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PICCADILLY CIRCUS is a road junction and public space of London
London
's West End in the City of Westminster
City of Westminster
, built in 1819 to connect Regent Street with Piccadilly
Piccadilly
. In this context, a circus, from the Latin word meaning "circle", is a round open space at a street junction.

Piccadilly
Piccadilly
now links directly to the theatres on Shaftesbury Avenue , as well as the Haymarket , Coventry Street
Coventry Street
(onwards to Leicester Square ) and Glasshouse Street. The Circus is close to major shopping and entertainment areas in the West End. Its status as a major traffic junction has made Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Circus a busy meeting place and a tourist attraction in its own right. The Circus is particularly known for its video display and neon signs mounted on the corner building on the northern side, as well as the Shaftesbury
Shaftesbury
memorial fountain and statue, which is popularly, though mistakenly, believed to be of Eros . It is surrounded by several notable buildings, including the London Pavilion and Criterion Theatre
Criterion Theatre
. Directly underneath the plaza is Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Circus tube station , part of the London
London
Underground system.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 2 Location and sights

* 2.1 Illuminated signs * 2.2 Shaftesbury
Shaftesbury
Memorial and the statue of Anteros
Anteros
* 2.3 Criterion Theatre
Criterion Theatre
* 2.4 London
London
Pavilion * 2.5 Major shops

* 3 Underground station and the Bakerloo and Piccadilly
Piccadilly
lines * 4 Demonstrations * 5 Popular culture * 6 See also

* 7 References

* 7.1 Notes * 7.2 Sources

* 8 External links

HISTORY

Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Circus in 1949 Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Circus in 1896, with a view towards Leicester Square via Coventry Street. London
London
Pavilion is on the left, and Criterion Theatre
Criterion Theatre
on the right. Piccadilly Circus in 1962 Signs in 1992 Picadilly Circus in 2016

Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Circus connects to Piccadilly
Piccadilly
, a thoroughfare whose name first appeared in 1626 as Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Hall, named after a house belonging to one Robert Baker, a tailor famous for selling piccadills , or piccadillies, a term used for various kinds of collars . The street was known as Portugal Street in 1692 in honour of Catherine of Braganza , the queen consort of King Charles II but was known as Piccadilly
Piccadilly
by 1743. Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Circus was created in 1819, at the junction with Regent Street
Regent Street
, which was then being built under the planning of John Nash on the site of a house and garden belonging to a Lady Hutton. Around 1858 it was briefly known as Regent's Circus. The circus lost its circular form in 1886 with the construction of Shaftesbury
Shaftesbury
Avenue.

The junction has been a very busy traffic interchange since construction, as it lies at the centre of Theatreland and handles exit traffic from Piccadilly, which Charles Dickens, Jr.
Charles Dickens, Jr.
described in 1879: "Piccadilly, the great thoroughfare leading from the Haymarket and Regent-street westward to Hyde Park-corner , is the nearest approach to the Parisian boulevard of which London
London
can boast."

The Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Circus tube station was opened 10 March 1906, on the Bakerloo line, and on the Piccadilly
Piccadilly
line in December of that year. In 1928, the station was extensively rebuilt to handle an increase in traffic. The junction's first electric advertisements appeared in 1910, and, from 1923, electric billboards were set up on the façade of the London
London
Pavilion . Traffic lights were first installed on 3 August 1926.

During World War II
World War II
many servicemen's clubs in the West End served American soldiers based in Britain. So many prostitutes roamed the area approaching the soldiers that they received the nickname " Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Commandos", and both Scotland Yard
Scotland Yard
and the Foreign Office discussed possible damage to Anglo-American relations.

At the start of the 1960s, it was determined that the Circus needed to be redeveloped to allow for greater traffic flow. In 1962, Lord Holford presented a plan which would have created a "double-decker" Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Circus; the upper deck would have been an elevated pedestrian concourse linking the buildings around the perimeter of the Circus, with the lower deck being solely for traffic, most of the ground-level pedestrian areas having been removed to allow for greater vehicle flow. This concept was kept alive throughout the rest of the 1960s. A final scheme in 1972 proposed three octagonal towers (the highest 240 feet (73 m) tall) to replace the Trocadero, the Criterion and the "Monico" buildings. The plans were permanently rejected by Sir Keith Joseph
Sir Keith Joseph
and Ernest Marples
Ernest Marples
; the key reason given was that Holford's scheme only allowed for a 20% increase in traffic, and the Government required 50%.

The Holford plan is referenced in the short-form documentary film "Goodbye, Piccadilly", produced by the Rank Organisation in 1967 as part of their Look at Life series when it was still seriously expected that Holford's recommendations would be acted upon. Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Circus has since escaped major redevelopment, apart from extensive ground-level pedestrianisation around its south side in the 1980s.

The Shaftesbury
Shaftesbury
Memorial Fountain in Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Circus was erected in 1893 to commemorate the philanthropic works of Anthony Ashley Cooper, 7th Earl of Shaftesbury
Shaftesbury
. During the Second World War
Second World War
, the statue atop the Shaftesbury
Shaftesbury
Memorial Fountain was removed and was replaced by advertising hoardings. It was returned in 1948. When the Circus underwent reconstruction work in the late 1980s, the entire fountain was moved from the centre of the junction at the beginning of Shaftesbury Avenue to its present position at the southwestern corner.

LOCATION AND SIGHTS

Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Circus is surrounded by several major tourist attractions, including the Shaftesbury
Shaftesbury
Memorial, Criterion Theatre
Criterion Theatre
, London Pavilion and several major retail stores. Numerous nightclubs, restaurants and bars are located in the area and neighbouring Soho
Soho
, including the former Chinawhite club. Panorama
Panorama
of Piccadilly Circus in 2015 from the southern side in front of Lillywhites

ILLUMINATED SIGNS

Illuminated signs of Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Circus at dawn, 2014 The Ballet of Change: Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Circus screening on the Coca-Cola Billboard, 2007

Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Circus was surrounded by illuminated advertising hoardings on buildings, starting in 1908 with a Perrier sign, but only one building now carries them, the one in the northwestern corner between Shaftesbury Avenue and Glasshouse Street. The site is unnamed (usually referred to as "Monico" after the Café Monico , which used to be on the site); its addresses are 44/48 Regent Street, 1/6 Sherwood Street, 17/22 Denman Street and 1/17 Shaftesbury Avenue , and it has been owned by property investor Land Securities Group
Land Securities Group
since the 1970s.

The earliest signs used incandescent light bulbs ; these were replaced with neon lights and with moving signs (there was a large Guinness
Guinness
clock at one time). The first Neon sign was for the British meat extract Bovril . From December 1998, digital projectors were used for the Coke sign, the square's first digital billboard, while in the 2000s there was a gradual move to LED displays, which completely replaced neon lamps by 2011. The number of signs has reduced over the years as the rental costs have increased.

During 2017, the current six advertising screens will be combined into one large ultra-high definition curved Daktronics display, turning the signs off during renovation for the longest time since the 1940s. The current signs were switched off on 16 January 2017, with the new screen expected to take their place in the autumn.

As of 2016, the site has six LED advertising screens above three large retail units facing Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Circus on the north side, occupied by Boots , Gap and a mix of smaller retail, restaurant and office premises fronting the other streets. A Burger King
Burger King
located under the Samsung
Samsung
advert, which had been a Wimpy Bar until 1989, closed in early 2008 and was converted into a Barclays
Barclays
Bank.

* Coca-Cola
Coca-Cola
has had a sign at Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Circus since 1954. The current placed sign dates from September 2003, when the previous digital projector board and the site that had been occupied by Nescafé was replaced with a state-of-the-art LED video display that curves round with the building. Before Nescafé, a neon advertisement for Foster\'s occupied the spot from 1987 until 1999, and from 1978 to 1987 it was used by Philips
Philips
Electronics . On 23 November 2007, the first film was broadcast through the board. The screen also displays information about line closures and delays on the London
London
Underground . Paul Atherton 's film The Ballet of Change: Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Circus was allowed five minutes to show the first non-commercial film depicting the history of Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Circus and the lights. The former, for several months in 2002, replacing the Nescafé sign, was a sign featuring the quote "Imagine all the people living life in peace" by Beatle John Lennon
John Lennon
. This was paid for by his widow Yoko Ono
Yoko Ono
, who spent an estimated £150,000 to display an advert at this location. * Hyundai Motors sign launched on 29 September 2011. It replaced a sign for Sanyo
Sanyo
which had occupied the space since around early 1988 (slightly modified in 2004), the last to be run by traditional neon lights rather than Hyundai's computerised LED screen. Earlier Sanyo signs with older logos had occupied the position since 1978, although these were only half the size of the current space. * McDonald\'s added its sign in 1987, replacing one for BASF
BASF
. The sign was changed from neon to LED in 2001. A bigger, brighter screen was installed by Daktronics in 2008. * Samsung
Samsung
added its sign in November 1994, the space having been previously occupied by Canon (1978–84) and Panasonic
Panasonic
(1984–94). The sign was changed from neon to LED in summer 2005. The screen was upgraded and improved in autumn 2011. * One Piccadilly, the highest resolution of all the LED displays was installed by Daktronics, in late 2013, underneath the Samsung
Samsung
and McDonald's
McDonald's
signs. It allows other companies to advertise for both short- and long-term leases, increasing the amount of advertising space but using the same screen for multiple brands. Prior to this an earlier, smaller LED screen called Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Lite occupied the space from 3 December 2007 to 2013. The space has also been occupied by JVC (1978–84), Carlsberg (1984–2003) and Budweiser (2003–07). * The Curve, a similar space to One Picadilly, was added in 2015, replacing a space previously occupied by Schweppes (1920–61), BP (1961–67), Cinzano (1967–78), Fujifilm
Fujifilm
(1978–86), Kodak (1986–90) and TDK (1990-2015). Burberry
Burberry
is currently using the space as of December 2015. * LG were added in February 2007 on the roof of Coventry House, which diagonally faces Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Circus. Their sign is a large LED video advertising display for LGE, the British arm of the South Korean electronics group. The new display also incorporates a scrolling ticker of Sky News
Sky News
headlines. Before LG, Vodafone
Vodafone
had a neon sign installed on that spot, which displayed both their logo and personal messages that could be submitted on a special website and displayed at a certain time and date.

On special occasions the lights are switched off, such as the deaths of Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
in 1965 and Diana, Princess of Wales
Diana, Princess of Wales
in 1997. On 21 June 2007, they were switched off for one hour as part of the Lights Out London
London
campaign.

Other companies and brands that have had signs on the site were Bovril , Volkswagen
Volkswagen
, Max Factor
Max Factor
, Wrigley\'s Spearmint , Skol
Skol
, Air India and Gold Flake (as Will's Gold Flake Cigarettes).

SHAFTESBURY MEMORIAL AND THE STATUE OF ANTEROS

Main article: Shaftesbury
Shaftesbury
Memorial Fountain Tourists sitting on the steps of the Shaftesbury
Shaftesbury
Memorial Fountain

At the southeastern side of the Circus, moved after World War II
World War II
from its original position in the centre, stands the Shaftesbury
Shaftesbury
Memorial Fountain , erected in 1892–1893 to commemorate the philanthropic works of Lord Shaftesbury
Shaftesbury
, a Victorian politician , philanthropist and social reformer. The subject of the Memorial is the Greek god Anteros
Anteros
and was given the name The Angel of Christian Charity but is generally mistaken for his brother Eros
Eros
.

CRITERION THEATRE

Main article: Criterion Theatre
Criterion Theatre

The Criterion Theatre
Criterion Theatre
, a Grade II* listed building , stands on the south side of Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Circus. Apart from the box office area, the entire theatre, with nearly 600 seats, is underground and is reached by descending a tiled stairway. Columns
Columns
are used to support both the dress circle and the upper circle, restricting the views of many of the seats inside.

The theatre was designed by Thomas Verity and opened as a theatre on 21 March 1874, although original plans were for it to become a concert hall. In 1883, it was forced to close to improve ventilation and to replace gaslights with electric lights and was reopened the following year. The theatre closed in 1989 and was extensively renovated, reopening in October 1992.

LONDON PAVILION

Main article: London
London
Pavilion

On the northeastern side of Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Circus, on the corner between Shaftesbury Avenue and Coventry Street, is the London
London
Pavilion . The first building bearing the name was built in 1859 and was a music hall . In 1885, Shaftesbury Avenue was built through the former site of the Pavilion, and a new London
London
Pavilion was constructed, which also served as a music hall. In 1924 electric billboards were erected on the side of the building. Facade of the London
London
Pavilion in 2002

In 1934, the building underwent significant structural alteration and was converted into a cinema . In 1986, the building was rebuilt, preserving the 1885 facade, and converted into a shopping arcade . In 2000, the building was connected to the neighbouring Trocadero Centre , and signage on the building was altered in 2003 to read "London Trocadero". The basement of the building connects with Piccadilly Circus tube station .

MAJOR SHOPS

The former Swan & Edgar department store on the west side of the circus between Piccadilly
Piccadilly
and Regent Street
Regent Street
was built in 1928–29 to a design by Reginald Blomfield
Reginald Blomfield
. Since the closure of the department store in the early 1980s, the building has been successively the flagship London
London
store of music chains Tower Records , Virgin Megastore and Zavvi . The current occupier is clothing brand The Sting .

Lillywhites is a major retailer of sporting goods located on the corner of the circus and Lower Regent Street, next to the Shaftesbury fountain. It moved to its present site in 1925. Lillywhites is popular with tourists, and they regularly offer sale items, including international football jerseys up to 90% off. Nearby Fortnum "> Inside Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Circus tube station Main article: Piccadilly Circus tube station

The Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Circus station on the London
London
Underground is located directly beneath Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Circus itself, with entrances at every corner. It is one of the few stations which have no associated buildings above ground and is fully underground. The below ground concourse and subway entrances are Grade II listed .

The station is on the Piccadilly
Piccadilly
line between Green Park
Green Park
and Leicester Square , and the Bakerloo line between Charing Cross and Oxford Circus
Oxford Circus
.

DEMONSTRATIONS

The Circus' status as a high-profile public space has made it the destination for numerous political demonstrations, including the February 15, 2003 anti-war protest and the "Carnival Against Capitalism" protest against the 39th G8 summit
39th G8 summit
in 2013.

POPULAR CULTURE

Main article: Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Circus in popular culture Picadilly Circus, 1969; From the portfolio Untitled (Five Overpainted Picadilly Prints).

The phrase it's like Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Circus is commonly used in the UK to refer to a place or situation which is extremely busy with people. It has been said that a person who stays long enough at Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Circus will eventually bump into everyone they know. Probably because of this connection, during World War II, " Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Circus" was the code name given to the Allies' D-Day
D-Day
invasion fleet's assembly location in the English Channel.

Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Circus has inspired artists and musicians. Piccadilly Circus (1912) is the name and subject of a painting by British artist Charles Ginner , part of the Tate Britain
Tate Britain
collection. Sculptor Paul McCarthy also has a 320-page two-volume edition of video stills by the name of Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Circus. Bob Marley
Bob Marley
mentioned Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Circus in his song "Kinky Reggae", on the Catch a Fire
Catch a Fire
album from 1973.

L. S. Lowry
L. S. Lowry
R.A painting ' Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Circus, London' (1960), part of Lord Charles Forte 's collection for almost three decades, sold for £5,641,250 when auctioned for the first time at Christie's 20th Century British border:solid #aaa 1px">

* London
London
portal

* Cambridge Circus, London
London
* Chinawhite (nightclub)
Chinawhite (nightclub)
* Oxford Circus
Oxford Circus
* Punto Obelisco
Punto Obelisco
(Obelisk Point, Buenos Aires) * Shaftesbury Avenue * Shibuya
Shibuya
, noted public space and crossroads in Tokyo
Tokyo
* Times Square
Times Square
, noted road junction and public space in New York * Yonge-Dundas Square
Yonge-Dundas Square
a major public square with commercial signage in Toronto
Toronto

REFERENCES

NOTES

* ^ "circus", Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
2nd Edition 1989 * ^ Rammell’s 1858 map of original Pneumatic Despatch Railway routes and terminii (Credit: Royal Mail Group Ltd. 2013), 1858, retrieved 13 April 2015 * ^ Tweedie, Neil (1 November 2005). "How our Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Commandos had the GIs surrounded". The Telegraph. Retrieved 21 September 2013. * ^ Pevsner & Cherry 1973 , p. 756. * ^ "The rebuilding of Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Circus and the Regent Street Quadrant". British History Online. London
London
County Council. Retrieved 25 March 2015. * ^ " Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Lights: A timeline". The Telegraph. Retrieved 25 March 2015. * ^ " Piccadilly
Piccadilly
shows sign of the times". BBC News. 16 December 1998. * ^ " Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Circus lights to be switched off for revamp". BBC News. 8 December 2016. * ^ Mark Sinclair (24 June 2011). "The making of a Coca-Cola
Coca-Cola
neon sign, 1954". Creative Review. Retrieved 25 March 2015. * ^ Peachey, Paul (5 March 2002). "Imagine: some peace in Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Circus". The Independent. London. . Coca Cola, Diet Coke, Coca Cola Zero, Fanta, Sprite and Vitamin Water have all been advertised in the space. * ^ Durrani, Arif (29 September 2011). "Hyundai replaces Sanyo
Sanyo
as Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Circus advertiser". Media Week. London. * ^ Demetriou, Danielle (16 February 2011). "Red Sanyo
Sanyo
sign in Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Circus to be switched off". The Telegraph. London. * ^ BROOKINGS, S. D. (25 August 2009). "Interactive Display at Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Circus launches McDonald\'s and Daktronics in the Spotlight". Daktronics. Retrieved 16 February 2016. * ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 27 December 2008. Retrieved 2008-02-02. * ^ Monkey (11 March 2015). " TDK ad at Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Circus: lights go out on 25 years of history". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077 . Retrieved 16 February 2016. * ^ Jurrien, Ralf (14 February 2007). "LG giant LED screen in Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Circus LetsGoMobile". LetsGoMobile. Retrieved 16 February 2016. * ^ BBC NEWS England London
London
London
London
lights out for environment They were also switched off as part of Earth Hour
Earth Hour
from 8.30 pm til 9.30 pm on 28 March 2009. * ^ Marshall, Prince (1972). Wheels of London. The Sunday Times Magazine ISBN 0-7230-0068-9 . pp. 136–143. access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ Lloyd & Mitchinson (2006) The book of general ignorance "Because of the bow and the nudity... everybody assumed it was Eros, the Greek god of love" * ^ Pevsner & Cherry 1973 , pp. 639–40. * ^ "Things to do in London, London
London
Events - Spoonfed". www.spoonfed.co.uk. * ^ Historic England
Historic England
. " Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Circus Underground Station Booking Hall Concourse and Bronzework to Pavement Subway Entrances (1226877)". National Heritage List for England
National Heritage List for England
. Retrieved 24 January 2014. * ^ Photograph: Andrew Parsons, PA. "West End congestion (15.02.03: Stop the war protest). Marches from two central London
London
starting points converge at Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Circus.". The Guardian. Retrieved 2017-06-02. * ^ "Riot police in Soho
Soho
as stop G8 protests start". LBC . Archived from the original on 8 April 2016. Retrieved 2017-06-02. * ^ The Editors of American Heritage (1962). D-Day, The Invasion of Europe. New York, New York: American Heritage Publishing Co, Inc. p. 36. . . .the ten-mile (16 km) circle in the Channel nicknamed Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Circus, where the troop convoys would meet . . . * ^ Association, Press (2 October 2011). "LS Lowry painting set to fetch £6m at auction" – via The Guardian. * ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 2011-11-03.

SOURCES

BOOKS

* Dickens, Charles, Jr. (1993) . " Piccadilly
Piccadilly
(online copy)". Dickens\'s Dictionary of London
London
, 1888 (facsimile ed.). Devon: Old House Books. ISBN 1-873590-04-0 . CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link ) * Harris, C. M. What's in a name? The origins of the names of all stations in current use on the London
London
Underground and Docklands Light rail with their opening dates. Midas Books and London
London
Transport, fourth edition, 2001. ISBN 1-85414-241-0 . * Lange, D. The Queen's London: A Pictorial and Descriptive Record of the Streets, Buildings, Parks and Scenery of the Great Metropolis. Cassell and Company, London, 1896. * Mills, Anthony David Dictionary of London
London
Place Names. Oxford University Press , 2001. ISBN 0-19-280106-6 . * Pevsner, Nickolaus ; Cherry, Bridget (1973). London
London
Volume One: The Cities of London
London
and Westminster. The Buildings of England (third ed.). Penguin Books
Penguin Books
. ISBN 0-14-071012-4 . * Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Circus: From Controversy to Reconstruction. Greater London
London
Council, 1980. ISBN 0-7168-1145-6 .

ARTICLES AND WEBSITES

* Hadley, P. " Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Circus, How a typical 1906 London
London
tube station was built", Underground News 412, April 1996. * Jacob, S. "Review: Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Circus", Icon Magazine, November 2003. * " London
London
lights out for environment", News. BBC.co.uk, 22 June 2007

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikimedia Commons

.