Pietro Badoglio
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Pietro Badoglio, 1st Duke of Addis Abeba, 1st Marquess of Sabotino (, ; 28 September 1871 – 1 November 1956), was an Italian general during both
World War A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states, government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. In the case of its broad ...
s and the first
viceroy A viceroy () is an official who runs a polity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of institutionalized social relations, and have a capacity to mo ...

viceroy
of
Italian East Africa Italian East Africa ( it, Africa Orientale Italiana, AOI) was an Italian colony in the Horn of Africa The Horn of Africa (HoA) om, Gaafa Afrikaa, am, የአፍሪካ ቀንድ, yäafrika qänd, so, Geeska Afrika 𐒌𐒜𐒈𐒏𐒖 𐒖𐒍 ...

Italian East Africa
. With the
fall of the Fascist regime in Italy The fall of the Fascist regime in Italy, also known in Italy as 25 Luglio (''Venticinque Luglio'', ; Italian language, Italian for "25 July"), came as a result of parallel plots led respectively by Count Dino Grandi and King Victor Emmanuel III ...
, he became
Prime Minister of Italy The President of the Council of Ministers of the Italian Republic (Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Ital ...
.


Early life and career

Badoglio was born in 1871. His father, Mario Badoglio, was a modest landowner, and his mother, Antonietta Pittarelli, was of middle-class background. On 5 October 1888 he was admitted to the Royal Military Academy in
Turin Turin ( , Piedmontese language, Piedmontese: ; it, Torino ; lat, Augusta Taurinorum, then ''Taurinum'') is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy. It is the capital city of Piedmont and of the Metropolitan City ...

Turin
. He received the rank of Second Lieutenant in 1890. In 1892, he finished his studies and was promoted to Lieutenant. After completing his studies, he served with the ''
Regio Esercito The Royal Italian Army, also known as the ''Regio Esercito'', was established during the proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy. During the 1800s Italy started to unify into one country and in 1861, Manfredo Fanti signed a creation decree A decre ...
'' (Italian Royal Army) from 1892, at first as a
Lieutenant A lieutenant ( or abbreviated Lt., Lt, LT, Lieut and similar) is a commissioned officer in the armed forces, fire services, police and other organizations of many nations. The meaning of lieutenant differs in different militaries (see compar ...

Lieutenant
(''
Tenente
Tenente
'') in
artillery Artillery is a class of heavy military ranged weapons built to launch Ammunition, munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry firearms. Early artillery development focused on the ability to breach defensive walls and fortifications dur ...

artillery
, taking part in the early Italian
colonial war Colonial war (in some contexts referred to as small war) is a blanket term relating to the various conflicts that arose as the result of overseas territories being settled by foreign powers creating a colony In political science, a colony ...
s in
Eritrea Eritrea ( ), officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa The Horn of Africa (HoA) om, Gaafa Afrikaa, am, የአፍሪካ ቀንድ, yäafrika qänd, so, Geeska Afrika 𐒌𐒜𐒈𐒏𐒖 𐒖𐒍𐒇𐒘𐒏𐒖 ...

Eritrea
(1896), and in
Libya Libya (; ar, ليبيا, Lībiyā), officially the State of Libya ( ar, دولة ليبيا, Dawlat Lībiyā), is a country in the Maghreb region in North Africa bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to Egypt–Libya border, the ...

Libya
(1912).


First World War

At the beginning of Italian participation in the
First World War World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war that began on 28 July 1914 and ended on 11 November 1918. It involved much of Europe, as well as Russia, the Unite ...
, he was a
Lieutenant Colonel Lieutenant colonel ( or ) is a rank of commissioned officer in the army, armies, most Marine (armed services), marine forces and some air forces of the world, above a major and below a colonel. Several police forces in the United States use the ...

Lieutenant Colonel
(''
Tenente Colonnello
Tenente Colonnello
''); he rose to the rank of
Major General Major general (abbreviated MG, maj. gen. and similar) is a military rank Military ranks are a system of hierarchical relationships in armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organize ...
following his handling of the capture of Monte Sabotino in May 1916 and by the late months of 1917, by now already a
Lieutenant General Lieutenant general (Lt Gen, LTG and similar) is a three-star rank, three-star military rank (NATO code OF-8) used in many countries. The rank traces its origins to the Middle Ages, where the title of lieutenant general was held by the second-in- ...

Lieutenant General
, was named as Vice Chief-of-Staff (''Sottocapo di Stato Maggiore'') despite being one of those mainly responsible for the disaster during the
Battle of Caporetto The Battle of Caporetto (also known as the Twelfth Battle of the Isonzo, the Battle of Kobarid or the Battle of Karfreit) was a battle on the Italian front of World War I World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI o ...

Battle of Caporetto
on 24 October 1917. With regard to the Battle of Caporetto, although he was blamed in various quarters for his disposition of the forces under his command before the battle, a commission of inquiry rejected most of the criticisms made upon him. In the years after the First World War, in which he held several high posts in the ''
Regio Esercito The Royal Italian Army, also known as the ''Regio Esercito'', was established during the proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy. During the 1800s Italy started to unify into one country and in 1861, Manfredo Fanti signed a creation decree A decre ...
'', Badoglio exerted a constant effort in modifying official documents in order to hide his role in the defeat.


Italian Pacification of Libya

Post-war, Badoglio was named as a
Senator The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house or Debating chamber, chamber of a bicameral legislature. The name comes from the Ancient Rome, ancient Roman Senate (Latin: ''Senatus''), so-call ...
, but also remained in the army with special assignments to
Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Europe, Central, Eastern Europe, Eastern and Southeast Europe, Southeastern Europe. It borders Bulgaria to the south, Ukraine to the north, Hungary to the west, Serbia to t ...

Romania
and the
U.S. The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country primarily located in North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all ...

U.S.
in 1920 and 1921. At first, he opposed
Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
and after 1922 was side-lined as ambassador to
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America South America is a continent entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, ...

Brazil
. A political change of heart soon returned him to Italy and a senior role in the army as Chief of Staff from 4 May 1925. On 25 June 1926, Badoglio was promoted to the rank of
Marshal of Italy Marshal of Italy ( it, Maresciallo d'Italia) was a rank in the Royal Italian Army The Royal Italian Army, also known as the ''Regio Esercito'', was established during the proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy. During the 1800s Italy started to u ...
(''
Maresciallo d'Italia Marshal of Italy ( it, Maresciallo d'Italia) was a rank in the Royal Italian Army (''Regio Esercito''). Originally created in 1924 by Italian dictator Benito Mussolini for the purpose of honoring Generals Luigi Cadorna and Armando Diaz, the rank w ...
''). Badoglio was the first unique governor of
Tripolitania Tripolitania ( ar, طرابلس '; Berber language, Berber: '; from Vulgar Latin: ''*Trapoletanius'', from Latin: ', from Greek language, Greek: ''Τριπολιτάνια'') is a historic region and provinces of Libya, former province of Libya ...

Tripolitania
and
Cyrenaica Cyrenaica ( ; ar, برقة, Barqah; grc-koi, Κυρηναϊκή παρχία Kurēnaïkḗ parkhíā after the city of Cyrene, Libya, Cyrene) is the eastern coastal region of Libya. Also known as ''Pentapolis'' ("Five Cities") in An ...

Cyrenaica
(later amalgamated as
Italian Libya Italian Libya ( it, Libia Italiana; ar, ليبيا الإيطالية, Lībyā al-Īṭālīya) was a colony of the Fascist Italy (1922–1943), Kingdom of Italy located in North Africa, in what is now modern Libya, between 1934 and 1943. It was ...

Italian Libya
) from 1929 to 1933. During his governorship, he played a vital part (with
Rodolfo Graziani Rodolfo Graziani, 1st Marquis of Neghelli (; 11 August 1882 – 11 January 1955), was a prominent Italy, Italian military officer in the Kingdom of Italy's ''Regio Esercito'' ("Royal Army"), primarily noted for his campaigns in Africa before and d ...
, deputy governor of Cyrenaica) in defeating the Libyan Resistance by waging a near-genocidal campaign. On 20 June 1930, Badoglio wrote to General Graziani: "As for overall strategy, it is necessary to create a significant and clear separation between the controlled population and the rebel formations. I do not hide the significance and seriousness of this measure, which might be the ruin of the subdued population ... But now the course has been set, and we must carry it out to the end, even if the entire population of Cyrenaica must perish". By 1931, well over half of the population of Cyrenaica were confined to 15 concentration camps where many died as a result of overcrowding together with a lack of water, food and medicine while Badoglio had the Air Force use chemical warfare against the Bedouin rebels in the desert. On 24 January 1932 (third anniversary of his appointment), Badoglio proclaimed the end of Libyan resistance for the first time since the Italian invasion in 1911.


Italian invasion of Ethiopia

On 3 October 1935, because the progress of
De Bono's invasion of Abyssinia De Bono's invasion of Abyssinia took place during the opening stages of the Second Italo-Abyssinian War. Italian General Emilio De Bono invaded northern Abyssinia from staging areas in the Italian colony of Eritrea Eritrea ( ), officiall ...
was judged to be too slow by Mussolini, Badoglio, who had in the meantime launched an epistolary campaign against
Emilio de Bono Emilio De Bono (19 March 1866 – 11 January 1944) was an Italian General, fascist activist, Marshal of Italy, Marshal, and member of the Fascist Grand Council (''Gran Consiglio del Fascismo''). De Bono fought in the Italo-Turkish War, World War ...
, replaced de Bono as the commander. Badoglio asked for and was given permission to use
chemical warfare Chemical warfare (CW) involves using the toxic properties of chemical substances as Chemical weapon, weapons. This type of warfare is distinct from nuclear warfare, biological warfare and radiological warfare, which together make up CBRN defens ...
, using as a pretext the torture and murder of downed Italian pilot
Tito Minniti Tito Minniti (1909 – 26 December 1935) was an Italian pilot who was killed after he was captured by Ethiopians during the Second Italo-Abyssinian War in 1935 near Degehabur. His death and alleged torture became an atrocity story proffered by t ...
during the Ethiopian "Christmas Offensive". The British historian Sir Ian Kershaw wrote the "barbarous initiatives in the conduct of the war ''in Ethiopia''" came as a rule from the military elite rather than from Mussolini himself. He employed
mustard gas Mustard gas or sulfur mustard is a chemical compound belonging to the sulfur-based family of Cytotoxicity, cytotoxic and blister agent Chemical weapon, chemical warfare agents known as sulfur-mustards or mustard agents. The name ''mustard gas'' is ...
to effectively destroy the Ethiopian armies confronting him on the northern front. Badoglio commanded the Italian invasion army at the
First Battle of Tembien The First Battle of Tembien was a battle fought on the northern front of what was known as the Second Italo-Ethiopian War The Second Italo-Ethiopian War, also referred to as the Second Italo-Abyssinian War, was a war of aggression A war of ...
, the
Battle of Amba Aradam The Battle of Amba Aradam (also known as the Battle of Enderta) was a battle fought on the northern front of what was known as the Second Italo-Abyssinian War. This battle consisted of attacks and counterattacks by Kingdom of Italy, Italian forc ...
, the
Second Battle of Tembien The Second Battle of Tembien was a battle fought on the northern front of what was known as the Second Italo-Abyssinian War. This battle consisted of attacks by Italian forces under Marshal Pietro Badoglio on Ethiopian forces under Ras (title), ...
, and the
Battle of Shire The Battle of Shire (Italian: ''Battaglia dello Shirè'') was a battle fought on the northern front of what was known as the Second Italo-Abyssinian War. This battle consisted of attacks and counterattacks by Italian forces under Marshal of Italy ...
. On 31 March 1936, Badoglio defeated
Emperor An emperor (from la, imperator, via fro, empereor) is a monarch, and usually the sovereignty, sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. Empress, the female equivalent, may indicate an emperor's wife (empress consort), m ...
Haile Selassie Haile Selassie I ( gez, ቀዳማዊ ኀይለ ሥላሴ, Qädamawi Häylä Səllasé, ; born Tafari Makonnen; 23 July 189227 August 1975) was Emperor of Ethiopia The Emperor of Ethiopia ( gez, ንጉሠ ነገሥት, nəgusä nägäst, " ...

Haile Selassie
commanding the last Ethiopian army on the northern front at the
Battle of Maychew The Battle of Maychew ( it, Mai Ceu) was the last major battle fought on the northern front during the Second Italo-Abyssinian War The Second Italo-Ethiopian War, also referred to as the Second Italo-Abyssinian War, was a war of aggression whi ...
. On 26 April, with no Ethiopian resistance left between his forces and
Addis Ababa Addis Ababa ( am, አዲስ አበባ ' , "new flower"), also known as Finfinne ( om, Finfinne "natural spring") and Sheger ( ', ), is the capital city, capital and largest city of Ethiopia. According to the 2007 census, the city has a populatio ...

Addis Ababa
, Badoglio launched his " March of the Iron Will" to take the Ethiopian capital city and end the war. By 2 May, Haile Selassie had fled the country. On 5 May 1936, Marshal Badoglio led the victorious Italian troops into Addis Ababa. Mussolini declared
King Victor Emmanuel
King Victor Emmanuel
to be the
Emperor of Ethiopia The Emperor of Ethiopia ( gez, ንጉሠ ነገሥት, nəgusä nägäst, "King of Kings") was the hereditary monarchy, hereditary ruler of the Ethiopian Empire, from at least the 13th Century until the abolition of the monarchy in 1975. The Emp ...
, and Ethiopia became part of the
Italian Empire The Italian colonial empire ( it, Impero coloniale italiano), known as the Italian Empire (''Impero italiano'') between 1936 and 1943, began in Africa in the 19th century and comprised the colonies In political science, a colony is a terri ...

Italian Empire
. On this occasion, Badoglio was appointed the first
Viceroy A viceroy () is an official who runs a polity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of institutionalized social relations, and have a capacity to mo ...

Viceroy
and Governor General of Ethiopia and ennobled with the
victory title A victory title is an honorific title adopted by a successful military commander to commemorate his defeat of an enemy nation. The practice was first used by Ancient Rome and is still most commonly associated with the Romans, but it was also adopt ...
of '' Duke of Addis Abeba'' ad personam. On 11 June 1936,
Rodolfo Graziani Rodolfo Graziani, 1st Marquis of Neghelli (; 11 August 1882 – 11 January 1955), was a prominent Italy, Italian military officer in the Kingdom of Italy's ''Regio Esercito'' ("Royal Army"), primarily noted for his campaigns in Africa before and d ...
replaced Badoglio as Viceroy and Governor-General of Ethiopia. Badoglio returned to his duties as the Supreme Chief of the Italian General Staff. According to ''
Time Time is the indefinite continued sequence, progress of existence and event (philosophy), events that occur in an apparently irreversible process, irreversible succession from the past, through the present, into the future. It is a component qua ...
'' magazine, Badoglio even joined the Fascist Party in early June.


World War II

Badoglio was Chief of Staff from 1925 to 1940, and it was he who had the final say on the entire structure of the Armed Forces, including doctrine, selection of officers, armaments, during that period, influencing the whole military environment. Badoglio was not in favour of the Italian-German
Pact of Steel The Pact of Steel (german: Stahlpakt, it, Patto d'Acciaio), known formally as the Pact of Friendship and Alliance between Germany and Italy, was a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly o ...
and was pessimistic about the chances of Italian success in any European war. Despite such misgivings – he did not oppose the decision of Mussolini and the
King of the King of the Romans (variant used in the early modern period) File:Nezahualpiltzintli.jpg">Aztec King Nezahualpiltzintli of Texcoco King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen ...

King
to declare war on France and Great Britain. Following the Italian army's poor performance in the invasion of Greece in December 1940, he resigned from the General Staff. Badoglio was replaced by
Ugo Cavallero Ugo Cavallero (20 September 1880 – 13 September 1943) was an Italian military commander before and during World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a World war, global war that lasted fr ...

Ugo Cavallero
. By early 1943, there was a wide held belief by the military elite that Italy needed to sign an armistice in order to exit the war. Mussolini needed to go, as he was neither willing to sign an armistice nor were the Allies willing to sign an armistice with him. The two men considered to replace Mussolini were Marshal Badoglio and Marshal
Enrico Caviglia Enrico Caviglia (4 May 1862 – 22 March 1945) was a distinguished officer in the Italian Army. Victorious on the bloody battlefields of the Great War World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, was a global w ...

Enrico Caviglia
. As Marshal Caviglia was one of the few Royal Army officers who was known to dislike Fascism, the king was unwilling to have him as prime minister. Victor Emmanuel wanted an officer who was committed to continuing the Fascist system, which led him to choose Badoglio who had faithfully served Mussolini and committed an array of atrocities in Ethiopia, but who had a grudge against ''Il Duce'' for making him the scapegoat for the failed invasion of Greece in 1940. Moreover, Badoglio was an opportunist well known for his sycophancy towards those in power, which led the king to choose him as Mussolini's successor as he knew that Badoglio would do anything to have power whereas Caviglia had a reputation as a man of principle and honor. On 15 July 1943, in a secret meeting Victor Emmanuel told Badoglio that he would soon be sworn in as Italy's new prime minister and the king wanted no "ghosts" (i.e. liberal politicians from the pre-fascist era) in his cabinet. On 24 July 1943, as Italy had suffered several setbacks following the
Allied invasion of Sicily The Allied invasion of Sicily, codenamed Operation Husky, was a major campaign of World War II, in which the Allies of World War II, Allies took the island of Sicily from the Axis powers (Fascist Italy (1922–1943), Fascist Italy and Nazi Germ ...
in
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a World war, global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved World War II by country, the vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great ...
, Mussolini summoned the
Fascist Grand Council The Grand Council of Fascism (, also translated "Fascist Grand Council") was the main body of Mussolini's Fascist Fascism () is a form of far-right, authoritarian ultranationalism characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppressio ...
, which voted
no confidence A motion of no confidence, vote of no confidence, or no confidence motion, sometimes in the reverse as a motion of confidence or vote of confidence, is a statement or vote about whether a person in a position of responsibility (government, manager ...
in Mussolini. The following day ''Il Duce'' was removed from government by King
Victor Emmanuel III Victor or Viktor may refer to: Arts and entertainment Film * ''Victor'' (1951 film), a French drama film * ''Victor'' (1993 film), a French short film * ''Victor'' (2008 film), a 2008 TV film about Canadian swimmer Victor Davis * ''Victor' ...

Victor Emmanuel III
and arrested. On 3 September 1943, General
Giuseppe Castellano Giuseppe Castellano (September 12, 1893 in Prato – July 31, 1977 in Porretta Terme) was an Italy, Italian general who negotiated the Armistice between Italy and Allied armed forces on September 8, 1943. Biography Military career Of Sicilian des ...

Giuseppe Castellano
signed the Italian armistice with the Allies in Cassibile on behalf of Badoglio, who was named
Prime Minister of Italy The President of the Council of Ministers of the Italian Republic (Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Ital ...
. Wary of the potentially hostile German response to the Armistice, Badoglio hesitated to formally announce the treaty. On 8 September 1943, the armistice document was published by the Allies in the Badoglio Proclamation, before Badoglio could communicate news of the switch to the Italian armed forces. The units of the Italian Royal Army, Royal Navy, and Royal Air Force were generally surprised by the switch and unprepared for German actions to disarm them. In the early hours of the following day, 9 September 1943, Badoglio, King Victor Emmanuel, some military ministers, and the Chief of the General Staff escaped to
Pescara Pescara (; nap, label= Abruzzese, Pescàrë; nap, label= Pescarese, Piscàrë) is the capital city of the Province of Pescara The province of Pescara ( it, provincia di Pescara; Abruzzese: ') is a province A province is almost always an adm ...

Pescara
and
Brindisi Brindisi ( , ; scn, label=Salentino, Brindisino, Brìnnisi; la, Brundisium; grc, Βρεντέσιον, translit=Brentésion; cms, Brunda) is a city in the region of Apulia in southern Italy, the capital of the province of Brindisi, on the coa ...

Brindisi
seeking Allied protection. On 23 September 1943, the longer version of the armistice was signed in
Malta Malta ( , , ), officially known as the Republic of Malta ( mt, Repubblika ta' Malta ) and formerly Melita, is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea. It lies south of Italy, east of Tunisia ...

Malta
. On 13 October, Badoglio and the
Kingdom of Italy The Kingdom of Italy ( it, Regno d'Italia) was a state that existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Kingdom of Sardinia, Sardinia was proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy, proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946, when civil discontent l ...
officially declared war on
Nazi Germany Nazi Germany, (lit. "National Socialist State"), ' (lit. "Nazi State") for short; also ' (lit. "National Socialist Germany") officially known as the German Reich from 1933 until 1943, and the Greater German Reich from 1943 to 1945, was t ...

Nazi Germany
. Badoglio continued to head the government for another nine months. On 9 June 1944, following the German rescue of Mussolini, the capture of
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, Italy).svg , map_caption = The te ...

Rome
by the allies, and increasingly strong opposition to his government, Badoglio was replaced by
Ivanoe Bonomi Ivanoe Bonomi (18 October 1873 – 20 April 1951) was an Italian statesman before and after World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a World war, global war that lasted from 1939 t ...

Ivanoe Bonomi
of the
Labour Democratic Party The Labour Democratic Party ( it, Partito Democratico del Lavoro or , DL) was a social-democratic and social-liberal political party in Italy, founded in 1943 as the heir of defunct Italian Reformist Socialist Party, formed by those Socialists ...
.


Final years

Due to increased tensions with the Soviet Union, the British government saw Badoglio as a guarantor of an
anti-communist Anti-communism is a political movement and ideology opposed to communism. Organized anti-communism developed after the 1917 October Revolution in Russia and it reached global dimensions during the Cold War, when the United States and the Soviet U ...

anti-communist
post-war Italy. Consequently, Badoglio was never tried for Italian war crimes committed in Africa.Di Sante, Costantino (2005
Italiani senza onore: I crimini in Jugoslavia e i processi negati (1941–1951)
Ombre Corte, Milano.
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Badoglio died in
Grazzano Badoglio Grazzano Badoglio (Grazzano Monferrato until 1939) is a ''comune'' (municipality) in the Province of Asti in the Italy, Italian region Piedmont, located about east of Turin and about northeast of Asti. Grazzano, which developed round the abbey fo ...
on 1 November 1956.


See also

*
Royal Italian Army The Royal Italian Army, also known as the ''Regio Esercito'', was established during the proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy. During the 1800s Italy started to unify into one country and in 1861, Manfredo Fanti signed a creation decree A decre ...
*
Royal Italian Army (1940–1946) This article is about the Italian Royal Army ('' Regio Esercito'') which participated in World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a World war, global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It ...
*
Italian Co-Belligerent ArmyThe Italian Co-belligerent Army (''Esercito Cobelligerante Italiano''), or Army of the South (''Esercito del Sud'') were names applied to various division sets of the now former Royal Italian Army during the period when it fought alongside the Alli ...


Bibliography

* Pietro Badoglio: ''Italy in the Second World War, memories and documents''. (Transl.: Muriel Currey). Oxford University Press, 1948. Repr. 1976, Greenwood Press: * Pietro Badoglio: ''The war in Abyssinia''. (Foreword: ). London, Methuen Publishers, 1937.


References


Further reading

*Italian Defence Minister website officia
biography of Pietro Badoglio
as Chief of the General Staff *Armellini, Quirino, and Pietro Badoglio. ''Con Badoglio in Etiopia, Etc.'' 1937. *Bertoldi, Silvio. ''Badoglio''. Milano: Rizzoli, 1982. *De Luna, Giovanni. ''Badoglio: Un Militaire al Potere''. Milan: Bompiani, 1974. For English translation, see . *Whittam, John. ''The Politics of the Italian Army, 1861–1918''. London: Croom Helm, 1977. *Del Boca, Angelo. ''La guerra d'Etiopia. L'ultima impresa del colonialismo''. Milan: Longanesi, 2010. .


External links

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