Phut or Put (Hebrew: פוט pûṭ;
Septuagint Greek Φουδ
Phoud) is the third son of Ham (one of the sons of Noah), in the
biblical Table of Nations (Genesis 10:6; cf. 1 Chronicles 1:8). The
name Put (or Phut) is also used in the Bible for the people or nation
said to be descended from him, usually placed in Ancient Libya, but
connections are sometimes proposed with the Land of Punt known from
Ancient Egyptian annals.
Josephus writes: "
Phut also was the founder of Libya, and called the
inhabitants Phutites (Phoutes), from himself: there is also a river in
the country of Moors which bears that name; whence it is that we may
see the greatest part of the Grecian historiographers mention that
river and the adjoining country by the appellation of
but the name it has now has been by change given it from one of the
sons of Mezraim, who was called Lybyos." (
AotJ Book 1:6/2). Pliny the
Elder Nat. Hist. 5.1 and
Ptolemy Geog. iv.1.3 both place the river
Phuth on the west side of Mauretania (modern Morocco).
mentions a city Putea in
A Libyan connection has likewise been inferred from Nahum 3:9, where
it is said that "Put and Lubim" were the helpers of Egypt. Other
biblical verses consistently refer to the descendants of Put as
warriors. In Jeremiah 46:9, they are again described as being
supporters of Egypt. Ezekiel mentions them three times: in 27:10, as
supporters of Tyre (Phoenicia), in 30:5 again as supporting Egypt, and
in 38:5, as supporters of Gog. The
Septuagint Greek (LXX) substitutes
Libues in Ezekiel where the
Hebrew Bible refers to Put. However, the
LXX reads Put in Isaiah 66:19, in place of Pul in the Hebrew.
The Libyan tribe of pỉdw shows up in Egyptian records by the 22nd
dynasty, while a Ptolemaic text from
Edfu refers to the t3 n nꜣ
pỉt.w "the land of the Pitu". The word was later written in Demotic
as Pỉt, and as Phaiat in Coptic, a name for
A fragment of Nebuchadnezzar II's annals mentions his campaign in 567
in Egypt, and defeating the soldiers of Putu Yavan, i.e. Greek Libya
(Cyrene). A multilingual stele from al-Kabrīt, dating to the reign of
Darius I refers to the Put as the province of Putiya (Old Persian) and
Puṭa (Neo-Babylonian), where the equivalent text written in Egyptian
has tꜣ ṯmḥw "Libya".
^ Sadler, Jr., Rodney (2009). "Put". In Katharine Sakenfeld. The New
Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible. 4. Nashville: Abingdon Press.
Baker, David W. 1992. "Put". In The Anchor Bible Dictionary, edited by
David Noel Freedman. Vol. 5 of 6 vols. New York: Doubleday. 560
Graefe, Erhart. 1975. "Der libysche Stammesname p(j)d(j)/pjt im
spätzeitlichen Onomastikon." Enchoria: Zeitschrift für Demotistik
und Koptologie 5:13–17.
Descendants of Noah in Genesis 10
Shem and Semitic
Ham and Hamitic
Japheth and Japhetic