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Marshal Pietro Badoglio, 1st Duke of Addis Abeba, 1st Marquess of Sabotino (Italian pronunciation: [ˈpjɛːtro baˈdɔʎʎo]; 28 September 1871 – 1 November 1956), was an Italian general during both World Wars and a Prime Minister of Italy, as well as the first viceroy of Italian East Africa.

Contents

1 Early life and career 2 World War
World War
I 3 Italian Pacification of Libya 4 Italian invasion of Ethiopia 5 World War
World War
II 6 Final years 7 See also 8 Bibliography 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

Early life and career[edit] Main articles: First Italo-Ethiopian War
First Italo-Ethiopian War
and Italo-Turkish War Badoglio was born in 1871. His father, Mario Badoglio, was a modest landowner, and his mother, Antoinetta Pittarelli, was of wealthy bourgeois background. On October 5, 1888, he was admitted to the Royal Military Academy in Turin. He received the rank of Second Lieutenant in 1890. In 1892, he finished his studies and was promoted to Lieutenant. After completing his studies, he served with the Italian Army
Italian Army
from 1892, at first as a Lieutenant
Lieutenant
(Tenente) in artillery, taking part in the early Italian colonial wars in Eritrea
Eritrea
(1896), and in Libya (1912). World War
World War
I[edit] At the beginning of Italian participation in World War
World War
I, he was a Lieutenant
Lieutenant
Colonel (Tenente Colonnello); he rose to the rank of Major General following his handling of the capture of Monte Sabotino
Monte Sabotino
in May 1916 and by the late months of 1917, by now already a Lieutenant General, was named as Vice Chief-of-Staff (Sottocapo di Stato Maggiore) despite being one of those mainly responsible for the disaster during the Battle of Caporetto
Battle of Caporetto
on 24 October 1917. With regard to the Battle of Caporetto, although he was blamed in various quarters for his disposition of the forces under his command before the battle, a commission of inquiry rejected most of the criticisms made upon him.[1] In the years after World War
World War
I, in which he held several high posts in the Italian Army, Badoglio exerted a constant effort in modifying official documents in order to hide his role in the defeat.[2] Italian Pacification of Libya[edit] Main article: Pacification of Libya Post-war, Badoglio was named as a Senator, but also remained in the army with special assignments to Romania
Romania
and the U.S. in 1920 and 1921. At first, he opposed Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
and after 1922 was side-lined as ambassador to Brazil. A change of political heart soon returned him to Italy
Italy
and a senior role in the army as Chief of Staff from 4 May 1924. On 25 June 1926, Badoglio was promoted to the rank of Marshal of Italy
Marshal of Italy
(Maresciallo d'Italia). Badoglio was the first unique governor of Tripolitania
Tripolitania
and Cyrenaica[3] (later formed Italian Libya) from 1929 to 1933. During his governorship, he played a vital part (with Rodolfo Graziani, deputy governor of Cyrenaica) in defeating the Libyan rebels. On 20 June 1930, Badoglio wrote to General Graziani: "As for overall strategy, it is necessary to create a significant and clear separation between the controlled population and the rebel formations. I do not hide the significance and seriousness of this measure, which might be the ruin of the subdued population ... But now the course has been set, and we must carry it out to the end, even if the entire population of Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
must perish".[4] By 1931, well over half of the population of Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
were confined to 15 concentration camps where many died as result of overcrowding together with a lack of water, food and medicine while Badolglio had the Air Force use chemical warfare against the Bedouin rebels in the desert.[5] On 24 January 1932 (third anniversay of his appointment), Badoglio proclaimed the end of Libyan resistance for the first time since the Italian invasion in 1911. Italian invasion of Ethiopia[edit] Main article: Second Italo-Abyssinian War On 3 October 1935, because the progress of De Bono's invasion of Abyssinia was judged to be too slow by Mussolini, Badoglio, who had in the meantime launched an epistolary campaign against Emilio de Bono, replaced de Bono as the commander. Badoglio asked for and was given permission to use chemical warfare, using as a pretext the torture and murder of downed Italian pilot Tito Minniti during the Ethiopian "Christmas Offensive". He employed mustard gas to effectively destroy the Ethiopian armies confronting him on the northern front. Badoglio commanded the Italian invasion army at the First Battle of Tembien, the Battle of Amba Aradam, the Second Battle of Tembien, and the Battle of Shire. On 31 March 1936, Badoglio defeated Emperor Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
commanding the last Ethiopian army on the northern front at the Battle of Maychew. On 26 April, with no Ethiopian resistance left between his forces and Addis Ababa, Badoglio launched his "March of the Iron Will" to take the Ethiopian capital city and end the war. By 2 May, Haile Selassie had fled the country. On 5 May 1936, Marshal Badoglio led the victorious Italian troops into Addis Ababa. Mussolini declared King Victor Emmanuel to be the Emperor of Ethiopia, and Ethiopia became part of the Italian Empire. On this occasion, Badoglio was appointed the first Viceroy
Viceroy
and Governor General of Ethiopia and ennobled with the victory title of Duke of Addis Abeba ad personam. On 11 June 1936, Rodolfo Graziani
Rodolfo Graziani
replaced Badoglio as Viceroy
Viceroy
and Governor General
Governor General
of Ethiopia. Badoglio returned to his duties as the Supreme Chief of the Italian General Staff. According to Time magazine, Badoglio even joined the Fascist Party
Fascist Party
in early June.[6] World War
World War
II[edit]

Pietro Badoglio
Pietro Badoglio
during World War
World War
II.

Badoglio was Chief of Staff from 1925 to 1940, and it was he who had the final say on the entire structure of the Armed Forces, including doctrine, selection of officers, armaments, during that period, influencing the whole military environment. Badoglio was not in favour of the Italian-German Pact of Steel
Pact of Steel
and was pessimistic about the chances of Italian success in any European war but he did not oppose the decision of Mussolini and the King to declare war on France and Great Britain. Following the Italian army's poor performance in the invasion of Greece in December 1940, he resigned from the General Staff. Badoglio was replaced by Ugo Cavallero.[7] On 24 July 1943, as Italy
Italy
had suffered several setbacks following the Allied invasion of Sicily
Allied invasion of Sicily
in World War
World War
II, Mussolini summoned the Fascist Grand Council, which voted no confidence in Mussolini. The following day Il Duce was removed from government by King Victor Emmanuel III and arrested. On 3 September 1943, General Giuseppe Castellano signed the Italian armistice with the Allies in Cassibile on behalf of Badoglio, who was named Prime Minister of Italy. Wary of the potentially hostile German response to the Armistice, Badoglio hesitated to formally announce the treaty.[8] On 8 September 1943, the armistice document was published by the Allies in the Badoglio Proclamation, before Badoglio could communicate news of the switch to the Italian armed forces. The units of the Italian Royal Army, Royal Navy, and Royal Air Force were generally surprised by the switch and unprepared for German actions to disarm them. In the early hours of the following day, 9 September 1943, Badoglio, King Victor Emmanuel, some military ministers, and the Chief of the General Staff escaped to Pescara
Pescara
and Brindisi
Brindisi
seeking Allied protection.[2] On 23 September 1943, the longer version of the armistice was signed in Malta. On 13 October, Badoglio and the Kingdom of Italy
Kingdom of Italy
officially declared war on Nazi
Nazi
Germany. Badoglio continued to head the government for another nine months.[citation needed] On 9 June 1944, following the German rescue of Mussolini, the capture of Rome
Rome
by the allies, and increasingly strong opposition to his government, Badoglio was replaced by Ivanoe Bonomi
Ivanoe Bonomi
of the Labour Democratic Party.[citation needed] Final years[edit] Due to increased tensions with the Soviet Union, the British government saw Pietro Badoglio
Pietro Badoglio
as a guarantor of an anti-communist post-war Italy. Consequently, Badoglio was never tried for Italian war crimes committed in Africa.[9][10][11] Throughout his final years, Badoglio continued to defend his record, but the effort was considered largely futile.[clarification needed][citation needed] Badoglio died in Grazzano in 1956.[citation needed] See also[edit]

Royal Italian Army Royal Italian Army
Royal Italian Army
(1940–1946) Italian Co-Belligerent Army

Bibliography[edit]

Pietro Badoglio: Italy
Italy
in the Second World War, memories and documents. (Transl.: Muriel Currey). Oxford University Press, 1948. Repr. 1976, Greenwood Press: ISBN 0-8371-8485-1 Pietro Badoglio: The war in Abyssinia. (Foreword: Benito Mussolini). London, Methuen Publishers, 1937.

References[edit]

^  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1922). "Badoglio, Pietro". Encyclopædia Britannica (12th ed.). London & New York.  ^ a b Quirico, Domenico (2006). "I vinti". Generali. Mondadori.  ^ Giovanni Ameglio
Giovanni Ameglio
and Vincenzo Garioni were also unique governors of Tripolitania
Tripolitania
and Cyrenaica, but this seemed to be a temporary, not permanent, policy. ^ Grand, Alexander de "Mussolini's Follies: Fascism in Its Imperial and Racist Phase, 1935-1940" pages 127-147 from Contemporary European History, Volume 13, No. 2 May 2004 page 131. ^ Grand, Alexander de "Mussolini's Follies: Fascism in Its Imperial and Racist Phase, 1935-1940" pages 127-147 from Contemporary European History, Volume 13, No. 2 May 2004 page 131. ^ Time Magazine, Guard Changed ^ Dennis Mack Smith, 1983, Mussolini, London: Paladin, p 306 ^ Atkinson, Rick. "The Day of Battle:The War in Sicily and Italy, 1943-1944." (New York: Henry Holt and Co: 2007), pp 192-197. ^ Pedaliu, Effie G. H. (1 January 2004). "Britain and the 'Hand-over' of Italian War Criminals to Yugoslavia, 1945–48". Journal of Contemporary History. 39 (4): 503–529. JSTOR 4141408. Special Issue: Collective Memory.  ^ Conti, Davide (2011). "Criminali di guerra Italiani". Odradek Edizioni. Retrieved 2012-10-14.  ^ Di Sante, Costantino (2005) Italiani senza onore: I crimini in Jugoslavia e i processi negati (1941–1951), Ombre Corte, Milano. (Archived by WebCite®)

Further reading[edit]

Italian Defence Minister website official biography of Pietro Badoglio as Chief of the General Staff Armellini, Quirino, and Pietro Badoglio. Con Badoglio in Etiopia, Etc. 1937. OCLC 556812967 Bertoldi, Silvio. Badoglio. Milano: Rizzoli, 1982. OCLC 9862086 De Luna, Giovanni. Badoglio: Un Militaire al Potere. Milan: Bompiani, 1974. For English translation, see OCLC 883962565. Whittam, John. The Politics of the Italian Army, 1861–1918. London: Croom Helm, 1977. ISBN 0-208-01597-3 OCLC 2373034 Del Boca, Angelo. La guerra d'Etiopia. L'ultima impresa del colonialismo. Milan: Longanesi, 2010. ISBN 978-88304-2716-7.

External links[edit]

"Guard Changed". Time Magazine. June 22, 1936. Retrieved February 4, 2010. 

Military offices

Preceded by Armando Diaz Chief of Staff of the Italian Army 1919–1921 Succeeded by Giuseppe Vaccari

Position established Chief of the Defence Staff 1925–1940 Succeeded by Ugo Cavallero

Government offices

Preceded by Emilio De Bono as Commissary of Tripolitania Commissary of Tripolitania
Tripolitania
and Cirenaica 1929–1933 Succeeded by Italo Balbo as Governor of Libia

Preceded by Attilio Teruzzi as Commissary of Cyrenaica

Preceded by Emilio De Bono Commissary of Eritrea 1935–1936 Succeeded by Alfredo Guzzoni

Commissary of the Italian East Africa 1935–1936 Position abolished

Positions established Viceroy
Viceroy
of the Italian East Africa Viceroy
Viceroy
of Ethiopia 1936 Succeeded by Rodolfo Graziani

Preceded by Melchiade Gabba Minister of the Italian Africa 1944 Succeeded by Ivanoe Bonomi

Preceded by Raffaele Guariglia Minister of Foreign Affairs 1944

Academic offices

Preceded by Guglielmo Marconi President of the National Research Council 1937–1941 Succeeded by Giancarlo Vallauri

Political offices

Preceded by Benito Mussolini Head of the Fascist Grand Council 1943 Position abolished

Prime Minister of Italy 1943–1944 Succeeded by Ivanoe Bonomi

Italian nobility

New title Duke of Addis Abeba 1936–1956 Succeeded by Pietro Badoglio

v t e

Prime Ministers of Italy

Kingdom of Italy

Cavour Ricasoli Rattazzi Farini Minghetti La Marmora Ricasoli Rattazzi Menabrea Lanza Minghetti Depretis Cairoli Depretis Cairoli Depretis Crispi Starabba Giolitti Crispi Starabba Pelloux Saracco Zanardelli Giolitti Tittoni Fortis Sonnino Giolitti Sonnino Luzzatti Giolitti Salandra Boselli Orlando Nitti Giolitti Bonomi Facta Mussolini Badoglio Bonomi Parri De Gasperi

Italian Republic

De Gasperi Pella Fanfani Scelba Segni Zoli Fanfani Segni Tambroni Fanfani Leone Moro Leone Rumor Colombo Andreotti Rumor Moro Andreotti Cossiga Forlani Spadolini Fanfani Craxi Fanfani Goria De Mita Andreotti Amato Ciampi Berlusconi Dini Prodi D'Alema Amato Berlusconi Prodi Berlusconi Monti Letta Renzi Gentiloni

v t e

Italian Ministers of Foreign Affairs

Kingdom of Italy

Cavour Ricasoli Rattazzi Pasolini Visconti-Venosta La Marmora Visconti-Venosta Campello Menabrea Visconti-Venosta Melegari Depretis Corti Cairoli Depretis Cairoli Mancini Depretis Robilant Depretis Crispi Starabba di Rudinì Brin Blanc Caetani Capelli Canevaro Visconti-Venosta Prinetti Tittoni Paternò-Castello Guicciardini Tittoni Guicciardini Paternò-Castello Sonnino Tittoni Scialoja Sforza Tommasi della Torretta Schanzer Mussolini Grandi Mussolini Ciano Mussolini Guariglia Badoglio Bonomi De Gasperi

Italian Republic

De Gasperi Nenni Sforza De Gasperi Pella Piccioni Martino Pella Fanfani Pella Segni Fanfani Piccioni Saragat Moro Fanfani Moro Fanfani Medici Nenni Moro Medici Moro Rumor Forlani Malfatti Ruffini Colombo Andreotti De Michelis Scotti Colombo Andreatta Elia Martino Agnelli Dini Ruggiero Berlusconi Frattini Fini D'Alema Frattini Terzi di Sant'Agata Bonino Mogherini Gentiloni Alfano

v t e

List of Italian First Marshals and Marshals of Italy

First Marshal of the Empire (Primo Maresciallo dell'Impero)

King Victor Emmanuel III Benito Mussolini

Marshals (Maresciallo d'Italia)

Regio Esercito  

Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Prince Emanuele Filiberto, Duke of Aosta Pietro Badoglio Enrico Caviglia Gaetano Giardino Guglielmo Pecori Giraldi Emilio De Bono Rodolfo Graziani Ugo Cavallero Ettore Bastico Umberto, Prince of Piedmont Giovanni Messe

Grand Admiral (Grande Ammiraglio)

Regia Marina  

Paolo Thaon di Revel

Marshal of the Air Force (Maresciallo dell'Aria)

Regia Aeronautica  

Italo Balbo

v t e

Italian Governors of Tripolitania
Tripolitania
and Cyrenaica

Governors of Tripolitania (1911–1934)

Raffaele Borea Ricci D'Olmo Carlo Caneva Ottavio Ragni Vincenzo Garioni Giorgio Cigliana Luigi Druetti Giulio Cesare Tassoni Giovanni Ameglio Vincenzo Garioni Vittorio Menzinger Luigi Mercatelli Giuseppe Volpi Emilio De Bono Pietro Badogliotc

Governors of Cyrenaica (1912–1935)

Ottavio Briccola Giovanni Ameglio Vincenzo Garioni Giacomo De Martino Luigi Pintor Eduardo Baccari Luigi Bongiovanni Ernesto Mombelli Attilio Teruzzi Domenico Sicilianiv Rodolfo Grazianivh Guglielmo Nasivh

tc = G. of Tripolitania
Tripolitania
and Cyrenaica. v = Deputy of the G. of Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
(G. of Tripolitania). h = Honorary since 1-1-1934.

v t e

Italian Governors of Eritrea
Eritrea
and Somaliland

Governors of Eritrea (1890–1941)

Baldassarre Orerocm Antonio Gandolficm Oreste Baratiericm Antonio Baldissera Ferdinando Martini Giuseppe Salvago Raggi Giovanni Cerrina Feroni Giacomo De Martino Camillo De Camillis Ludovico Pollera Giovanni Cerrina Feroni Jacopo Gasparini Corrado Zoli Riccardo Di Lucchesi Ottone Gabelliv Emilio De Bono Pietro Badoglio Alfredo Guzzonip Vincenzo De Feop Giuseppe Daodicep Luigi Fruscip

Governors of Somaliland (1889–1941)

Vincenzo Filonardi Vacant (1893–1896) Vincenzo Filonardic Emilio Dulioc Giorgio Sorrentinoc Emilio Dulio Luigi Mercatellicg Giuseppe Salvago Raggicg Tommaso Carletticg Tommaso Carletti Giacomo De Martino Giovanni Cerrina Feroni Carlo Riveri Cesare Maria De Vecchi Guido Corni Maurizio Rava Rodolfo Graziani Angelo De Rubenp Ruggiero Santinip Francesco Saverio Carosellip Gustavo Pesentip Carlo De Simonep

cm=Commanders. c=Commissioners. cg=Commissioners-General. v=Vice-Governor. p=As a part of Italian East Africa

v t e

Ministers of the Italian Colonies

Ministers of the Colonies (1912–37)

Pietro Bertolini Ferdinando Martini Gaspare Colosimo Luigi Rossi Francesco Saverio Nitti Bartolomeo Meuccio Ruini Luigi Rossi Giuseppe Girardini Giovanni Amendola Luigi Federzoni Pietro Lanza di Scalea Luigi Federzoni Benito Mussolini Emilio De Bono Benito Mussolini Alessandro Lessona

Ministers of Italian Africa (1937–53)

Alessandro Lessona Benito Mussolini Attilio Teruzzi Melchiade Gabba Pietro Badoglio Ivanoe Bonomi Ferruccio Parri Alcide De Gasperi

Italics indicate interim minister

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 100907172 LCCN: n83141018 ISNI: 0000 0001 0929 092X GND: 118646281 SUDOC: 02851579X BNF: cb12033622r (data) NDL: 00540256 ICCU: ITICCURAVV69

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