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PIERRE GASPARD CHAUMETTE (24 May 1763 – 13 April 1794) was a French politician of the Revolutionary period .

CONTENTS

* 1 Biography

* 1.1 Early activities * 1.2 Presidency of the Commune * 1.3 Role in the dechristianization of France
France
* 1.4 Downfall

* 2 Radical Philosophy

* 2.1 Reviewing Saint-Martin

* 3 References

* 3.1 Bibliography

BIOGRAPHY

EARLY ACTIVITIES

Chaumette was born in Nevers
Nevers
France, 24 May 1763, into a family of shoemakers who wanted him to enter the Church. However he did not have a vocation and instead sought his fortune as a cabin boy. After only reaching the rank of helmsman, he returned to Nevers
Nevers
to study his main interests, botany and science. He also studied surgery and made a long voyage in the company of an English doctor, serving as his secretary. He then became surgeon to the Brothers of Charity at Moulins. Chaumette studied medicine at the University of Paris
Paris
in 1790, but gave up his career in medicine at the start of the Revolution. Chaumette began his political career as member of the Jacobin Club editing the progressive _Revolutions de Paris_ journal from 1790. His oratory skills proved him a valuable spokesperson of the Cordelier Club , and more importantly, the sans-culotte movement in the Parisian neighbourhood Sections . In August 1792 Chaumette became the Chief Procurator of the Commune of Paris
Paris
; on 31 October 1792 he was elected President of the Commune and was re-elected in the Municipal on 2 December of that same year. As member of the Paris Commune during the insurrection of 10 August 1792, he was delegated to visit the prisons, with full power to arrest suspects.

PRESIDENCY OF THE COMMUNE

His conduct, oratorical talent, and the fact that his private life was considered beyond reproach, all made him influential, and he was elected president of the Commune , defending the municipality at the bar of the National Convention
National Convention
on 31 October 1792. Re-elected in the municipal elections of 2 December 1792, he was soon given the functions of _procureur _ of the Commune, and contributed with success to the enrollments of volunteers in the army by his appeals to the population of Paris
Paris
. Chaumette held strong anti-monarchy views. He led a deputation from the Commune and argued before the National Convention that failing to punish Louis XVI
Louis XVI
for his crimes was causing high prixes and the fall of the assignat . Further, Chaumette held a strong opinion about the fate of Louis XVI
Louis XVI
after his fall. He was greatly outspoken in his demand for the king's blood. Chaumette’s thesis was that as long as Louis XVI
Louis XVI
went unpunished prices would remain high, and shortages and the profiteering that created them, which he assumed to be the work of the royalists, would go unchecked.

Chaumette was also a leading and vocal opponent of the Girondists . He was one of the instigators of the attacks of 31 May and of 2 June 1793 on the Girondists . Chaumette and Jacques Hébert acted as prosecutors on behalf of the Tribunal which tried the Girondists in October 1793.

Chaumette made a leading contribution to establishing the Reign of Terror . In early September 1793 there was fear and unrest in Paris over prices, food shortages, war and fears of a royalist betrayal. On 4 September Hebert appealed to the sections to join the Commune in petitioning the National Convention
National Convention
with radical demands. The next day, led by Chaumette and the mayor of Paris, Pache , crowds of citizens filled the Convention. Chaumette stood up on a table to declare that 'we now have open war between the rich and the poor' and urged the immediate mobilisation of the revolutionary army to go into the countryside, seize food supplies from hoarders and exact punishments on them. Robespierre
Robespierre
was presiding over the Convention's sessions that day, and Chaumette's demands, together with the shock of the recent betrayal of Toulon to the British, prompted the Convention to decree that 'Terror will be the order of the day'.

ROLE IN THE DECHRISTIANIZATION OF FRANCE

Chaumette is considered one of the ultra-radical _enragés _ of the French Revolution. He demanded the formation of a Revolutionary Army which was to "force avarice and greed to yield up the riches of the earth” in order to redistribute wealth, and feed troops and the urban populations. He is associated much more with his views on the de-Christianization movement , however. Chaumette was an ardent critic of Christianity, which he charged with consisting of "ridiculous ideas" that "have been very helpful to despotism." In his views, he was heavily influenced by atheist and materialist writers Paul d\'Holbach , Denis Diderot and Jean Meslier . Chaumette saw religion as a relic of superstitious eras that did not reflect the intellectual achievements of the Age of Enlightenment . Indeed, for Chaumette "church and counterrevolution were one and the same." Thus, he proceeded to pressure several priests and bishops into abjuring their positions. Chaumette organized a Festival of Reason on 10 November 1793, which boasted a Goddess of Reason , portrayed by an actress, on an elevated platform in the Notre Dame Cathedral. Chaumette was so passionately involved in the de-Christianization process that in December 1792 he even publicly changed his name from Pierre-Gaspard Chaumette to Anaxagoras Chaumette. He stated his reason for changing his name that, "I was formerly called Pierre-Gaspard Chaumette because my god-father believed in the saints. Since the revolution I have taken the name of a saint who was hanged for his republican principles." It has been suggested that his criticism was also influenced by the Church's stance on homosexual relations.

DOWNFALL

Chaumette's ultra-radical ideas on the economy, society and religion set him at odds with Robespierre
Robespierre
and the powerful circle around him and official opinion began to turn against him and the like-minded Hébertists . In September 1793, Robespierre
Robespierre
made a speech denouncing dechristianisation as aristocratic and immoral. Fabre d\'Églantine , himself under suspicion, produced a report for the Committee of Public Safety , alleging Chaumette's involvement in an anti-government plot, revealed by Chabot , although Chabot had never named Chaumette himself.

In the early spring of 1794, Chaumette increasingly became target of allegations that he was a counterrevolutionary. Hébert and his associates planned an armed uprising to overthrow Robespierre, but Chaumette, along with Hanriot , refused to take part. When the Hébertists were arrested on 4 March, Chaumette was originally spared, but on 13 March he too was arrested. The other Hébertists were executed on 24 March 1794 but Chaumette was held in prison until found guilty of taking part in the Luxembourg prison plot along with an unlikely group of co-conspirators including Lucile Desmoulins , wife of the recently executed Camille Desmoulins , Françoise Hebert , wife of the recently executed Hébert, Gobel , former Bishop of Paris, and an assortment of other prisoners of various types. All of the alleged conspirators were sentenced to death on the morning of 13 April and guillotined that same afternoon.

RADICAL PHILOSOPHY

Pierre-Gaspard Chaumette's legacy mainly consists of his ultra-radical philosophies that were regarded as excessive even by his contemporary colleagues. Especially his convictions on the uselessness of religion were frowned upon by deist Robespierre
Robespierre
and most other "moderate" Montagnards and they ultimately led to his execution.

REVIEWING SAINT-MARTIN

In 1790 Chaumette reviewed the work of Saint-Martin , a French Catholic philosopher wishing for a theocratic society in which the most devout people would commission and guide the rest of the population. The review provides a substantiated outline of Chaumette's philosophies. He criticizes Saint-Martin's ideal due to its similarity to France's feudal order before the Revolution in which the rule of the monarch was legitimized by the Divine right of kings
Divine right of kings
. The review soon develops into a much broader affront towards religion, though. Chaumette calls all Christians "enemies of reason", and calls their ideas "ridiculous." He wonders "over whom to get more embarrassed; him who believes he can deceive humans in the eighteenth century with such farces or him who has the weakness to let himself be deceived." He moves on to criticize the very notion of free will as construct that authorizes Christianity to proscribe certain "unmoral" actions.

His criticism is reminiscent of Friedrich Nietzsche who would denounce Christianity on many of the same grounds eighty years later. Just like Nietzsche, Chaumette emphasizes a greater reliance on our instincts and a greater embracing of the apparent world, instead of Christianity's concern with the afterlife. In his philosophy, he is rather critical of human beings stating that "everyone knows that humans are nothing more than what education makes of them; if one wants them just, one must furnish them with notions of fairness, not ideas from seventh heaven because the sources of all of human’s grief are ignorance and superstition.".

REFERENCES

* ^ Chronicle of the French Revolution, Longman, 1989 p.31 * ^ Chronicle of the French Revolution, Longman, 1989 p.31 * ^ Jervis, p.230, * ^ Citizens, Simon Schama, Penguin 1989 p.652 * ^ Jordan, p.69 * ^ Chronicle of the French Revolution, Longman 1989 p.379 * ^ Citizens, Simon Schama, Penguin 1989 p.758 * ^ Chronicle of the French Revolution, Longman 1989 p.365 * ^ Citizens, Simon Schama, Penguin 1989 p.758 * ^ Citizens, Simon Schama, Penguin 1989 p.758 * ^ Lytle, p.19 * ^ Chaumette, p.6 * ^ Chaumette, p.101 * ^ Jordan, p.70 * ^ Jervis, pp.238-9 * ^ Chronicle of the French Revolution, Longman 1989 p.311 * ^ Jones, p.471 * ^ Guérin, Daniel (1983). _Homosexualité et révolution_ (in French). Paris: Le vent du ch'min. * ^ The Terror, David Andress, Little, Brown 2005 p.253 * ^ The Terror, David Andress, Little, Brown 2005 p.254 * ^ Chronicle of the French Revolution, Longman 1989 p.409 * ^ Chronicle of the French Revolution, Longman 1989 p.410 * ^ Chronicle of the French Revolution, Longman 1989, p.416-417 * ^ Jordan, p.70 * ^ Chaumette, p.17 * ^ Chaumette, p.6 * ^ Chaumette, p.12 * ^ Chaumette, p.85

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* _ This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Chaumette, Pierre Gaspard". Encyclopædia Britannica _. 6 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 17. * Andress, David. The Terror. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2005. * Chaumette, Pierre-Gaspard. Schlüssel des Buchs: Irthümer und Wahrheit. Hildesheim, Germany: Georg Olms Verlag, 2004. * Guérin, Daniel. Homosexualité et Révolution, Le vent du ch'min, 1983. * Jaher, Frederic Cople. The Jews and the Nation: Revolution Emancipation, State Formation, and the Liberal Paradigm in America and France. New York: Princeton University Press, 2002. * Jervis, William Henley. The Gallican Church and the Revolution. France: K. Paul, Trench, border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 32107014 * LCCN : n92009595 * ISNI : 0000 0000 8111 3402 * GND : 120459175 * SUDOC : 034494235 * BNF : cb125245122 (data) * ULAN : 500354302

* v * t * e

French Revolution

* CAUSES * TIMELINE * ANCIEN RéGIME * REVOLUTION * CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY * REPUBLIC * DIRECTORY * CONSULATE * GLOSSARY

SIGNIFICANT CIVIL AND POLITICAL EVENTS BY YEAR

1788

* Day of the Tiles (7 Jun 1788) * Assembly of Vizille
Assembly of Vizille
(21 Jul 1788)

1789

* _ What Is the Third Estate? _ (Jan 1789) * Réveillon riots (28 Apr 1789) * Convocation of the Estates-General (5 May 1789) * National Assembly (17 Jun – 9 Jul 1790) * Tennis Court Oath (20 Jun 1789) * National Constituent Assembly (9 Jul – 30 Sep 1791) * Storming of the Bastille (14 Jul 1789) * Great Fear (20 Jul – 5 Aug 1789) * Abolition of Feudalism (4-11 Aug 1789) * Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (27 Aug 1789) * Women\'s March on Versailles (5 Oct 1789)

1790

* Abolition of the Parlements (Feb–Jul 1790) * Abolition of the Nobility (19 Jun 1790) * Civil Constitution of the Clergy (12 Jul 1790)

1791

* Flight to Varennes (20–21 Jun 1791) * Champ de Mars Massacre (17 Jul 1791) * Declaration of Pillnitz (27 Aug 1791) * The Constitution of 1791 (3 Sep 1791) * Legislative Assembly (1 Oct 1791 – Sep 1792)

1792

* France
France
declares war (20 Apr 1792) * Brunswick Manifesto (25 Jul 1792) * Paris
Paris
Commune becomes insurrectionary (Jun 1792) * 10th of August (10 Aug 1792) * September Massacres (Sep 1792) * National Convention
National Convention
(20 Sep 1792 – 26 Oct 1795) * First republic declared (22 Sep 1792)

1793

* Execution of Louis XVI
Louis XVI
(21 Jan 1793) * Revolutionary Tribunal (9 Mar 1793 – 31 May 1795)

* Reign of Terror (27 Jun 1793 – 27 Jul 1794)

* Committee of Public Safety * Committee of General Security

* Fall of the Girondists (2 Jun 1793) * Assassination of Marat (13 Jul 1793) * Levée en masse
Levée en masse
(23 Aug 1793) * Law of Suspects (17 Sep 1793) * Marie Antoinette
Marie Antoinette
is guillotined (16 Oct 1793) * Anti-clerical laws (throughout the year)

1794

* Danton and Desmoulins guillotined (5 Apr 1794) * Law of 22 Prairial (10 Jun 1794) * Thermidorian Reaction (27 Jul 1794) * Robespierre
Robespierre
guillotined (28 Jul 1794) * White Terror (Fall 1794) * Closing of the Jacobin Club (11 Nov 1794)

1795

* Constitution of the Year III (22 Aug 1795) * Conspiracy of the Equals
Conspiracy of the Equals
(Nov 1795)

* Directoire (1795–99)

* Council of Five Hundred
Council of Five Hundred
* Council of Ancients

1797

* Coup of 18 Fructidor (4 Sep 1797) * Second Congress of Rastatt (Dec 1797)

1799

* Coup of 30 Prairial VII (18 Jun 1799) * Coup of 18 Brumaire (9 Nov 1799) * Constitution of the Year VIII (24 Dec 1799) * Consulate

REVOLUTIONARY CAMPAIGNS

1792

* Verdun * Thionville * Valmy

* Royalist Revolts

* Chouannerie
Chouannerie
* Vendée * Dauphiné

* Lille * Siege of Mainz * Jemappes * Namur (fr)

1793

* First Coalition * Siege of Toulon
Siege of Toulon
(18 Sep – 18 Dec 1793) * War in the Vendée * Battle of Neerwinden) * Battle of Famars (23 May 1793) * Capture of San Pietro and Sant\'Antioco (25 May 1793) * Battle of Kaiserslautern * Siege of Mainz * Battle of Wattignies * Battle of Hondschoote * Siege of Bellegarde * Battle of Peyrestortes (Pyrenees) * First Battle of Wissembourg (13 Oct 1793) * Battle of Truillas (Pyrenees) * Second Battle of Wissembourg (26–27 Dec 1793)

1794

* Battle of Villers-en-Cauchies (24 Apr 1794) * Battle of Boulou (Pyrenees) (30 Apr – 1 May 1794) * Battle of Tournay (22 May 1794) * Battle of Fleurus (26 Jun 1794) * Chouannerie
Chouannerie
* Battle of Tourcoing (18 May 1794) * Battle of Aldenhoven (2 Oct 1794)

1795

* Peace of Basel

1796

* Battle of Lonato (3–4 Aug 1796) * Battle of Castiglione (5 Aug 1796) * Battle of Theiningen * Battle of Neresheim (11 Aug 1796) * Battle of Amberg (24 Aug 1796) * Battle of Würzburg (3 Sep 1796) * Battle of Rovereto
Battle of Rovereto
(4 Sep 1796) * First Battle of Bassano
Battle of Bassano
(8 Sep 1796) * Battle of Emmendingen (19 Oct 1796) * Battle of Schliengen (26 Oct 1796) * Second Battle of Bassano
Battle of Bassano
(6 Nov 1796) * Battle of Calliano (6–7 Nov 1796) * Battle of the Bridge of Arcole (15–17 Nov 1796) * The Ireland Expedition (Dec 1796)

1797

* Naval Engagement off Brittany (13 Jan 1797) * Battle of Rivoli
Battle of Rivoli
(14–15 Jan 1797) * Battle of the Bay of Cádiz (25 Jan 1797) * Treaty of Leoben
Treaty of Leoben
(17 Apr 1797) * Battle of Neuwied (18 Apr 1797) * Treaty of Campo Formio (17 Oct 1797)

1798

* French invasion of Switzerland (28 January – 17 May 1798) * French Invasion of Egypt (1798–1801) * Irish Rebellion of 1798 (23 May – 23 Sep 1798) * Quasi-War (1798–1800) * Peasants\' War (12 Oct – 5 Dec 1798)

1799

* Second Coalition (1798–1802) * Siege of Acre (20 Mar – 21 May 1799) * Battle of Ostrach (20–21 Mar 1799) * Battle of Stockach (25 Mar 1799) * Battle of Magnano (5 Apr 1799) * Battle of Cassano (27 Apr 1799) * First Battle of Zurich (4–7 Jun 1799) * Battle of Trebbia (19 Jun 1799) * Battle of Novi (15 Aug 1799) * Second Battle of Zurich (25–26 Sep 1799)

1800

* Battle of Marengo (14 Jun 1800) * Battle of Hohenlinden (3 Dec 1800) * League of Armed Neutrality (1800–02)

1801

* Treaty of Lunéville (9 Feb 1801) * Treaty of Florence (18 Mar 1801) * Algeciras Campaign
Algeciras Campaign
(8 Jul 1801)

1802

* Treaty of Amiens (25 Mar 1802)

MILITARY LEADERS

FRENCH ARMY

* Eustache Charles d\'Aoust * Pierre Augereau * Alexandre de Beauharnais
Alexandre de Beauharnais
* Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte * Louis-Alexandre Berthier * Jean-Baptiste Bessières * Guillaume-Marie-Anne Brune * Jean François Carteaux * Jean Étienne Championnet * Chapuis de Tourville * Adam Philippe, Comte de Custine
Adam Philippe, Comte de Custine
* Louis-Nicolas Davout * Louis Desaix * Jacques François Dugommier * Thomas-Alexandre Dumas
Thomas-Alexandre Dumas
* Charles François Dumouriez * Pierre Marie Barthélemy Ferino * Louis-Charles de Flers * Paul Grenier
Paul Grenier
* Emmanuel de Grouchy * Jacques Maurice Hatry * Lazare Hoche * Jean-Baptiste Jourdan * François Christophe de Kellermann
François Christophe de Kellermann
* Jean-Baptiste Kléber * Pierre Choderlos de Laclos * Jean Lannes
Jean Lannes
* Charles Leclerc
Charles Leclerc
* Claude Lecourbe * François Joseph Lefebvre * Jacques MacDonald * Jean-Antoine Marbot * Jean Baptiste de Marbot * François Séverin Marceau-Desgraviers * Auguste de Marmont
Auguste de Marmont
* André Masséna * Bon-Adrien Jeannot de Moncey * Jean Victor Marie Moreau
Jean Victor Marie Moreau
* Édouard Mortier, duc de Trévise * Joachim Murat
Joachim Murat
* Michel Ney * Pierre-Jacques Osten (fr) * Nicolas Oudinot
Nicolas Oudinot
* Catherine-Dominique de Pérignon * Jean-Charles Pichegru * Józef Poniatowski * Laurent de Gouvion Saint-Cyr
Laurent de Gouvion Saint-Cyr
* Barthélemy Louis Joseph Schérer * Jean-Mathieu-Philibert Sérurier * Joseph Souham
Joseph Souham
* Jean-de-Dieu Soult * Louis-Gabriel Suchet * Belgrand de Vaubois * Claude Victor-Perrin, Duc de Belluno
Claude Victor-Perrin, Duc de Belluno

FRENCH NAVY

* Charles-Alexandre Linois

OPPOSITION

AUSTRIA

* József Alvinczi * Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen * Count of Clerfayt (Walloon) * Karl Aloys zu Fürstenberg * Friedrich Freiherr von Hotze
Friedrich Freiherr von Hotze
(Swiss) * Friedrich Adolf, Count von Kalckreuth
Friedrich Adolf, Count von Kalckreuth
* Pál Kray (Hungarian) * Charles Eugene, Prince of Lambesc (French) * Maximilian Baillet de Latour (Walloon) * Karl Mack von Leiberich
Karl Mack von Leiberich
* Rudolf Ritter von Otto (Saxon) * Prince Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld * Peter Vitus von Quosdanovich
Peter Vitus von Quosdanovich
* Prince Heinrich XV of Reuss-Plauen * Johann Mészáros von Szoboszló (Hungarian) * Karl Philipp Sebottendorf * Dagobert von Wurmser

BRITAIN

* Sir Ralph Abercromby * Admiral Sir James Saumarez * Admiral Sir Edward Pellew * Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany

DUTCH REPUBLIC

* William V, Prince of Orange
William V, Prince of Orange

PRUSSIA

* Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel * Frederick Louis, Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen

RUSSIA

* Alexander Korsakov * Alexander Suvorov

SPAIN

* Luis Firmin de Carvajal * Antonio Ricardos

OTHER SIGNIFICANT FIGURES AND FACTIONS

SOCIETY OF 1789

* Jean Sylvain Bailly * Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette * François Alexandre Frédéric, duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt * Isaac René Guy le Chapelier * Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau * Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès * Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord * Nicolas de Condorcet

Feuillants and _monarchiens _

* Madame de Lamballe * Madame du Barry
Madame du Barry
* Louis de Breteuil * Loménie de Brienne * Charles Alexandre de Calonne
Charles Alexandre de Calonne
* de Chateaubriand * Jean Chouan * Grace Elliott * Arnaud de La Porte * Jean-Sifrein Maury * Jacques Necker
Jacques Necker
* François-Marie, marquis de Barthélemy * Guillaume-Mathieu Dumas * Antoine Barnave * Lafayette * Alexandre-Théodore-Victor, comte de Lameth * Charles Malo François Lameth * André Chénier * Jean-François Rewbell * Camille Jordan * Madame de Staël * Boissy d\'Anglas * Jean-Charles Pichegru * Pierre Paul Royer-Collard
Pierre Paul Royer-Collard

GIRONDISTS

* Jacques Pierre Brissot * Roland de La Platière * Madame Roland
Madame Roland
* Father Henri Grégoire * Étienne Clavière * Marquis de Condorcet * Charlotte Corday
Charlotte Corday
* Marie Jean Hérault * Jean Baptiste Treilhard
Jean Baptiste Treilhard
* Pierre Victurnien Vergniaud * Bertrand Barère
Bertrand Barère
de Vieuzac * Jérôme Pétion de Villeneuve * Jean Debry * Jean-Jacques Duval d\'Eprémesnil * Olympe de Gouges * Jean-Baptiste Robert Lindet
Jean-Baptiste Robert Lindet
* Louis Marie de La Révellière-Lépeaux

THE PLAIN

* Abbé Sieyès * de Cambacérès * Charles François Lebrun * Lazare Nicolas Marguerite Carnot * Philippe Égalité * Louis Philippe I * Mirabeau * Antoine Christophe Merlin
Antoine Christophe Merlin
de Thionville * Jean Joseph Mounier * Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours * François de Neufchâteau

MONTAGNARDS

* Maximilien Robespierre * Georges Danton * Jean-Paul Marat * Camille Desmoulins * Louis Antoine de Saint-Just * Paul Nicolas, vicomte de Barras * Louis Philippe I * Louis Michel le Peletier de Saint-Fargeau * Jacques-Louis David * Marquis de Sade * Jacques-Louis David * Georges Couthon * Roger Ducos * Jean-Marie Collot d\'Herbois * Jean-Henri Voulland * Philippe-Antoine Merlin de Douai
Philippe-Antoine Merlin de Douai
* Antoine Quentin Fouquier-Tinville * Philippe-François-Joseph Le Bas * Marc-Guillaume Alexis Vadier * Jean-Pierre-André Amar * Prieur de la Côte-d\'Or * Prieur de la Marne * Gilbert Romme
Gilbert Romme
* Jean Bon Saint-André * Jean-Lambert Tallien
Jean-Lambert Tallien
* Pierre Louis Prieur * Bertrand Barère
Bertrand Barère
de Vieuzac * Antoine Christophe Saliceti

Hébertists and _ Enragés _

* Jacques Hébert * Jacques Nicolas Billaud-Varenne * Pierre Gaspard Chaumette * Charles-Philippe Ronsin * Antoine-François Momoro * François-Nicolas Vincent * François Chabot * Jean Baptiste Noël Bouchotte * Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Gobel * François Hanriot * Jacques Roux * Stanislas-Marie Maillard * Charles-Philippe Ronsin * Jean-François Varlet * Theophile Leclerc * Claire Lacombe * Pauline Léon * Gracchus Babeuf * Sylvain Maréchal

OTHERS

* Charles X * Louis XVI
Louis XVI
* Louis XVII * Louis XVIII * Louis Antoine, Duke of Enghien * Louis Henri, Prince of Condé * Louis Joseph, Prince of Condé * Marie Antoinette
Marie Antoinette
* Napoléon Bonaparte * Lucien Bonaparte * Joseph Bonaparte
Joseph Bonaparte
* Joseph Fesch
Joseph Fesch
* Joséphine de Beauharnais
Joséphine de Beauharnais
* Joachim Murat
Joachim Murat
* Jean Sylvain Bailly * Jacques-Donatien Le Ray * Guillaume-Chrétien de Malesherbes * Talleyrand * Thérésa Tallien
Thérésa Tallien
* Gui-Jean-Baptiste Target
Gui-Jean-Baptiste Target
* Catherine Théot * List of people associated with the French Revolution

INFLUENTIAL THINKERS

* _Les Lumières _ * Beaumarchais * Edmund Burke
Edmund Burke
* Anacharsis Cloots
Anacharsis Cloots
* Charles-Augustin de Coulomb * Pierre Claude François Daunou * Diderot * Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
* Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
* Antoine Lavoisier * Montesquieu
Montesquieu
* Thomas Paine * Jean-Jacques Rousseau * Abbé Sieyès * Voltaire
Voltaire
* Mary Wollstonecraft
Mary Wollstonecraft

CULTURAL IMPACT

* _ La Marseillaise _ * French Tricolour * _ Liberté, égalité, fraternité _ * Marianne
Marianne
* Bastille Day
Bastille Day
* Panthéon * French Republican Calendar * Cult of the Supreme Being
Cult of the Supreme Being

* Cult of Reason

* Temple of Reason

* Sans-culottes * Metric system * Phrygian cap * Women in the French Revolution * Symbolism in the French Revolution * Historiography of the French Revolution * Influence of the French Revolution

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