PIERRE BAYLE (French: ; 18 November 1647 – 28 December 1706) was a French philosopher and writer best known for his seminal work the Historical and Critical Dictionary , published beginning in 1697.
Bayle was a Protestant . As a forerunner of the Encyclopedists and an advocate of the principle of the toleration of divergent beliefs, his works subsequently influenced the development of the Enlightenment .
* 1 Biography
* 2 Works
* 2.1 Views on toleration
* 3 Skepticism * 4 Editions * 5 Legacy and honors * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 Sources * 9 External links
Bayle was born at
Carla-le-Comte (later renamed
Carla-Bayle in his
Pamiers , Ariège , France. He was educated by his
father, a Calvinist minister, and at an academy at
Puylaurens . He
afterwards entered a
Jesuit college at
There he became acquainted with the teachings of René Descartes . He returned to France and went to Paris, where for some years he worked under the name of Bèle as a tutor for various families. In 1675 he was appointed to the chair of philosophy at the Protestant Academy of Sedan . In 1681 the university at Sedan was suppressed by the government in action against Protestants.
Just before that event, Bayle had fled to the
Dutch Republic , where
he almost immediately was appointed professor of philosophy and
history at the École Illustre in
At Rotterdam, Bayle published his famous Pensées diverses écrites à un docteur de Sorbonne à l\'occasion de la Comète qui parut au mois de décembre 1680 (fr) in 1682, as well as his critique of Louis Maimbourg 's work on the history of Calvinism. The reputation achieved by this critique stirred the envy of Pierre Jurieu , Bayle's Calvinist colleague of both Sedan and Rotterdam, who had written a book on the same subject.
Between 1684 and 1687, Bayle published his Nouvelles de la république des lettres, a journal of literary criticism. In 1686, Bayle published the first two volumes of Philosophical Commentary , an early plea for toleration in religious matters. This was followed by volumes three and four in 1687 and 1688.
In 1690 there appeared a work entitled Avis important aux refugies , which Jurieu attributed to Bayle, whom he attacked with great animosity. After losing his chair, Bayle engaged in the preparation of his massive Dictionnaire Historique et Critique (Historical and Critical Dictionary), which effectively constituted one of the first encyclopaedias (before the term had come into wide circulation) of ideas and their originators. In the Dictionary, Bayle expressed his view that much that was considered to be "truth" was actually just opinion, and that gullibility and stubbornness were prevalent. The Dictionary would remain an important scholarly work for several generations after its publication.
The remaining years of Bayle's life were devoted to miscellaneous writings. In many cases, he was responding to criticisms made of his Dictionary.
The Nouvelles de la république des lettres was the first
thorough-going attempt to popularise literature, and it was eminently
successful. His multi-volume Historical and Critical Dictionary
constitutes Bayle's masterpiece. The English translation of The
Dictionary, by Bayle's fellow Huguenot exile
Pierre des Maizeaux , was
identified by U.S. President
VIEWS ON TOLERATION
In his Dictionnaire historique and critique and Commentaire Philosophique, he advanced arguments for religious toleration .
Bayle rejected the use of scripture to justify coercion and violence: "One must transcribe almost the whole New Testament to collect all the Proofs it affords us of that Gentleness and Long-suffering, which constitute the distinguishing and essential Character of the Gospel." He did not regard toleration as a danger to the state, but to the contrary:
"If the Multiplicity of Religions prejudices the State, it proceeds from their not bearing with one another but on the contrary endeavouring each to crush and destroy the other by methods of Persecution. In a word, all the Mischief arises not from Toleration, but from the want of it."
Bayle also rejected the use of coercion and violence in the universities,
It will be an everlasting subject of wonder to persons who know what philosophy is, to find that Aristotle's authority had been so much respected in the schools for several ages, that when a disputant quoted a passage from that philosopher, he who maintained the thesis, durst not say “Transeat," but must either deny the passage, or explain it in his own way—just as we treat the Holy Scriptures in the divinity schools. The parliaments, which have proscribed all other philosophy but that of Aristotle, are more excusable than the doctors; for whether the members of the parliament were really persuaded that that philosophy was the best of any, or whether they were not, the public good might have induced them to prohibit the new opinions, for fear the academical divisions should spread their malignant influences on the tranquility of the state.
Richard Popkin has advanced the view that
"It is a guide that leads one astray; and philosophy can be compared to some powders that are so corrosive that, after they have eaten away the infected flesh of a wound, they then devour the living flesh, rot the bones, and penetrate to the very marrow. Philosophy at first refutes errors. But if it is not stopped at this point, it goes on to attack truths. And when it is left on its own, it goes so far that it no longer knows where it is and can find no stopping place."
* Pensées Diverses sur l'Occasion de la Comète, (1682) translated
as Various Thoughts on the Occasion of the Comet (2000) by Robert C.
Bartlett, SUNY Press.
* Historical and Critical Dictionary (1695–1697; 1702, enlarged;
best that of P. des Maizeaux, 4 vols., 1740)
* Œuvres diverses, 5 vols., The Hague, 1727–31; anastatic
reprint: Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 1964-68.
* Selections in English:
LEGACY AND HONORS
* In 1906 a statue in his honor was erected at Pamiers, la reparation d'un long oubli ("the reparation of a long neglect"). * In 1959 a street was named after him in Rotterdam.
* ^ Dale Jacquette, David Hume\'s Critique of Infinity, Brill, pp. 22–23, 25–28 * ^ A B C D E F Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Bayle, Pierre". Encyclopædia Britannica . 3 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 557. * ^ Palmer, R.R. ; Joel Colton (1995). A History of the Modern World. New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 301–302. ISBN 0-07-040826-2 . * ^ LoConte, Joseph (May 2009). "The Golden Rule of Toleration". Christianity Today. Retrieved 2017-01-21. * ^ Aristotle p. 155-158 from Bayle\'s dictionary volume 1 * ^ A B Popkin, Richard (2003). The History of Skepticism. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 288. ISBN 0-19-510767-5 .
* This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Bayle, Pierre". Encyclopædia Britannica . 3 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 557.
* Elisabeth Labrousse, Pierre Bayle, La Haye: Martinus Nijhoff, 1963–4 (2 volumes). (in French) * Elisabeth Labrousse, Bayle, translated by Denys Potts, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983. * Thomas M. Lennon, Reading Bayle, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1999. * Todd Ryan, Pierre Bayle's Cartesian Metaphysics: Rediscovering Early Modern Philosophy, New York: Routledge, 2009..