–12,700 BP in the Near East in the Tigris Basin,[26] Çayönü, Cafer Höyük, Nevalı Çori.[27] Remains of pigs have been dated to earlier than 11,400 BP in Cyprus that must have been introduced from the mainland which suggests domestication in the adjacent mainland by then.[28] A separate domestication also occurred in China.[29] In India, pigs have been domesticated for a long time mostly in Goa and some rural areas for pig toilets. This was also done in China. Though ecologically logical as well as economical, pig toilets are waning in popularity as use of septic tanks and/or sewerage systems is increasing in rural areas. Pigs were brought to southeastern North America from Europe by Hernando de Soto
Hernando de Soto
and other early Spanish explorers. Pigs are particularly valued in China and on certain oceanic islands, where their self-sufficiency allows them to be turned loose, although the practice is not without its drawbacks (see environmental impact). The domestic pig ( Sus scrofa
Sus scrofa
domesticus) is usually given the scientific name Sus scrofa, although some taxonomists call it S. domesticus, reserving S. scrofa for the wild boar. It was domesticated approximately 5,000 to 7,000 years ago. The upper canines form sharp distinctive tusks that curve outward and upward. Compared to other artiodactyles, their head is relatively long, pointed, and free of warts. Their head and body length ranges from 0.9 to 1.8 m (35 to 71 in) and they can weigh between 50 and 350 kg (110 and 770 lb). In November 2012, scientists managed to sequence the genome of the domestic pig. The similarities between the pig and human genomes mean that the new data may have wide applications in the study and treatment of human genetic diseases.[30][31] In August 2015, a study looked at over 100 pig genome sequences to ascertain their process of domestication. The process of domestication was assumed to have been initiated by humans, involved few individuals and relied on reproductive isolation between wild and domestic forms. The study found that the assumption of reproductive isolation with population bottlenecks was not supported. The study indicated that pigs were domesticated separately in Western Asia and China, with Western Asian pigs introduced into Europe where they crossed with wild boar. A model that fitted the data included admixture with a now extinct ghost population of wild pigs during the Pleistocene. The study also found that despite back-crossing with wild pigs, the genomes of domestic pigs have strong signatures of selection at DNA loci that affect behavior and morphology. The study concluded that human selection for domestic traits likely counteracted the homogenizing effect of gene flow from wild boars and created domestication islands in the genome. The same process may also apply to other domesticated animals.[32] [33] Cultural and religious reference to pigs See also: Pigs in popular culture Pigs appear in the traditional and popular arts, media, and cultures of many societies, where they sometimes carry religious symbolism. In Asia the wild boar is one of 12 animal images comprising the Chinese zodiac, while in Europe the boar represents a standard charge in heraldry. In Islam
Islam
and Judaism
Judaism
pigs and those who handle them are viewed negatively, and the consumption of pork is forbidden. Pigs are frequently alluded to in folk art, idioms, metaphors, and proverbs, and also occasionally in parables (e.g. Parable
Parable
of the Prodigal Son). In folklore, folkways, and mythology

Pig
Pig
at a German new year event, 1965.

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (February 2010) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

In European folklore, there is a widespread belief that pigs are intensely frightened by mirrors.[citation needed] In many European countries, a feast has formed around slaughtering a pig. In Germany, pigs are known as a symbol for good luck. Marzipan pigs are a popular confectionery, especially as a gift on New Year's Eve. Superstitious sailors consider pigs to be unlucky because they have cloven hooves like the Devil and are terrified of water.[34] Pigs would not be carried on boats. Fishermen once regarded pigs as harbingers of bad luck: a fisherman seeing a pig on his way to work would rather turn round and go home. This even extended to a prohibition of the word "pig" on board a vessel. This is why the animals were referred to, across North East England, as "gissies".

In religion

In ancient Egypt, pigs were associated with Set, the rival to the sun god Horus. When Set fell into disfavor with the Egyptians, swineherds were forbidden to enter temples. According to Herodotus, swineherds were a kind of separate sect or caste, which only married among themselves. Egyptians regarded pigs as unworthy sacrifices to their gods other than the Moon and Dionysus, to whom pigs were offered on the day of the full Moon. Herodotus
Herodotus
states that, though he knew the reason why Egyptians abominated swine at their other feasts but they sacrificed them at this one; however, it was to him "not a seemly one for me to tell".[35] In ancient Greece, a sow was an appropriate sacrifice to Demeter
Demeter
and had been her favorite animal since archaic times. Initiates at the Eleusinian Mysteries
Eleusinian Mysteries
began by sacrificing a pig. Pig
Pig
were also sacrificed to Aphrodite. The ancient Romans practiced a sacrifice called the suovetaurilia, in which a pig, a ram, and a bull were sacrificed, as one of the most solemn acts of the Roman religion. In Buddhism
Buddhism
the deity Marici is often depicted riding in a carriage hauled by several pigs. The Celts had a god of swine called Moccus, who under Roman occupation was identified with Mercury. In Celtic mythology, a cauldron overflowing with cooked pork was one of the attributes of The Dagda. In the Chinese zodiac, the Pig
Pig
is one of the 12-year cycle of animals. Believers in Chinese astrology
Chinese astrology
associate each animal with certain personality traits (see: Pig
Pig
(zodiac)). In Christianity the book of Mark, in an event referred to as the exorcism of the Gerasene demoniac Jesus casts the demons Legion (demon) possessing a swine herder from Gerasene; into 2000 of the swine herders pigs.[36] In Haitian Vodou, Ezili Dantor, the lwa of motherhood, is associated with the black Creole Pig
Creole Pig
of Haiti, her favorite animal sacrifice. In Hinduism
Hinduism
the god Vishnu
Vishnu
took the form of a four-armed humanoid with the head of a boar named Varaha
Varaha
in order to save the Earth from a demon who had dragged it to the bottom of the sea. In Islam
Islam
the eating of pork is also sinful (see Haraam). The Qur'an prohibits the consumption of pork in no less than 4 different places. It is prohibited in 2:173, 5:3, 6:145 and 16:115. "Forbidden to you (for food) are: dead meat, blood, the flesh of swine, and that on which hath been invoked the name of other than Allah." [Al-Qur'an 5:3] Islam
Islam
treats pigs as inedible animals par excellence, the animal that is central to the concepts of haram. The dietary laws of Judaism
Judaism
(Kashrut) forbid, among other kinds of meat, the eating of pork in any form, considering the pig to be an unclean animal as food (see taboo food and drink). Pork
Pork
is as forbidden as the meat of any other unclean animal, but probably due to extensive use of pork in modern days, abhorrence of pork is far stronger and emotional in traditional Jewish culture than that of other forbidden foods. Many Ancient Jews also held the prohibition on pigs above other taboos. In De Specialibus Legibus, Philo of Alexandria, a first-century Jewish writer, relates that pigs were lazy scavengers, the embodiment of vice. Philo also argued that since pigs will eat the flesh of human corpses, that men should abstain from eating them so as not to be contaminated.[37] In Nordic Mythology, "Gold-Bristle" or "Gold-Mane" was Freyr's golden boar, created by the dwarves Brokk and Sindri as part of a challenge. His shining fur is said to fill the sky, trees, and sea with light. Among Seventh-day Adventists and some other denominations[who?], the eating of pork is prohibited. Most Christians believe that the eating of pork is not prohibited, according to the teachings of the New Testament. In Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, and other, older Christian groups, pigs are associated with Saint Anthony the Great, who is known as the patron saint of swineherds.

Environmental impacts Main article: Environmental impacts of pig farming Domestic pigs that have escaped from urban areas or were allowed to forage in the wild, and in some cases wild boars which were introduced as prey for hunting, have given rise to large populations of feral pigs in North and South America, Australia, New Zealand, Hawaii, and other areas where pigs are not native. Accidental or deliberate releases of pigs into countries or environments where they are an alien species have caused extensive environmental change. Their omnivorous diet, aggressive behaviour, and their feeding method of rooting in the ground all combine to severely alter ecosystems unused to pigs. Pigs will even eat small animals and destroy nests of ground nesting birds.[8] The Invasive Species Specialist Group lists feral pigs on the list of the world's 100 worst invasive species and says:[38]

Feral
Feral
pigs (razorbacks) in Florida

Feral
Feral
pigs like other introduced mammals are major drivers of extinction and ecosystem change. They have been introduced into many parts of the world, and will damage crops and home gardens as well as potentially spreading disease. They uproot large areas of land, eliminating native vegetation and spreading weeds. This results in habitat alteration, a change in plant succession and composition and a decrease in native fauna dependent on the original habitat.

Health issues See also: Swine influenza Because of the biological similarities between each other, pigs can harbour a range of parasites and diseases that can be transmitted to humans. These include trichinosis, Taenia solium, cysticercosis, and brucellosis. Pigs are also known to host large concentrations of parasitic ascarid worms in their digestive tract.[39] Some strains of influenza are endemic in pigs. Pigs also can acquire human influenza.[further explanation needed] See also

Animals portal Mammals portal

Wild boar Domestic pig Miniature pig Peccary
Peccary
(domestication) Truffle
Truffle
hog Pot-bellied pig Babirusa Red river hog Bushpig Fetal pig Hog-baiting List of fictional pigs List of pigs Pig
Pig
Olympics Enviropig Pig
Pig
Beach

References

^ "Piglet - Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary". Merriam-webster.com. 31 August 2012. Retrieved 15 September 2013.  ^ Angier, Natalie (10 November 2009). "Pigs Prove to Be Smart, if Not Vain". The New York Times.  ^ a b "PSD Online - Custom Query". usda.gov.  ^ a b Swine Summary Selected Countries Archived 2012-03-29 at the Wayback Machine., United States Department of Agriculture, Foreign Agricultural Service, (total number is Production ( Pig
Pig
Crop) plus Total Beginning Stocks) ^ " Pig
Pig
And Human Digestive System". prezi.com. Retrieved 15 April 2016.  ^ Loren Grush. "Why pigs are so valuable for medical research". Fox News. Retrieved 15 April 2016.  ^ a b Harper, Daniel (n.d.). "Sow". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved December 4, 2015.  ^ a b c "ADW: Sus scrofa: INFORMATION". Animal
Animal
Diversity Web.  ^ Kim Lockhart. "American Wild Game / Feral
Feral
Pigs / Hogs / Pigs / Wild Boar:". gunnersden.com.  ^ Harris, M., Bergeron, R., Li1, Y. and Gonyou, H. (2001). "Savaging of piglets: A puzzle of maternal behaviour" (PDF). Retrieved July 31, 2013. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) [permanent dead link] ^ North Carolina Pork
Pork
Conference Archived 2007-08-20 at the Wayback Machine. – Management Tips to Reduce Pre-Weaning Mortality. 2002. North Carolina State University. ^ John J. Mayer and I. Lehr Brisbin, Jr., "Wild Pigs Biology, Damage, Control Techniques and Management", Savannah River National Laboratory Aiken, South Carolina, 2009 ^ "Diet and Nutrition on Modern Pig
Pig
Farms - Pork
Pork
Cares". Pork
Pork
Cares. Retrieved 2017-10-17.  ^ "farmdoc - Marketing&Outlook: WILL HOGS RECLAIM "MORTGAGE LIFTER" STATUS?". illinois.edu.  ^ "How Much Water Do Pigs Need?". ncsu.edu.  ^ http://americanminipigassociation.com/mini-pig-education/mini-pig-nutrition/ Mini Pig
Pig
Nutrition ^ http://americanminipigassociation.com American Mini Pig
Pig
Association ^ https://healthypets.mercola.com/sites/healthypets/archive/2015/08/22/10-most-intelligent-animals.aspx 10 Most Smartest Animals in the World ^ "29 May 1946 - PIG BRISTLES FOR PAINT BRUSHES - Trove". Trove. Retrieved 15 April 2016.  ^ a b Herron, Alan J. (5 December 2009). "Pigs as Dermatologic Models of Human Skin Disease" (PDF). ivis.org. DVM Center for Comparative Medicine and Department of Pathology Baylor College of Medicine Houston, Texas. Retrieved 27 January 2018. pig skin has been shown to be the most similar to human skin. Pig
Pig
skin is structurally similar to human epidermal thickness and dermal-epidermal thickness ratios. Pigs and humans have similar hair follicle and blood vessel patterns in the skin. Biochemically pigs contain dermal collagen and elastic content that is more similar to humans than other laboratory animals. Finally pigs have similar physical and molecular responses to various growth factors.  ^ a b Liu, J., Kim, D., Brown, L., Madsen, T., Bouchard, G. F. "Comparison of Human, Porcine and Rodent Wound Healing With New Miniature Swine Study Data" (PDF). sinclairresearch.com. Sinclair Research Centre, Auxvasse, MO, USA; Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory, Columbia, MO, USA. Retrieved 27 January 2018. Pig
Pig
skin is anatomically, physiologically, biochemically and immunologically similar to human skin CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ "British MoD surgeons practise operations on drugged pigs which are strung-up and shot by marksmen to simulate warzone first aid". Daily Mail.  ^ "Swine as Models in Biomedical Research and Toxicology Testing". Sage Journal.  ^ " Pig
Pig
to Human transplants". The Guardian.  ^ Funk, Stephan M.; Kumar Verma, Sunil; Larson, Greger; Prasad, Kasturi; Singh, Lalji; Narayan, Goutam; Fa, John E. (2007). "The pygmy hog is a unique genus: 19th century taxonomists got it right first time round". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 45 (2): 427–436. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2007.08.007. PMID 17905601.  ^ Rosenberg, M; Nesbitt, R; Redding, RW; Peasnall, BL (1998). "Hallan Cemi, pig husbandry, and post- Pleistocene
Pleistocene
adaptations along the Taurus-Zagros Arc (Turkey)"". Paleorient. 24 (1): 25–41.  ^ "our data suggest a narrative that begins with the domestication of pigs in Southwest Asia, at Upper Tigris sites including Çayönü Tepesi (Ervynck et al. 2001) and possibly Upper Euphrates sites including Cafer Höyük
Cafer Höyük
(Helmer 2008) and Nevali Çori (Peters et al. 2005); from google ( Çayönü
Çayönü
pig ancestor) result 2; ' Çayönü
Çayönü
Tepesi' in wiki (Cattle)".  ^ Vigne, JD; Zazzo, A; Saliège, JF; Poplin, F; Guilaine, J; Simmons, A (2009). "Pre-Neolithic wild boar management and introduction to Cyprus more than 11,400 years ago". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 106 (38): 16135–16138. Bibcode:2009PNAS..10616135V. doi:10.1073/pnas.0905015106. PMC 2752532 . PMID 19706455.  ^ Giuffra, E; Kijas, J. M.; Amarger, V; Carlborg, O; Jeon, J. T.; Andersson, L (April 2000). "The origin of the domestic pig: independent domestication and subsequent introgression". Genetics. 154 (4): 1785–91. PMC 1461048 . PMID 10747069.  ^ (Medical Daily) (Business Standard) ^ Groenen, Martien A. M.; Archibald, Alan L.; Uenishi, Hirohide; Tuggle, Christopher K.; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Rothschild, Max F.; Rogel-Gaillard, Claire; Park, Chankyu; Milan, Denis; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Li, Shengting; Larkin, Denis M.; Kim, Heebal; Frantz, Laurent A. F.; Caccamo, Mario; Ahn, Hyeonju; Aken, Bronwen L.; Anselmo, Anna; Anthon, Christian; Auvil, Loretta; Badaoui, Bouabid; Beattie, Craig W.; Bendixen, Christian; Berman, Daniel; Blecha, Frank; Blomberg, Jonas; Bolund, Lars; Bosse, Mirte; Botti, Sara; et al. (2012). "Analyses of pig genomes provide insight into porcine demography and evolution". Nature. 491 (7424): 393–8. Bibcode:2012Natur.491..393G. doi:10.1038/nature11622. PMC 3566564 . PMID 23151582.  ^ Frantz, L (2015). "Evidence of long-term gene flow and selection during domestication from analyses of Eurasian wild and domestic pig genomes". Nat. Genet. 47: 1141–8. doi:10.1038/ng.3394. PMID 26323058.  ^ Pennisi, E (2015). "The taming of the pig took some wild turns". Science. doi:10.1126/science.aad1692.  ^ Eyers, Jonathan (2011). Don't Shoot the Albatross!: Nautical Myths and Superstitions. London, UK: A&C Black. ISBN 978-1-4081-3131-2.  ^ Sacrifice
Sacrifice
Goats, female or male. ^ Mark 5:1-20 ^ Philo of Alexandria, De specialibus legibus, lib. 4, ch. 17-18 ^ "issg Database: Ecology of Sus scrofa". issg.org.  ^ " Pig
Pig
Health". The Pig
Pig
Site. 

External links

Find more aboutPigat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons Quotations from Wikiquote Taxonomy from Wikispecies

Pig
Pig
genome resources Swine breeds, with pictures

v t e

Pigs

Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Class Mammalia Order Artiodactyla Suborder Suina Family Suidae Subfamily Suinae Genus
Genus
Sus

Domestic

Breeding Shows

Farming Intensive farming Sty Pannage Toilet Hog oiler Gestation crate Cross-fostering Swineherd

As food Bacon Ham Lard Pork Scalder Slaughter Suckling Blood Religious restrictions Scottish pork taboo

Cuts Back bacon Boston butt Fatback Ham
Ham
hock Pig's trotters Pork
Pork
belly Pork
Pork
chop Pork
Pork
jowl Loin Tenderloin Ribs Spare ribs Pork
Pork
rind Pork
Pork
steak Ear Tail

Other uses Bladder Racing War Wrestling Truffling

Wild and Feral

Wild boar

Heraldry Hunting

In the Philippines Razorback

Pigs in culture

Iron Age pig Flitch of bacon custom Miss Piggy

Pigs in Space

Porky Pig Piglet "The Three Little Pigs" Animal
Animal
Farm

Old Major Napoleon Snowball Squealer

Babe Babe: Pig
Pig
in the City Bad Piggies My Brother the Pig Charlotte's Web The Sheep-Pig Peppa Pig Super Pig Fair, then Partly Piggy Jakers! The Adventures of Piggley Winks Olivia (character TV series) Pink Floyd pigs Pinky and Perky Preston Pig Rasher Porco Rosso Spider-Ham Spider pig The Tale of Little Pig
Pig
Robinson The Tale of Pigling Bland "This Little Piggy" Huxley Pig Wibbly Pig Zhu Bajie

Other

List of pigs List of fictional pigs Piganino Pigasus (politics) "When pigs fly"

v t e

Extant Artiodactyla species

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Infraclass: Eutheria Superorder: Laurasiatheria

Suborder Ruminantia

Antilocapridae

Antilocapra

Pronghorn
Pronghorn
(A. americana)

Giraffidae

Okapia

Okapi
Okapi
(O. johnstoni)

Giraffa

Northern giraffe
Northern giraffe
(G. camelopardalis) Southern giraffe
Southern giraffe
(G. giraffa) Reticulated giraffe
Reticulated giraffe
(G. reticulata) Masai giraffe
Masai giraffe
(G. tippelskirchi)

Moschidae

Moschus

Anhui musk deer
Anhui musk deer
(M. anhuiensis) Dwarf musk deer
Dwarf musk deer
(M. berezovskii) Alpine musk deer
Alpine musk deer
(M. chrysogaster) Kashmir musk deer
Kashmir musk deer
(M. cupreus) Black musk deer
Black musk deer
(M. fuscus) Himalayan musk deer (M. leucogaster) Siberian musk deer
Siberian musk deer
(M. moschiferus)

Tragulidae

Hyemoschus

Water chevrotain
Water chevrotain
(H. aquaticus)

Moschiola

Indian spotted chevrotain
Indian spotted chevrotain
(M. indica) Yellow-striped chevrotain
Yellow-striped chevrotain
(M. kathygre) Sri Lankan spotted chevrotain
Sri Lankan spotted chevrotain
(M. meminna)

Tragulus

Java mouse-deer
Java mouse-deer
(T. javanicus) Lesser mouse-deer
Lesser mouse-deer
(T. kanchil) Greater mouse-deer
Greater mouse-deer
(T. napu) Philippine mouse-deer
Philippine mouse-deer
(T. nigricans) Vietnam mouse-deer
Vietnam mouse-deer
(T. versicolor) Williamson's mouse-deer
Williamson's mouse-deer
(T. williamsoni)

Cervidae

Large family listed below

Bovidae

Large family listed below

Family Cervidae

Cervinae

Muntiacus

Indian muntjac
Indian muntjac
(M. muntjak) Reeves's muntjac
Reeves's muntjac
(M. reevesi) Hairy-fronted muntjac
Hairy-fronted muntjac
(M. crinifrons) Fea's muntjac
Fea's muntjac
(M. feae) Bornean yellow muntjac
Bornean yellow muntjac
(M. atherodes) Roosevelt's muntjac
Roosevelt's muntjac
(M. rooseveltorum) Gongshan muntjac
Gongshan muntjac
(M. gongshanensis) Giant muntjac
Giant muntjac
(M. vuquangensis) Truong Son muntjac
Truong Son muntjac
(M. truongsonensis) Leaf muntjac
Leaf muntjac
(M. putaoensis) Sumatran muntjac
Sumatran muntjac
(M. montanus) Pu Hoat muntjac
Pu Hoat muntjac
(M. puhoatensis)

Elaphodus

Tufted deer
Tufted deer
(E. cephalophus)

Dama

Fallow deer
Fallow deer
(D. dama) Persian fallow deer
Persian fallow deer
(D. mesopotamica)

Axis

Chital
Chital
(A. axis)

Rucervus

Barasingha
Barasingha
(R. duvaucelii)

Panolia

Eld's deer
Eld's deer
(P. eldii)

Elaphurus

Père David's deer
Père David's deer
(E. davidianus)

Hyelaphus

Hog deer (H. porcinus) Calamian deer
Calamian deer
(H. calamianensis) Bawean deer
Bawean deer
(H. kuhlii)

Rusa

Sambar deer
Sambar deer
(R. unicolor) Rusa deer (R. timorensis) Philippine sambar (R. mariannus) Philippine spotted deer (R. alfredi)

Cervus

Red deer
Red deer
(C. elaphus) Elk
Elk
(C. canadensis) Thorold's deer
Thorold's deer
(C. albirostris) Sika deer
Sika deer
(C. nippon)

Capreolinae

Alces

Moose
Moose
(A. alces)

Hydropotes

Water deer
Water deer
(H. inermis)

Capreolus

Roe deer
Roe deer
(C. capreolus) Siberian roe deer
Siberian roe deer
(C. pygargus)

Rangifer

Reindeer
Reindeer
(R. tarandus)

Hippocamelus

Taruca
Taruca
(H. antisensis) South Andean deer
South Andean deer
(H. bisulcus)

Mazama

Red brocket
Red brocket
(M. americana) Small red brocket
Small red brocket
(M. bororo) Merida brocket
Merida brocket
(M. bricenii) Dwarf brocket
Dwarf brocket
(M. chunyi) Gray brocket
Gray brocket
(M. gouazoubira) Pygmy brocket
Pygmy brocket
(M. nana) Amazonian brown brocket
Amazonian brown brocket
(M. nemorivaga) Yucatan brown brocket
Yucatan brown brocket
(M. pandora) Little red brocket
Little red brocket
(M. rufina) Central American red brocket
Central American red brocket
(M. temama)

Ozotoceros

Pampas deer
Pampas deer
(O. bezoarticus)

Blastocerus

Marsh deer
Marsh deer
(B. dichotomus)

Pudu

Northern pudú (P. mephistophiles) Southern pudú (P. pudu)

Odocoileus

White-tailed deer
White-tailed deer
(O. virginianus) Mule deer
Mule deer
(O. hemionus)

Family Bovidae

Cephalophinae

Cephalophus

Abbott's duiker
Abbott's duiker
(C. spadix) Aders's duiker
Aders's duiker
(C. adersi) Bay duiker
Bay duiker
(C. dorsalis) Black duiker
Black duiker
(C. niger) Black-fronted duiker
Black-fronted duiker
(C. nigrifrons) Brooke's duiker (C. brookei) Harvey's duiker
Harvey's duiker
(C. harveyi) Jentink's duiker
Jentink's duiker
(C. jentinki) Ogilby's duiker
Ogilby's duiker
(C. ogilbyi) Peters's duiker (C. callipygus) Red-flanked duiker
Red-flanked duiker
(C. rufilatus) Red forest duiker
Red forest duiker
(C. natalensis) Ruwenzori duiker
Ruwenzori duiker
(C. rubidis) Weyns's duiker
Weyns's duiker
(C. weynsi) White-bellied duiker
White-bellied duiker
(C. leucogaster) White-legged duiker
White-legged duiker
(C. crusalbum) Yellow-backed duiker
Yellow-backed duiker
(C. Sylvicultor) Zebra duiker
Zebra duiker
(C. zebra)

Philantomba

Blue duiker
Blue duiker
(P. monticola) Maxwell's duiker
Maxwell's duiker
(P. maxwellii) Walter's duiker
Walter's duiker
(P. walteri)

Sylvicapra

Common duiker
Common duiker
(S. grimmia)

Hippotraginae

Hippotragus

Roan antelope
Roan antelope
(H. equinus) Sable antelope
Sable antelope
(H. niger)

Oryx

East African oryx
East African oryx
(O. beisa) Scimitar oryx
Scimitar oryx
(O. dammah) Gemsbok
Gemsbok
(O. gazella) Arabian oryx
Arabian oryx
(O. leucoryx)

Addax

Addax
Addax
(A. nasomaculatus)

Reduncinae

Kobus

Upemba lechwe
Upemba lechwe
(K. anselli) Waterbuck
Waterbuck
(K. ellipsiprymnus) Kob
Kob
(K. kob) Lechwe
Lechwe
(K. leche) Nile lechwe
Nile lechwe
(K. megaceros) Puku
Puku
(K. vardonii)

Redunca

Southern reedbuck
Southern reedbuck
(R. arundinum) Mountain reedbuck
Mountain reedbuck
(R. fulvorufula) Bohor reedbuck
Bohor reedbuck
(R. redunca)

Aepycerotinae

Aepyceros

Impala
Impala
(A. melampus)

Peleinae

Pelea

Grey rhebok
Grey rhebok
(P. capreolus)

Alcelaphinae

Beatragus

Hirola
Hirola
(B. hunteri)

Damaliscus

Topi
Topi
(D. korrigum) Common tsessebe
Common tsessebe
(D. lunatus) Bontebok
Bontebok
(D. pygargus) Bangweulu tsessebe
Bangweulu tsessebe
(D. superstes)

Alcelaphus

Hartebeest
Hartebeest
(A. buselaphus) Red hartebeest
Red hartebeest
(A. caama) Lichtenstein's hartebeest
Lichtenstein's hartebeest
(A. lichtensteinii)

Connochaetes

Black wildebeest
Black wildebeest
(C. gnou) Blue wildebeest
Blue wildebeest
(C. taurinus)

Pantholopinae

Pantholops

Tibetan antelope
Tibetan antelope
(P. hodgsonii)

Caprinae

Large subfamily listed below

Bovinae

Large subfamily listed below

Antilopinae

Large subfamily listed below

Family Bovidae
Bovidae
(subfamily Caprinae)

Ammotragus

Barbary sheep
Barbary sheep
(A. lervia)

Budorcas

Takin
Takin
(B. taxicolor)

Capra

Wild goat
Wild goat
(C. aegagrus) Domestic goat (C. aegagrus hircus) West Caucasian tur
West Caucasian tur
(C. caucasia) East Caucasian tur
East Caucasian tur
(C. cylindricornis) Markhor
Markhor
(C. falconeri) Alpine ibex
Alpine ibex
(C. ibex) Nubian ibex
Nubian ibex
(C. nubiana) Spanish ibex
Spanish ibex
(C. pyrenaica) Siberian ibex
Siberian ibex
(C. sibirica) Walia ibex
Walia ibex
(C. walie)

Capricornis

Japanese serow
Japanese serow
(C. crispus) Taiwan serow
Taiwan serow
(C. swinhoei) Sumatran serow
Sumatran serow
(C. sumatraensis) Mainland serow
Mainland serow
(C. milneedwardsii) Red serow
Red serow
(C. rubidusi) Himalayan serow
Himalayan serow
(C. thar)

Hemitragus

Nilgiri tahr
Nilgiri tahr
(H. hylocrius) Arabian tahr
Arabian tahr
(H. jayakari) Himalayan tahr
Himalayan tahr
(H. jemlahicus)

Naemorhedus

Red goral
Red goral
(N. baileyi) Long-tailed goral
Long-tailed goral
(N. caudatus) Himalayan goral
Himalayan goral
(N. goral) Chinese goral
Chinese goral
(N. griseus)

Oreamnos

Mountain goat
Mountain goat
(O. americanus)

Ovibos

Muskox
Muskox
(O. moschatus)

Ovis

Argali
Argali
(O. ammon) Domestic sheep (O. aries) Bighorn sheep
Bighorn sheep
(O. canadensis) Dall sheep
Dall sheep
(O. dalli) Mouflon
Mouflon
(O. musimon) Snow sheep
Snow sheep
(O. nivicola) Urial
Urial
(O. orientalis)

Pseudois

Bharal
Bharal
(P. nayaur) Dwarf blue sheep
Dwarf blue sheep
(P. schaeferi)

Rupicapra

Pyrenean chamois
Pyrenean chamois
(R. pyrenaica) Chamois
Chamois
(R. rupicapra)

Family Bovidae
Bovidae
(subfamily Bovinae)

Boselaphini

Tetracerus

Four-horned antelope
Four-horned antelope
(T. quadricornis)

Boselaphus

Nilgai
Nilgai
(B. tragocamelus)

Bovini

Bubalus

Water buffalo
Water buffalo
(B. bubalis) Wild Water Buffalo (B. arnee) Lowland anoa (B. depressicornis) Mountain anoa (B. quarlesi) Tamaraw
Tamaraw
(B. mindorensis)

Bos

Banteng
Banteng
(B. javanicus) Gaur
Gaur
(B. gaurus) Gayal
Gayal
(B. frontalis) Domestic yak
Domestic yak
(B. grunniens) Wild yak
Wild yak
(B. mutus) Cattle
Cattle
(B. taurus) Kouprey
Kouprey
(B. sauveli)

Pseudonovibos

Kting voar (P. spiralis)

Pseudoryx

Saola
Saola
(P. nghetinhensis)

Syncerus

African buffalo
African buffalo
(S. caffer)

Bison

American bison
American bison
(B. bison) European bison
European bison
(B. bonasus)

Tragelaphini

Tragelaphus (including kudus)

Sitatunga
Sitatunga
(T. spekeii) Nyala
Nyala
(T. angasii) Kéwel
Kéwel
(T. scriptus) Cape bushbuck
Cape bushbuck
(T. sylvaticus) Mountain nyala
Mountain nyala
(T. buxtoni) Lesser kudu
Lesser kudu
(T. imberbis) Greater kudu
Greater kudu
(T. strepsiceros) Bongo (T. eurycerus)

Taurotragus

Common eland
Common eland
(T. oryx) Giant eland
Giant eland
(T. derbianus)

Family Bovidae
Bovidae
(subfamily Antilopinae)

Antilopini

Ammodorcas

Dibatag
Dibatag
(A. clarkei)

Antidorcas

Springbok
Springbok
(A. marsupialis)

Antilope

Blackbuck
Blackbuck
(A. cervicapra)

Eudorcas

Mongalla gazelle
Mongalla gazelle
(E. albonotata) Red-fronted gazelle
Red-fronted gazelle
(E. rufifrons) Thomson's gazelle
Thomson's gazelle
(E. thomsonii) Heuglin's gazelle
Heuglin's gazelle
(E. tilonura)

Gazella

Mountain gazelle
Mountain gazelle
(G. gazella) Neumann's gazelle (G. erlangeri) Speke's gazelle
Speke's gazelle
(G. spekei) Dorcas gazelle
Dorcas gazelle
(G. dorcas) Chinkara
Chinkara
(G. bennettii) Cuvier's gazelle
Cuvier's gazelle
(G. cuvieri) Rhim gazelle
Rhim gazelle
(G. leptoceros) Goitered gazelle
Goitered gazelle
(G. subgutturosa)

Litocranius

Gerenuk
Gerenuk
(L. walleri)

Nanger

Dama gazelle
Dama gazelle
(N. dama) Grant's gazelle
Grant's gazelle
(N. granti) Soemmerring's gazelle
Soemmerring's gazelle
(N. soemmerringii)

Procapra

Mongolian gazelle
Mongolian gazelle
(P. gutturosa) Goa
Goa
(P. picticaudata) Przewalski's gazelle
Przewalski's gazelle
(P. przewalskii)

Saigini

Pantholops

Tibetan antelope
Tibetan antelope
(P. hodgsonii)

Saiga

Saiga antelope
Saiga antelope
(S. tatarica)

Neotragini

Dorcatragus

Beira (D. megalotis)

Madoqua

Günther's dik-dik
Günther's dik-dik
(M. guentheri) Kirk's dik-dik
Kirk's dik-dik
(M. kirkii) Silver dik-dik
Silver dik-dik
(M. piacentinii) Salt's dik-dik
Salt's dik-dik
(M. saltiana)

Neotragus

Bates's pygmy antelope
Bates's pygmy antelope
(N. batesi) Suni
Suni
(N. moschatus) Royal antelope
Royal antelope
(N. pygmaeus)

Oreotragus

Klipspringer
Klipspringer
(O. oreotragus)

Ourebia

Oribi
Oribi
(O. ourebi)

Raphicerus

Steenbok
Steenbok
(R. campestris) Cape grysbok
Cape grysbok
(R. melanotis) Sharpe's grysbok
Sharpe's grysbok
(R. sharpei)

Suborder Suina

Suidae

Babyrousa

Buru babirusa
Buru babirusa
(B. babyrussa) North Sulawesi babirusa
North Sulawesi babirusa
(B. celebensis) Togian babirusa
Togian babirusa
(B. togeanensis)

Hylochoerus

Giant forest hog
Giant forest hog
(H. meinertzhageni)

Phacochoerus

Desert warthog
Desert warthog
(P. aethiopicus) Common warthog
Common warthog
(P. africanus)

Porcula

Pygmy hog
Pygmy hog
(P. salvania)

Potamochoerus

Bushpig
Bushpig
(P. larvatus) Red river hog
Red river hog
(P. porcus)

Sus (Pigs)

Palawan bearded pig
Palawan bearded pig
(S. ahoenobarbus) Bornean bearded pig
Bornean bearded pig
(S. barbatus) Indo-chinese warty pig (S. bucculentus) Visayan warty pig
Visayan warty pig
(S. cebifrons) Celebes warty pig
Celebes warty pig
(S. celebensis) Flores warty pig (S. heureni) Oliver's warty pig
Oliver's warty pig
(S. oliveri) Philippine warty pig
Philippine warty pig
(S. philippensis) Wild boar
Wild boar
(S. scrofa) Timor warty pig (S. timoriensis) Javan warty pig
Javan warty pig
(S. verrucosus)

Tayassuidae

Tayassu

White-lipped peccary
White-lipped peccary
(T. pecari)

Catagonus

Chacoan peccary
Chacoan peccary
(C. wagneri)

Pecari

Collared peccary
Collared peccary
(P. tajacu) Giant peccary (P. maximus)

Suborder Tylopoda

Camelidae

Lama

Llama
Llama
(L. glama) Guanaco
Guanaco
(L. guanicoe)

Vicugna

Vicuña
Vicuña
(V. vicugna) Alpaca
Alpaca
(V. pacos)

Camelus

Dromedary
Dromedary
(C. dromedarius) Bactrian camel
Bactrian camel
(C. bactrianus) Wild Bactrian camel
Bactrian camel
(C. ferus)

Whippomorpha
Whippomorpha
(unranked clade)

Hippopotamidae

Hippopotamus

Hippopotamus
Hippopotamus
(H. amphibius)

Choeropsis

Pygmy hippopotamus
Pygmy hippopotamus
(C. liberiensis)

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q10798 ADW: Sus EoL: 42318 EPPO: 1SUXXG Fauna Europaea: 305278 Fossilworks: 42416 GBIF: 2441213 ITIS: 180721 MSW: 1

.