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PICARDY (/ˈpɪkərdi/ ; French : _Picardie_, French pronunciation: ​ ) is a historical territory and a former administrative region of France
France
. Since 1 January 2016, it is now part of the new region of Hauts-de- France
France
. It is located in the northern part of France.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Middle Ages * 1.2 Modern era * 1.3 Picardy
Picardy
today

* 2 Geography * 3 Administration * 4 Language and culture * 5 Major communities * 6 In popular culture * 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 References * 10 External links

HISTORY

Map of the historical extent of Picardy
Picardy
within modern French borders

The historical province of Picardy
Picardy
stretched from north of Noyon
Noyon
to Calais
Calais
, via the whole of the Somme department and the north of the Aisne
Aisne
department. The province of Artois
Artois
( Arras
Arras
area) separated Picardy
Picardy
from French Flanders .

MIDDLE AGES

From the 5th century the area was part of the Frankish Empire , and in the feudal period it encompassed the six countships of Boulogne , Montreuil , Ponthieu , Amiénois , Vermandois , and Laonnois . According to the 843 Treaty of Verdun the region became part of West Francia
Francia
, the later Kingdom of France
France
.

The name "Picardy" (which may have referred to a Frankish tribe of _picards_ or pike-bearers) was not used until the 12th or 13th century. During this time, the name applied to all lands where the Picard language was spoken, which included all the territories from Paris to the Netherlands
Netherlands
. In the Latin Quarter
Latin Quarter
of Paris, people identified a "Picard Nation" (_Nation Picarde_) of students at Sorbonne University , most of whom actually came from Flanders . During the Hundred Years\' War , Picardy
Picardy
was the centre of the Jacquerie peasant revolt in 1358.

From 1419 onwards, the Picardy
Picardy
counties (Boulogne, Ponthieu, Amiens, Vermandois) were gradually acquired by the Burgundian duke Philip the Good , confirmed by King Charles VII of France
France
at the 1435 Congress of Arras
Arras
. In 1477, King Louis XI of France
France
led an army and occupied key towns in Picardy. By the end of 1477, Louis would control all of Picardy
Picardy
and most of Artois
Artois
.

MODERN ERA

In the 16th century, the _government_ (military region) of Picardy was created. This became a new administrative region of France, separate from what was historically defined as Picardy. The new Picardy
Picardy
included the Somme _département _, the northern half of the Aisne
Aisne
_département_, and a small fringe in the north of the Oise _département_.

In 1557, Picardy
Picardy
was invaded by Habsburg forces under the command of Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy . After a seventeen-day siege , St. Quentin would be ransacked, while Noyon
Noyon
would be burned by the Habsburg army.

In the 17th century, an infectious disease similar to English sweat originated from the region and spread across France. It was called _Suette des picards_ or Picardy sweat .

Sugar beet was introduced by Napoleon I during the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
in the 19th century, in order to counter the United Kingdom, which had seized the sugar islands possessed by France
France
in the Caribbean
Caribbean
. The sugar industry has continued to play a prominent role in the economy of the region.

One of the most significant historical events to occur in Picardy
Picardy
was the series of battles fought along the Somme during World War I
World War I
. From September 1914 to August 1918, four major battles, including the Battle of the Somme , were fought by British, French, and German forces in the fields of Northern Picardy.

PICARDY TODAY

This painting by Pierre Puvis de Chavannes
Pierre Puvis de Chavannes
recalls the "Golden Age" in the history of the province of Picardy. The Walters Art Museum.

In 2009, the Regional Committee for local government reform proposed to reduce the number of French regions and cancel additions of new regions in the near future. Picardy
Picardy
would have disappeared, and each department would have joined a nearby region. The Oise
Oise
would have been incorporated in the Île-de- France
France
, the Somme would have been incorporated in the Nord-Pas-de- Calais
Calais
and Aisne
Aisne
would have been incorporated in the Champagne-Ardenne. The vast majority of Picards were opposed to this proposal, and it was scrapped in 2010 (see newspaper: "Courrier Picard").

Today, the modern region of Picardy
Picardy
no longer includes the coastline from Berck to Calais, via Boulogne (Boulonais), that is now in the Nord-Pas-de- Calais
Calais
region, but does incorporate the _pays_ of Beauvaisis , Valois, Noyonnais, Laonnois, Soissonnais, Omois, among other departments of France
France
. The older definition of Picardy
Picardy
survives in the name of the Picard language , which applies not only to the dialects of Picardy
Picardy
proper, but also to the Romance dialects spoken in the Nord-Pas de Calais
Calais
_région _, north of Picardy
Picardy
proper, and parts of the Belgian province of Hainaut .

GEOGRAPHY

Landscape in Picardy
Picardy

Between the 1990 and 1999 censuses, the population of Oise
Oise
increased 0.61% per year (almost twice as fast as France
France
as a whole), while the Aisne
Aisne
department lost inhabitants, and the Somme barely grew with a 0.16% growth per year. Today, 41.3% of the population of Picardy
Picardy
live inside the Oise
Oise
department.

Picardy
Picardy
stretches from the long sand beaches of the Somme estuary in the west to the vast forests and pastures of the Thiérache in the east and down to the châteaux of Chantilly or Pierrefonds near the Paris Area and vineyards of the border with Champagne (_Champagne picarde_) to the south.

ADMINISTRATION

The president of the regional council is Claude Gewerc , a Socialist in office since 2004. That year he defeated longtime UDF incumbent Gilles de Robien .

Since 2008, the mayor of the city of Amiens
Amiens
, the regional capital, has been Socialist Gilles Demailly . He defeated longtime mayor Gilles de Robien of the New Centre party.

LANGUAGE AND CULTURE

Distinctive brick building style demonstrated on a monument in the Somme , Picardy
Picardy

Historically, the region of Picardy
Picardy
has a strong and proud cultural identity. The Picard (the local inhabitant and traditionally Picard language speakers) cultural heritage includes some of the most extraordinary Gothic churches ( Amiens
Amiens
and Beauvais
Beauvais
cathedrals or Saint-Quentin basilica ), distinctive local cuisine (including _ficelle picarde_, _flamiche aux poireaux_, _tarte au maroilles_), beer (including from Péronne's de Clercq brewery) and traditional games and sports, such as the _longue paume_ (ancestor of tennis), as well as _danses picardes_ and its own bagpipes, called the _pipasso_.

The villages of Picardy
Picardy
have a distinct character, with their houses made of red bricks, often accented with a "lace" of white bricks. A minority of people still speak the Picard language , one of the languages of France
France
, which is also spoken in Artois
Artois
(Nord-Pas de Calais
Calais
_région_). "P\'tit quinquin ", a Picard song, is a symbol of the local culture (and of that of Artois).

Picardy
Picardy
is the birthplace of Gothic architecture, housing six of the world's greatest examples of Gothic cathedrals, which envelop the history of Gothic architecture in its entirety. Amiens
Amiens
Cathedral , standing as the largest cathedral in Europe, which according to John Ruskin is the "Pantheon of Gothic architecture", could house the Notre-Dame de Paris twice over. It was built in as little as 50 years. Picardy
Picardy
also holds the tallest transept in the history of the Gothic period located on Saint-Pierre cathedral in Beauvais, Oise.

The Museum of Picardy
Picardy
, built between 1855 and 1867, houses a vast array of great works, spanning centuries. Archaeology from ancient Greece and Egypt to works of Pablo Picasso. The museum was built for the very reason it is used today. Although Picardy
Picardy
is one of the least-known regions in France, its influence from art and most certainly architecture is vivid throughout the world.

MAJOR COMMUNITIES

Amiens
Amiens

* Abbeville
Abbeville
* Amiens
Amiens
* Beauvais
Beauvais
* Compiègne * Péronne * Creil * Laon * Saint-Quentin * Soissons
Soissons
* Senlis

IN POPULAR CULTURE

* The song " Roses of Picardy
Roses of Picardy
" is a ballad written in 1916 during World War I. In 1927, the song title was used as the title of the silent British film of the same name. * Picardy
Picardy
is one of the minor characters in the Japanese manga series _Hetalia: Axis Powers _.

SEE ALSO

* War Memorials in the Aisne
Aisne
region of Picardy
Picardy
* War Memorials in the Oise
Oise
region of Picardy
Picardy
* War Memorials in the Eastern Somme * War Memorials in the Western Somme

NOTES

* ^ INSEE
INSEE
. "Produits intérieurs bruts régionaux et valeurs ajoutées régionales de 1990 à 2012". Retrieved 2014-03-04. * ^ _Loi n° 2015-29 du 16 janvier 2015 relative à la délimitation des régions, aux élections régionales et départementales et modifiant le calendrier électoral_ (in French) * ^ Dunbabin. France
France
in the Making. Ch.4. The Principalities 888–987 * ^ Xavier De Planhol; Paul Claval (17 March 1994). _An Historical Geography of France_. Cambridge University Press. p. 172. ISBN 978-0-521-32208-9 . Retrieved 25 March 2012. * ^ Encyclopædia Britannica Online. History of Picardy. * ^ Potter 1993 , p. 37. * ^ Potter 1993 , p. 39. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East_, Vol. II, ed. Spencer C. Tucker, (ABC-CLIO, 2010), 518 * ^ George A. Rothrock, The Huguenots: A Biography of a Minority, (Nelson-Hall, Inc., 1979), 48. * ^ T. F. C. Hecher (1844). _The epidemics of the Middle ages_. G. Woodfall and Von. pp. 315–318. Retrieved 25 March 2012. * ^ "Picardie". _French.co.uk_. * ^ William Philpott (5 October 2010). _Three Armies on the Somme: The First Battle of the Twentieth Century_. Random House Digital, Inc. pp. 3–4. ISBN 978-0-307-26585-2 . Retrieved 25 March 2012. * ^ "Ludus Pro Patria". The Walters Art Museum . * ^ "Gothic Art in Picardy". 80011 AMIENS Cedex 1: Picardy
Picardy
Tourist Office. Retrieved 14 April 2014.

REFERENCES

* Potter, David (1993). _War and Government in the French Provinces: Picardy
Picardy
1470-1560_. Cambridge University Press.

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Picardy: the

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