Pierre Caroli (born 1480 in Rozay-en-Brie, died in 1550, possibly in
Rome) was a French refugee and religious figure.
He was a Doctor of theology of the University of Paris, and was
receptive to the ideas of the Protestant Reformation. However, he
entered into open confrontation with John Calvin, the central figure
of French Protestantism. In a theological dispute, Caroli accused
Guillaume Farel of
Arianism and Sabellianism.
Caroli was a teacher of theology in
Paris in 1520. There he had been
under the influence of a leader of the humanists, Jacques Faber
Stapulensis (Lefèvre d'Etaples), and belonged to the group supporting
the return of the bishop Guillaume Briçonnet de Meaux. He was
professor in the Sorbonne for some years. However, in 1525, his theses
Epistles of Paul
Epistles of Paul had unleashed an attack on him by of the
censorship, and he was expelled from the Sorbonne.
The sister of the king, Margaret of Angoulême, called on his services
and gave him in 1530 a position in a parish in Alençon. In 1534, the
Protestants were persecuted. Like Calvin, Caroli was a fugitive. He
Geneva in 1535 and joined Farel there. Shortly afterwards he
went to Basel, where he studied
Hebrew and became a friend of Simon
Grynaeus and Oswald Myconius. In 1536 he took part in the great
theological dispute in Lausanne, supporting the reformation cause.
In consequence of his participation in the dispute, he gained
recognition in Bern, which nominated him as the first pastor of
Lausanne. He entered then into conflict with Calvin and Farel, having
run away from Lausanne, leaving his wife and abandoning the Protestant
faith. The government of
Bern banished Caroli in 1537. Caroli moved to
Montpellier. Expelled from France, he went in 1539 to Neuenberg, where
he made peace with the Swiss reformers, without however receiving any
^ http://www.hls-dhs-dss.ch/textes/f/F11070.php (French language)
(in French) Reinhard Bodenmann, Les perdants.
Pierre Caroli et les
débuts de la Réforme en Romandie (= Nugae humanisticae sub signo
Erasmi 19), Turnhout, 2016 (ISBN