Piers Gaveston, 1st
Earl of Cornwall (c. 1284 – 19 June 1312) was an
English nobleman of Gascon origin, and the favourite of King Edward II
At a young age he made a good impression on King Edward I
"Longshanks", and was assigned to the household of the King's son,
Edward of Caernarfon. The prince's partiality for Gaveston was so
extravagant that Edward I sent the favourite into exile, but he was
recalled a few months later, after the King's death led to the
prince's accession as Edward II. Edward bestowed the Earldom of
Cornwall on Gaveston, and arranged for him to marry his niece Margaret
de Clare, sister of the powerful Earl of Gloucester.
Gaveston's exclusive access to the King provoked several members of
the nobility, and in 1307 the King was again forced to send him into
exile. During this absence he served as the King's Lord Lieutenant of
Ireland. Edward managed to negotiate a deal with the opposition,
however, and Gaveston returned the next year. Upon his return his
behaviour became even more offensive, and by the
Ordinances of 1311
Ordinances of 1311 it
was decided that Gaveston should be exiled for a third time, to suffer
outlawry if he returned. When he did return in 1312, he was hunted
down and executed by a group of magnates led by Thomas of Lancaster
and Guy de Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick.
It was alleged by medieval chroniclers that Edward II and Piers
Gaveston were lovers, a rumour that was reinforced by later portrayals
in fiction, such as Christopher Marlowe's late 16th-century play
Edward II. This assertion has received the support of some modern
historians, while others have questioned it. According to Pierre
Chaplais, the relationship between the two was that of an adoptive
brotherhood, and Gaveston served as an unofficial deputy for a
reluctant king. Other historians, like J. S. Hamilton, have pointed
out that concern over the two men's sexuality was not at the core of
the nobility's grievances, which rather centred on Gaveston's
exclusive access to royal patronage.
1 Family background and early life
2 First exile and return
3 Earl of Cornwall
4 Ireland and return
5 Ordinances and final exile
6 Return and death
8 Questions of sexuality
9 Historical assessment
Family background and early life
Piers Gaveston's father was Arnaud de Gabaston, a Gascon knight in the
service of Gaston VII of Béarn.
Gabaston had come into a
substantial amount of land in
Gascony through his marriage to
Claramonde de Marsan, who was co-heir with her brother of the great
landowner Arnaud-Guillaume de Marsan. Through the possessions of
Gabaston also became a vassal of the King of England, in the
King's capacity of Duke of Aquitaine. His service to Edward I of
England stretched over a long period of time, starting in the Welsh
Wars of 1282–83, in which he participated with a substantial
contingent. Sometime before 4 February 1287, Claramonde died, and
for the rest of his life
Gabaston struggled to retain his wife's
inheritance from rival claims by relatives and neighbours. Because of
this, he became financially dependent on the English king, and was
continuously in his service. He was used as a hostage by Edward
twice: first in 1288 to Aragon, secondly in 1294 to the French king,
when he managed to escape and flee to England in 1297. After
returning home, he was back in England in 1300, where he served with
Edward I in the Scottish Wars. He died at some point before 18 May
Little is known of Piers Gaveston's early years; even his year of
birth is unknown. He and Prince Edward of Caernarfon (born 25 April
1284) were said to be contemporaries (coetanei), so it can be assumed
that he was born in or around 1284. Though one chronicle claims he
accompanied his father to England in 1297, the first reliable
reference to him is from
Gascony later that year, when he served in
the company of Edward I. In 1300 he sailed to England with his
father and his older brother, Arnaud-Guillaume de Marsan. It was at
this time that he became a member of the household of the young Prince
Edward – the future Edward II. The King was apparently impressed
by Gaveston's conduct and martial skills, and wanted him to serve as a
model for his son. In 1304, the King awarded Gaveston the wardship of
Roger Mortimer of Wigmore, after the death of Roger's father, on the
request of Edward, Prince of Wales. This put Gaveston in charge of
Mortimer's possessions during the latter's minority, and served as
proof of the King's confidence in his son's companion.
As part of the circle around the prince, however, Gaveston also became
entangled in conflicts between the King and his son. These
difficulties first materialised in a dispute between treasurer Walter
Langton and Prince Edward. The case enraged King Edward to the point
where he banned his son from court, and banished several men from the
prince's household. Though the two were reconciled at a later point,
the King still prevented Gaveston from rejoining the prince. This
matter was settled before 26 May 1306, however, the date when Gaveston
was knighted, four days after the prince. Later that year Gaveston
was once more in trouble, when he and twenty-one other knights
deserted a Scottish campaign to attend a tournament. An arrest order
was sent out for the deserters, but, at the insistence of Queen
Margaret, they were all pardoned in January 1307.
First exile and return
Gaveston's return to grace was only temporary. On 26 February 1307,
Edward I announced that the prince's favourite had to leave the realm
shortly after 30 April that year. This time it seems the punishment
was not intended for Gaveston, though, but for the Prince of
Wales. According to Walter of Guisborough, the prince appeared
before the King to request that his own county of Ponthieu be given to
Gaveston. Edward I, enraged, tore out handfuls of his son's hair and
threw him out of the royal chambers. Though Guisborough cannot
necessarily be trusted on the details of the events, the story
reflects the general exasperation the King felt with the prince's
favouritism towards Gaveston, and the lavish gifts bestowed on the
favourite. This extravagance was clearly seen on Gaveston's
departure, when Prince Edward equipped him with horses, luxurious
clothes, and £260 of money.
Gaveston's first exile was to be a short one. In early July 1307,
Edward I fell ill while once more campaigning in the north, and lay
Burgh by Sands
Burgh by Sands near the Scottish border. According to one
chronicle, he gathered some of his most trusted men around him,
including Henry de Lacy, Earl of Lincoln; Guy de Beauchamp, Earl of
Warwick; and Aymer de Valence, soon to be Earl of Pembroke. Edward
entrusted the magnates with the care of his son, and instructed them
particularly to prevent the return of Piers Gaveston from exile.
Nevertheless, when the King died on 7 July, one of Edward II's first
acts as king was to recall his friend. Gaveston returned almost
immediately, and the two were reunited by early August.
Earl of Cornwall
Initial from the charter granting Gaveston the earldom of Cornwall,
showing the arms of England at top, and Gaveston's coat of arms
impaled with those of de Clare below.
On 6 August 1307, less than a month after succeeding, Edward II made
Piers Gaveston Earl of Cornwall. According to contemporary
narrative sources, this was a controversial decision. Gaveston came
from relatively humble origins, and his rise to the highest level of
the peerage was considered improper by the established nobility.
Furthermore, the earldom of
Cornwall had traditionally been reserved
for members of the royal family, and Edward I had intended it for one
of his two younger sons from his second marriage. The discontent
reported by the chronicles may have been the result of hindsight,
however; there is no sign that the established nobility objected to
the ennoblement of Gaveston at the time. The earldom gave Gaveston
substantial landholdings over great parts of England, to the value of
£4,000 a year. These possessions consisted of most of Cornwall,
as well as parts of Devonshire in the south-west, land in Berkshire
Oxfordshire centred on the honour of Wallingford, most of the
eastern part of Lincolnshire, and the honour of
Yorkshire, with the territories that belonged to it. In addition
to this, Edward also secured a prestigious marriage between Gaveston
and Margaret de Clare, sister of the powerful Earl of Gloucester.
The possessions and family connection secured Gaveston a place among
the highest levels of the English nobility.
Even though the new king was initially met with goodwill from his
subjects, it was not long before certain members of the nobility
became disaffected with Gaveston and the special relationship he
enjoyed with Edward. On 2 December 1307, exactly one month after
Gaveston's marriage, the King organised a tournament in Gaveston's
honour at Wallingford Castle. Here Gaveston and his companions in
arms handed a humiliating defeat to the earls of Warenne, Hereford,
and Arundel. Gaveston won, according to various accounts of the
events, either by bringing too many knights to the field, or simply by
having a better contingent. From this point on Warenne – and
possibly also the other two earls – became hostile to Gaveston.
When Edward II left the country early in 1308 to marry the French
king's daughter Isabella, he appointed Gaveston regent in his place.
This was a responsibility that would normally be given to a close
family member of the reigning king. There is no sign that Gaveston
exploited the regency for personal gains, but the other nobles were
still offended by his arrogant behaviour. This behaviour continued
at the coronation feast after the King's return, during which the King
largely ignored his new wife in favour of Gaveston. The collective
grievances first found expression in the so-called 'Boulogne
agreement' of January 1308, in which the earls of Warenne, Hereford,
Lincoln and Pembroke expressed concern about oppression of the people
and attacks on the honour of the crown. Though not mentioned by name,
Gaveston was the implied target of this document. Later that year,
in the April parliament, the so-called Declaration of 1308 demanded
the renewed exile of Gaveston, again without explicitly mentioning the
favourite by name. The King initially resisted, but had to give in
to the demand once it became clear that the barons had the support of
King Philip IV of France, who was offended by Edward's treatment of
his daughter. On 18 May, Edward consented to sending Gaveston into
Ireland and return
Coat of arms
Coat of arms of Piers Gaveston
Gaveston was not exiled immediately; he did not have to leave the
realm until 25 June, but faced excommunication by the Archbishop of
Canterbury, Robert Winchelsey, should he return. Edward used the
intervening period to provide for his favourite's continued prosperity
and political importance. As a compensation for the loss of the
earldom of Cornwall, which was another condition of the exile,
Gaveston was granted land worth 3,000 marks annually in Gascony, and
land amounting to the same value in England. Further to this, he
was appointed the King's Lieutenant of Ireland, so that a certain
amount of honour could be maintained despite the humiliation of the
exile. The appointment came the day after Richard de Burgh, Earl
of Ulster, had been given the same position, indicating that it was an
improvised measure. Gaveston's appointment came with wider
authority than Ulster's, however, for he had full regal powers to
appoint and dismiss any royal officers.
Gaveston's lieutenancy was primarily of a military nature; by the
early 14th century, Ireland had become a rebellious and unruly
dominion for the English crown. In this capacity Gaveston had
considerable success, killing or defeating several major insurgents.
He fortified the town of Newcastle McKynegan and Castle Kevin, and
rebuilt the road from Castle Kevin to Glendalough. This helped pacify
the county at least as far as the Wicklow Mountains, west of
Dublin. In the field of administration he made less of a mark. The
most notable issue with which he was involved concerned a dispute over
murage – a toll on the town walls – between the citizens of
Dublin. As during the regency, though, there is no evidence that
Gaveston exploited his position for his own advantage and he did
nothing to alienate the local elite.
Edward II began working towards a recall before Gaveston had even
left. Through distribution of patronage and concessions to
political demands, he won over several of the earls who had previously
been of a hostile disposition. Lincoln, who was the leader of the
baronial opposition due to his age and great wealth, was reconciled
with Edward by late summer 1308. Even Warwick, who had been the most
unyielding of the King's enemies, was gradually mollified.
Significantly, though, Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, who had not been
involved in the campaign to exile Gaveston, seems to have become
disaffected at this time. Nevertheless, by 25 April 1309, Pope
Clement V was satisfied that the difficulties between the King and his
magnates had been settled, and agreed to lift the interdict against
Gaveston. At the parliament that met at Stamford in July, Edward
had to agree to a series of political concessions. The so-called
Statute of Stamford was based on a similar document Edward I had
consented to in 1300, called the articuli super carta, which was in
turn based on Magna Carta. Before the Stamford Parliament,
however, on 27 June, Gaveston had returned to England.
Ordinances and final exile
On 5 August 1309, Gaveston was reinstated with the earldom of
Cornwall. It did not take long, however, for him to alienate the
earls once more. The chronicles tell of how Gaveston gave mocking
nicknames to other earls, calling Lincoln 'burst-belly', Pembroke
'Joseph the Jew', Lancaster 'the fiddler' and
Warwick 'the black dog
of Arden' (from the forest of Arden in Warwickshire). Gaveston
also began to exploit his relationship with the King more
ostentatiously, obtaining favours and appointments for his friends and
servants. The political climate became so hateful that in February
1310, a number of the earls refused to attend parliament as long as
Gaveston was present. Gaveston was dismissed, and, when parliament
convened, the disaffected barons presented a list of grievances they
wanted addressed. On 16 March, the King was forced to appoint a group
of men to ordain reforms of the royal household. This group of
so-called Lords Ordainers consisted of eight earls, seven bishops and
six barons. Among the earls were supporters of the King, like
Gloucester and John of Brittany, Earl of Richmond, as well as strong
opponents, like Lancaster and Warwick.
While the Ordainers were at work drafting their reform document,
Edward decided to address one of the main causes behind the
discontent: the Scottish situation. Edward II had, almost
immediately after his accession, abandoned the relentless Scottish
campaigns of his father. As a result,
Robert the Bruce
Robert the Bruce had been
able to regain the initiative in the war, reconquer lost territory,
and stage destructive raids into the north of England. To aggravate
matters, Edward had continued to raise extortionate taxes, ostensibly
for the war in Scotland, but without showing any result. If the
King could produce victory against the Scots, this would go a long way
towards undermining the work of the Ordainers. In June, the King
summoned the magnates for a military campaign, but most of the
Ordainers refused on the basis of the work they were performing.
When the King departed for Scotland in September, only Gloucester,
Warenne and Gaveston among the earls accompanied him. The campaign
proved frustrating for Edward, when Bruce refused to engage in open
battle, or even get involved in negotiations. In February, Gaveston
was sent with an army north from
Roxburgh to Perth, but he failed to
track down the Scottish army.
While the royal army was in the north, Edward received news from
London that the Earl of Lincoln had died on 6 February 1311. This
meant that a moderating influence on the baronial party had been lost,
at the same time as the antagonistic Earl of Lancaster – who was
Lincoln's son-in-law and heir – emerged as the leader of the
Ordainers. With the Ordainers ready to present their programme of
reform, Edward had to summon a parliament. In late July he appointed
Gaveston Lieutenant of Scotland, and departed for London. Bruce
still evaded the English successfully, in early August even staging a
raid into northern England, and shortly after this Gaveston withdrew
Bamburgh Castle in Northumberland. When parliament met on 16
August, the King was presented with a set of proposed reforms of the
royal household, as well as specific attacks on individuals, including
a demand for the renewed exile of Piers Gaveston. Edward initially
offered to agree to the reforms as long as Gaveston was allowed to
stay, but the Ordainers refused. The King held out for as long as he
could, but eventually had to agree to the Ordinances, which were
published on 27 September. On 3 November, two days after the
allotted deadline, Gaveston left England once again.
Return and death
Warwick Castle from St Mary's Church
It is not quite clear where Gaveston spent his time abroad; the
conditions of his exile banned him from staying in any of the lands of
the English king. This precluded both Aquitaine and Ireland, where he
had spent his previous exiles. There is some evidence that he
might have gone to France initially, but considering the French king's
hostile attitude towards him, he is not likely to have stayed there
long. Flanders is a much more likely candidate for Gaveston's third
and final exile. This time his absence was even shorter than the
second time, lasting no more than two months. Returning around
Christmas 1311, he was reunited with the King early in 1312, probably
Knaresborough on 13 January. The reason for his quick return
might have been the birth of his child, a daughter named Joan, around
this time. On 18 January, Edward declared the judgement against
Gaveston unlawful, and restored all lands to him.
The royal and baronial parties now both began preparations for war. In
March, Gaveston settled at Scarborough, and began to fortify the
castle. Around the same time, he was pronounced excommunicate by
Archbishop Winchelsey at St Paul's. At the same meeting the barons –
under the leadership of Lancaster – divided up the realm to oppose
the King. Pembroke and Warenne were given the responsibility of
capturing Gaveston. On 4 May, the King and Gaveston were at
Newcastle, and barely escaped a force led by Lancaster, Henry Percy
and Robert Clifford. Gaveston then returned to Scarborough, while
the King left for York. Scarborough was soon besieged by Pembroke,
Warenne, Percy and Clifford, and on 19 May Gaveston surrendered to the
besiegers. The terms of the surrender were that Pembroke, Warenne
and Percy would take Gaveston to York, where the barons would
negotiate with the king. If an agreement could not be reached by 1
August, Gaveston would be allowed to return to Scarborough. The three
swore an oath to guarantee his safety. After an initial meeting
with the King in York, Gaveston was left in the custody of Pembroke,
who escorted him south for safekeeping.
On 9 June, Pembroke left Gaveston at the rectory at
Oxfordshire, while he himself left to visit his wife. When Warwick
found out about Gaveston's whereabouts, he immediately rode out to
capture him. The next morning he appeared at the rectory, where he
took Gaveston captive and brought him back to his castle at
Warwick. Pembroke, whose honour had been affronted, appealed for
justice both to Gaveston's brother-in-law Gloucester and to the
University of Oxford, but to no avail. At Warwick, Gaveston
was condemned to death for violating the terms of the Ordinances,
before an assembly of barons, including Warwick, Lancaster, Hereford
and Arundel. On 19 June, he was taken out on the road towards
Kenilworth as far as Blacklow Hill, which was on the Earl of
Lancaster's land. Here, two Welshmen ran him through with a sword and
The 1823 Gaveston monument at Blacklow Hill,
52°18′19″N 1°34′39″W / 52.3052°N 1.5774°W /
Gaveston's body was simply left behind at the site of his execution.
One chronicle tells of how four shoemakers brought it to Warwick, who
refused to accept it, and ordered them to take it back outside his
jurisdiction. Eventually, a group of Dominican friars brought it to
Oxford. A proper burial could not be arranged while Gaveston was
still excommunicate, and it was not until 2 January 1315, after the
King had secured a papal absolution for his favourite, that he could
have his body buried in an elaborate ceremony at the Dominican
foundation of King's Langley Priory; the tomb is now lost. A cross
with inscription was erected at
Blacklow Hill in 1823, by local squire
Bertie Greathead, on the site believed to be the location of
Edward also provided a generous endowment for Gaveston's widow
Margaret, who in 1317 married Hugh de Audley, later Earl of
Gloucester. The King tried to find a suitable marriage for Piers'
and Margaret's daughter Joan, but these arrangements came to nothing
when Joan died in 1325, at the age of thirteen. There is also some
evidence that Gaveston might have fathered another, extra-marital
daughter; one contemporary document refers to an "Amie filie Petri de
Gaveston". This Amie was a chamberlain of Edward III's wife, Queen
Philippa, and later married John Driby, a yeoman of the royal
Edward's initial reaction to the news of Gaveston's execution was
rage; according to the Vita Edwardi, he swore to avenge the act.
Circumstances, however, prevented him from taking immediate action
against the executioners. During the previous raid on Newcastle,
the King and Gaveston had to flee quickly, leaving behind horses and
jewels worth a great amount of money. At the same time, the
barons' extralegal action had alienated many of their former
associates; the Earl of Pembroke in particular became strongly tied to
the King's cause after the affront to his honour. Through the
arbitration of the
Earl of Gloucester and others, a settlement was
finally reached on 14 October 1313, whereby the barons were given a
pardon and the horses and jewels were returned to the King. The
following years were marked by a constant power struggle between
Edward and Lancaster, centred on the maintenance of the Ordinances.
The matter was not finally settled until 1322, when Lancaster was
defeated at the Battle of Boroughbridge, and executed.
Questions of sexuality
It was hinted at by medieval chroniclers, and has been alleged by
modern historians, that the relationship between Gaveston and Edward
was homosexual. The
Annales Paulini claims that Edward loved Gaveston
"beyond measure", while the Lanercost says the intimacy between them
was "undue". The Chronicle of Melsa states that Edward
"particularly delighted in the vice of sodomy", without making special
reference to Gaveston. The portrayal of Gaveston as homosexual
continued in fictional portrayals, such as Christopher Marlowe's play
Edward II from the early 1590s, and the 1924 adaptation of that work
Bertolt Brecht and Lion Feuchtwanger.
Modern historians have been divided on the issue. T. F. Tout, writing
in 1914, rejected the idea. J. S. Hamilton, who wrote a biography
of Gaveston in 1988, on the other hand says that "there is no question
that the king and his favourite were lovers". Pierre Chaplais,
writing a few years later, had more reservations. Chaplais cites the
fact that Edward had four children with his wife – and even an
extra-marital son – as well as the relative silence of contemporary
commentators on the topic. He also finds it hard to believe that
Philip IV of France
Philip IV of France would have allowed the English king to marry his
daughter Isabella if Edward was known to be homosexual. Mark
Ormrod has pointed out the inherent anachronism of speaking of
homosexuality in a medieval context. Instead Ormrod suggests the focus
should be on the motivation behind the use of sexuality in
contemporary attacks on the King and Gaveston.
If the King and Gaveston were indeed lovers, the question remains of
what effect this had on their respective careers and eventual
downfalls. John Boswell, in his Christianity, Social Tolerance, and
Homosexuality, calls Gaveston Edward's lover, and writes that there is
little doubt "that [Edward's] wife and the barons of England were
violently hostile to Edward's sexual proclivities, although he more
than fulfilled his royal duties by fathering four children with
Isabella". Boswell argues that Edward and Gaveston fell victim to
a new-found concern about sexual morals among the secular powers of
Europe, manifested shortly before in the trial of the Knights Templar
in 1307. This interpretation is disputed by Hamilton. "The
favourite was murdered because of his control of patronage," writes
Hamilton, "not because of his access to the king's bedchamber".
This same view is also expressed by Roy Martin Haines, in his 2003
biography of the King.
An 1872 painting by English artist
Marcus Stone shows Edward II
cavorting with Gaveston while nobles and courtiers look on with
Contemporary and near-contemporary chroniclers were generally negative
in their attitudes towards Gaveston, blaming the royal favourite for
many of the problems of the reign. Gaveston was accused of such
various crimes as draining the treasury, orchestrating the arrest of
treasurer Walter Langton, and filling the court with foreigners.
According to the Lanercost Chronicle, "There was not anyone who had a
good word to say about the king or Piers." Nevertheless, the
chroniclers did not deny that he had certain good qualities. Irish
chroniclers were appreciative both of his military and his
administrative skills during his period in Ireland. Likewise, Geoffrey
the Baker called him "graceful and agile in body, sharp witted,
refined in manner, [and] sufficiently well versed in military
matters". Marlowe, however, focused exclusively on the negative
aspects of Gaveston's biography, portraying him – according to
Hamilton – as "a sycophantic homosexual with a marked tendency
towards avarice, nepotism, and especially overweening pride". This
was the impression that lived on in the popular imagination.
The first modern historians to deal with the reign of Edward II –
Thomas Frederick Tout and
James Conway Davies –
added little to the understanding of Gaveston. While generally
agreeing with the chronicles, they allotted him no importance within
their own main field of interest, that of constitutional history.
For later generations of historians, the focus shifted from
constitutional to personal issues. From the 1970s onwards, the topic
of study became the personal relations between magnates and the crown,
and the distribution of patronage. It is to this school of thought
that Hamilton's biography belongs, in which he argues that it was
Gaveston's exclusive access to royal patronage that was the driving
force behind the baronial animosity towards him. Chaplais, on the
other hand, takes a different approach to the study of Gaveston and
his place in the reign of Edward II. According to Chaplais, Edward was
more or less indifferent to the practice of kingship, and essentially
delegated the job to Gaveston. As an alternative to a homosexual
relationship, Chaplais suggests that the bond that existed between the
King and Gaveston was that of an adoptive brotherhood. This
concept had a Biblical precedent in the traditionalist, platonic
interpretation of the relationship between David and Jonathan, and
also existed in the Middle Ages, as exemplified in The Song of Roland,
the story of
Roland and Olivier.
In modern popular culture, Gaveston has been portrayed in a variety of
ways. In Derek Jarman's 1991 film, based on Marlowe's play, Edward and
Gaveston are presented as victims of homophobia and prejudice. In
the 1995 movie Braveheart, on the other hand, Gaveston (thinly
disguised as the character "Phillip") is again caricatured as arrogant
and effeminate. There is also an
Oxford University dining and
drinking club called the Piers Gaveston Society.
^ The differences in the names are only variations in spelling. The
place from which the family took its name is still called Gabaston;
Vickers, Kenneth (1913). England in the Later Middle Ages. Methuen.
^ Hamilton (1988), pp. 20–1.
^ a b Hamilton (1988), p. 22.
^ a b Hamilton (1988), p. 25.
^ Hamilton (1988), pp. 22–4.
^ Chaplais (1994), p. 4.
^ Hamilton (1988), p. 29.
^ Chaplais (1994), p. 20.
^ Prince Edward received this title in 1301; Prestwich (1997), p. 226.
^ Hamilton (1988), p. 31.
^ Chaplais (1994), p. 21.
^ Hamilton (1988), pp. 33–4.
^ Hamilton (1988), p. 34.
^ Guisborough, pp. 382–3.
^ Chaplais (1994), pp. 21–2.
^ Hamilton (1988), pp. 34–5.
^ Hamilton (1988), pp. 35–6.
^ Prestwich (1997), p. 557.
^ Chaplais (1994), pp. 24–6.
^ McKisack (1959), p. 3.
^ Maddicott (1970), p. 71.
^ a b c d Hamilton (2004).
^ Hamilton (1988), p. 40.
^ a b Hamilton (1988), p. 39.
^ Altschul (1965), p. 41.
^ Vita Edwardi, p. 3.
^ Hamilton (1988), pp. 43–4.
^ Haines (2003), p. 103.
^ Chaplais (1994), pp. 34–5.
^ Hamilton (1988), pp. 45–6.
^ Hamilton (1988), p. 48.
^ Phillips (1972), p. 26.
^ Maddicott (1970), p. 73.
^ Maddicott (1970), p. 82–4.
^ Haines (2003), p. 69.
^ Chaplais (1994), p. 45.
^ Hamilton (1988), p. 53.
^ Chaplais (1994), pp. 50–1.
^ Hamilton (1988), pp. 55–6.
^ Hamilton (1988), pp. 56–7.
^ Hamilton (1988), pp. 58–61.
^ Hamilton (1988), pp. 63–5.
^ Hamilton (1988), pp. 62, 66.
^ McKisack (1959), p. 7.
^ Maddicott (1970), pp. 91–2.
^ Hamilton (1988), p. 68.
^ Maddicott (1970), pp. 86–7, 92–4.
^ Hamilton (1988), pp. 70, 73.
^ Hamilton (1988), pp. 73–4.
^ Maddicott (1970), p. 103.
^ Chaplais (1994), p. 53.
^ Hamilton (1988), p. 75. The various chroniclers who comment on the
issue do not agree entirely on the exact nicknames used. A thorough
summary of the literature can be found in; Tout (1914), p. 13.
^ Hamilton (1988), pp. 75–6.
^ Maddicott (1970), p. 110.
^ McKisack (1959), p. 10.
^ a b Prestwich (1997), p. 182.
^ Hamilton (1988), pp. 80, 157.
^ Barrow (1965), p. 246.
^ Maddicott (1970), pp. 108–9.
^ Hamilton (1988), p. 80.
^ Maddicott (1970), pp. 113–4.
^ Hamilton (1988), p. 81.
^ Hamilton (1988), pp. 84–6.
^ Hamilton (1988), p. 84.
^ Maddicott (1970), pp. 80–1 114–5.
^ Hamilton (1988), p. 86.
^ Hamilton (1988), pp. 86–7.
^ McKisack (1959), p. 12–5.
^ Hamilton (1988), p. 87.
^ a b Chaplais (1994), p. 74.
^ Hamilton (1988), pp. 91–2.
^ Hamilton (1988), p. 93.
^ Hamilton (1988), p. 94.
^ Maddicott (1970), pp. 123–4.
^ Hamilton (1988), pp. 95–6.
^ Phillips (1972), pp. 32–3.
^ Phillips (1972), pp. 33–4.
^ Hamilton (1988), p. 97.
^ Chaplais (1994), p. 88.
^ Maddicott (1970), p. 127.
^ Hamilton (1988), p. 97–8.
^ These acts could have been Pembroke's way of guarding himself
against any future suspicion of collusion; Hamilton (1988), p. 98,
165n. It seems unlikely that he had prior knowledge of what would
happen though, based on his subsequent change of alignment; Phillips
(1972), p. 36.
^ Maddicott (1970), pp. 127–8.
^ a b Hamilton (1988), p. 99.
^ "Gaveston's Cross - Leek Wootton and Guy's Cliffe - Warwickshire -
England". British Listed Buildings. Retrieved 13 November 2015.
^ Noszlopy, George T. (2003). Public sculpture of Warwickshire,
Coventry, and Solihull. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press.
p. 77. ISBN 0-85323-847-2.
^ Hamilton (1988), pp. 100–1.
^ Hamilton (1988), pp. 101–2.
^ Hamilton, J. S. (1998). "Another daughter for Piers Gaveston? Amie
de Gaveston, Damsel of the Queen's Chamber". Medieval Prosopography
^ Maddicott (1970), pp. 130–54.
^ Roberts, R.A. (1929). "Edward II, the lords ordainers, and Piers
Gaveston's jewels and horses 1312–1313". Camden Miscellany (15):
^ Phillips (1972), pp. 36–7.
^ Altschul (1965), p. 163.
^ Prestwich (2005), pp. 190–201.
^ Chaplais (1994), p. 7.
^ a b Hamilton (1988), p. 16.
^ a b c d Hamilton (1988), p. 13.
^ Tout (1914), p. 13.
^ Chaplais (1994), pp. 7–10, 113–4.
^ Chaplais (1994), pp. 9–10.
^ Ormrod, Mark (2006). "The Sexualities of Edward II". In Gwilym Dodd
and Anthony Musson (eds.). The Reign of Edward II: New Perspectives.
Woodbridge: York Medieval Press, Boydell. pp. 22–47.
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^ Boswell (1980), p. 298.
^ Boswell (1980), p. 296–300.
^ Hamilton (1988), p. 17.
^ Haines (2003), p. 42–3.
^ Chaplais (1994), p. 6.
^ Hamilton (1988), p. 14.
^ Hamilton (1988), p. 15.
^ Chaplais (1994), p. 3.
^ Chaplais (1994), pp. 12–3, 20–2.
^ Chaplais (1994), pp. 14–20.
^ Catsoulis, Jeannette (14 November 2008). "Edward II (1992):
Historical Edward II and Gay Issues Today". The New York Times.
p. 10. Retrieved 5 July 2010.
^ Aberth, John (2003). A Knight at the Movies: Medieval History on
Film. New York: Routledge. p. 304. ISBN 0-415-93886-4.
^ Sherwel, Philip (5 February 2006). "Goodbye, Animal House:
fraternity drinking has to stop, say colleges". The Daily Telegraph.
Retrieved 5 July 2010.
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University Press. ISBN 0-19-927594-7. CS1 maint: Extra text:
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Peerage of England
Title last held by
Edmund of Almain
Earl of Cornwall
Title next held by
John of Eltham
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland
ISNI: 0000 0000 6675 0171
BNF: cb12404612r (da