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v t e

In Antiquity, Phrygia
Phrygia
(/ˈfrɪdʒiə/; Ancient Greek: Φρυγία, Phrygía [pʰryɡía], modern pronunciation Frygía; Turkish: Frigya) was first a kingdom in the west central part of Anatolia, in what is now Asian Turkey, centered on the Sangarios River, later a region, often part of great empires. Stories of the heroic age of Greek mythology
Greek mythology
tell of several legendary Phrygian kings:

Gordias, whose Gordian Knot
Gordian Knot
would later be cut by Alexander
Alexander
the Great Midas, who turned whatever he touched to gold Mygdon, who warred with the Amazons

According to Homer's Iliad, the Phrygians
Phrygians
participated in the Trojan War as close allies of the Trojans, fighting against the Achaeans. Phrygian power reached its peak in the late 8th century BC under another, historical, king: Midas, who dominated most of western and central Anatolia
Anatolia
and rivaled Assyria
Assyria
and Urartu
Urartu
for power in eastern Anatolia. This later Midas
Midas
was, however, also the last independent king of Phrygia
Phrygia
before Cimmerians
Cimmerians
sacked the Phrygian capital, Gordium, around 695 BC. Phrygia
Phrygia
then became subject to Lydia, and then successively to Persia, Alexander
Alexander
and his Hellenistic
Hellenistic
successors, Pergamon, Rome
Rome
and Byzantium. Phrygians
Phrygians
gradually became assimilated into other cultures by the early medieval era; after the Turkish conquest of Anatolia, the name "Phrygia" passed out of usage as a territorial designation.

Contents

1 Geography 2 Origins 3 History

3.1 Around the time of the Trojan war 3.2 Peak and destruction of the Phrygian kingdom 3.3 As a Lydian province 3.4 As Persian province(s) 3.5 Under Alexander
Alexander
and his successors 3.6 Celts
Celts
and Attalids 3.7 Under Rome
Rome
and Byzantium

4 Culture 5 Mythic past 6 Christian period 7 See also 8 References and notes 9 Sources and external links

9.1 Bibliography

Geography[edit]

Location of Phrygia
Phrygia
in Anatolia

Phrygia
Phrygia
describes an area on the western end of the high Anatolian plateau, an arid region quite unlike the forested lands to the north and west. Phrygia
Phrygia
begins in the northwest where an area of dry steppe is watered by the Sakarya and Porsuk river system and is home to the settlements of Dorylaeum
Dorylaeum
near modern Eskisehir, and the Phrygian capital Gordion. The climate is harsh with hot summers and cold winters; olives will not easily grow here and the land is mostly used for livestock grazing and the production of barley. South of Dorylaeum, there is another important Phrygian settlement, Midas
Midas
City (Yazılıkaya, Eskişehir), situated in an area of hills and columns of volcanic tufa. To the south again, central Phrygia
Phrygia
includes the cities of Afyonkarahisar
Afyonkarahisar
(ancient Akroinon) with its marble quarries at nearby Docimium
Docimium
(İscehisar), and the town of Synnada. At the western end of Phrygia
Phrygia
stood the towns of Aizanoi
Aizanoi
(modern Çavdarhisar) and Acmonia. From here to the southwest lies the hilly area of Phrygia
Phrygia
that contrasts to the bare plains of the region's heartland. Southwestern Phrygia
Phrygia
is watered by the Maeander (Büyük Menderes River) and its tributary the Lycus, and contains the towns of Laodicea on the Lycus
Laodicea on the Lycus
and Hierapolis.[1] Origins[edit] Inscriptions found at Gordium
Gordium
make clear that Phrygians
Phrygians
spoke an Indo-European language
Indo-European language
with at least some vocabulary similar to Greek, and clearly not belonging to the family of Anatolian languages
Anatolian languages
(such as Hittite) spoken by most of Phrygia's neighbors.[2][3] One of the so-called Homeric Hymns describes the Phrygian language
Phrygian language
as not mutually intelligible with that of Troy.[4] According to ancient tradition among Greek historians, the Phrygians anciently migrated to Anatolia
Anatolia
from the Balkans. Herodotus
Herodotus
says that the Phrygians
Phrygians
were called Bryges
Bryges
when they lived in Europe.[5] He and other Greek writers also recorded legends about King Midas
Midas
that associated him with or put his origin in Macedonia; Herodotus, for example, says a wild rose garden in Macedonia was named after Midas.[6] Some classical writers[which?] also connected the Phrygians with the Mygdones, the name of two groups of people, one of which lived in northern Macedonia and another in Mysia. Likewise, the Phrygians
Phrygians
have been identified[by whom?] with the Bebryces, a people said to have warred with Mysia
Mysia
before the Trojan War
Trojan War
and who had a king named Mygdon at roughly the same time as the Phrygians
Phrygians
were said to have had a king named Mygdon. The classical historian Strabo
Strabo
groups Phrygians, Mygdones, Mysians, Bebryces and Bithynians
Bithynians
together as peoples that migrated to Anatolia
Anatolia
from the Balkans.[7] This image of Phrygians
Phrygians
as part of a related group of northwest Anatolian cultures seems the most likely explanation for the confusion over whether Phrygians, Bebryces and Anatolian Mygdones
Mygdones
were or were not the same people. The apparent similarity of the Phrygian language
Phrygian language
to Greek and its dissimilarity with the Anatolian languages
Anatolian languages
spoken by most of their neighbors is also taken as support for a European origin of the Phrygians. Phrygian continued to be spoken until the 6th century AD, though its distinctive alphabet was lost earlier than those of most Anatolian cultures.[1] Some scholars have theorized that such a migration could have occurred more recently than classical sources suggest, and have sought to fit the Phrygian arrival into a narrative explaining the downfall of the Hittite Empire
Hittite Empire
and the end of the high Bronze Age
Bronze Age
in Anatolia.[8] According to this "recent migration" theory, the Phrygians
Phrygians
invaded just before or after the collapse of the Hittite Empire
Hittite Empire
at the beginning of the 12th century BC, filling the political vacuum in central-western Anatolia, and may have been counted among the "Sea Peoples" that Egyptian records credit with bringing about the Hittite collapse. The so-called Handmade Knobbed Ware found in Western Anatolia
Anatolia
during this period has been tentatively identified as an import connected to this invasion. However, most scholars reject such a recent Phrygian migration and accept as factual the Iliad's account that the Phrygians
Phrygians
were established on the Sakarya River
Sakarya River
before the Trojan War, and thus must have been there during the later stages of the Hittite Empire, and probably earlier. These scholars seek instead to trace the Phrygians' origins among the many nations of western Anatolia
Anatolia
who were subject to the Hittites.[9] This interpretation also gets support from Greek legends about the founding of Phrygia's main city Gordium
Gordium
by Gordias and of Ancyra
Ancyra
by Midas,[10] which suggest that Gordium
Gordium
and Ancyra
Ancyra
were believed to date from the distant past before the Trojan War. Some scholars dismiss the claim of a Phrygian migration as a mere legend, likely arising from the coincidental similarity of their name to the Bryges. No one has conclusively identified which of the many subjects of the Hittites
Hittites
might have represented early Phrygians. According to a classical tradition, popularized by Josephus, Phrygia
Phrygia
can be equated with the country called Togarmah
Togarmah
by the ancient Hebrews, which has in turn been identified as the Tegarama of Hittite texts and Til-Garimmu of Assyrian records. Josephus
Josephus
called Togarmah
Togarmah
"the Thrugrammeans, who, as the Greeks
Greeks
resolved, were named Phrygians". However, the Greek source cited by Josephus
Josephus
is unknown, and it is unclear if there was any basis for the identification other than name similarity. Scholars of the Hittites
Hittites
believe Tegarama was in eastern Anatolia
Anatolia
- some locate it at Gurun - far to the east of Phrygia. Some scholars have identified Phrygia
Phrygia
with the Assuwa league, and noted that the Iliad mentions a Phrygian (Queen Hecuba's brother) named Asios.[11] Another possible early name of Phrygia
Phrygia
could be Hapalla, the name of the easternmost province that emerged from the splintering of the Bronze Age western Anatolian empire Arzawa. However, scholars are unsure if Hapalla corresponds to Phrygia
Phrygia
or to Pisidia, further south. Herodotus
Herodotus
also claims that Phrygian colonists founded the Armenian nation.[5] This is likely a reference to a third group of people called Mygdones
Mygdones
living in northern Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
who were apparently allied to the Armenians; Xenophon
Xenophon
describes them in his Anabasis in a joint army with the Armenians.[citation needed] However, little is known about these eastern Mygdones, and no evidence of Phrygian language in that region has been found.[citation needed] Eric P. Hamp in his 2012 Indo-European family tree classified the Phrygian language
Phrygian language
together with Italo-Celtic
Italo-Celtic
as a member of a "Northwest Indo-European" group.[12] In Hamp's view, Northwest Indo-Europeans are likely to have been the first inhabitants of Hallstatt with the Pre- Phrygians
Phrygians
moving east and south to Anatolia
Anatolia
in the same manner as the Galatians did later on.[12] In 2010, Raymund Carl mentions that the Lausitz culture
Lausitz culture
was one such Hallstatt-associated culture.[13] History[edit] Around the time of the Trojan war[edit] According to the Iliad, the homeland of the Phrygians
Phrygians
was on the Sangarius River, which would remain the centre of Phrygia
Phrygia
throughout its history. Phrygia
Phrygia
was famous for its wine and had "brave and expert" horsemen. According to the Iliad, before the Trojan War, a young king Priam
Priam
of Troy
Troy
had taken an army to Phrygia
Phrygia
to support it in a war against the Amazons. Homer
Homer
calls the Phrygians
Phrygians
"the people of Otreus and godlike Mygdon.[14] According to Euripides, Quintus Smyrnaeus
Quintus Smyrnaeus
and others, this Mygdon's son, Coroebus, fought and died in the Trojan War; he had sued for the hand of the Trojan princess Cassandra
Cassandra
in marriage. The name Otreus could be an eponym for Otroea, a place on Lake Ascania
Lake Ascania
in the vicinity of the later Nicaea, and the name Mygdon is clearly an eponym for the Mygdones, a people said by Strabo
Strabo
to live in northwest Asia Minor, and who appear to have sometimes been considered distinct from the Phrygians.[15] However, Pausanias believed that Mygdon's tomb was located at Stectorium in the southern Phrygian highlands, near modern Sandikli.[16] According to the Bibliotheca, the Greek hero Heracles
Heracles
slew a king Mygdon of the Bebryces in a battle in northwest Anatolia
Anatolia
that if historical would have taken place about a generation before the Trojan War. According to the story, while traveling from Minoa
Minoa
to the Amazons, Heracles
Heracles
stopped in Mysia
Mysia
and supported the Mysians
Mysians
in a battle with the Bebryces.[17] According to some interpretations, Bebryces is an alternate name for Phrygians
Phrygians
and this Mygdon is the same person mentioned in the Iliad. King Priam
Priam
married the Phrygian princess Hecabe (or Hecuba[18]) and maintained a close alliance with the Phrygians, who repaid him by fighting "ardently" in the Trojan War
Trojan War
against the Greeks. Hecabe was a daughter of the Phrygian king Dymas, son of Eioneus, son of Proteus. According to the Iliad, Hecabe's younger brother Asius also fought at Troy
Troy
(see above); and Quintus Smyrnaeus
Quintus Smyrnaeus
mentions two grandsons of Dymas that fell at the hands of Neoptolemus
Neoptolemus
at the end of the Trojan War: "Two sons he slew of Meges rich in gold, Scion of Dymas - sons of high renown, cunning to hurl the dart, to drive the steed in war, and deftly cast the lance afar, born at one birth beside Sangarius' banks of Periboea to him, Celtus one, and Eubius the other." Teleutas, father of the maiden Tecmessa, is mentioned as another mythical Phrygian king. There are indications in the Iliad
Iliad
that the heart of the Phrygian country was further north and downriver than it would be in later history. The Phrygian contingent arrives to aid Troy
Troy
coming from Lake Ascania in northwest Anatolia, and is led by Phorcys
Phorcys
and Ascanius, both sons of Aretaon. In one of the so-called Homeric Hymns, Phrygia
Phrygia
is said to be "rich in fortresses" and ruled by "famous Otreus".[4] Peak and destruction of the Phrygian kingdom[edit]

Detail from a reconstruction of a Phrygian building at Pararli, Turkey, 7th–6th Centuries BC; Museum of Anatolian Civilizations, Ankara. A griffin, sphinx and two centaurs are shown.

During the 8th century BC, the Phrygian kingdom with its capital at Gordium
Gordium
in the upper Sakarya River
Sakarya River
valley expanded into an empire dominating most of central and western Anatolia
Anatolia
and encroaching upon the larger Assyrian Empire
Assyrian Empire
to its southeast and the kingdom of Urartu to the northeast. According to the classical historians Strabo,[19] Eusebius
Eusebius
and Julius Africanus, the king of Phrygia
Phrygia
during this time was another Midas. This historical Midas
Midas
is believed to be the same person named as Mita in Assyrian texts from the period and identified as king of the Mushki. Scholars figure that Assyrians called Phrygians
Phrygians
"Mushki" because the Phrygians
Phrygians
and Mushki, an eastern Anatolian people, were at that time campaigning in a joint army.[20] This Midas
Midas
is thought to have reigned Phrygia
Phrygia
at the peak of its power from about 720 BC to about 695 BC (according to Eusebius) or 676 BC (according to Julius Africanus). An Assyrian inscription mentioning "Mita", dated to 709 BC, during the reign of Sargon of Assyria, suggests Phrygia
Phrygia
and Assyria
Assyria
had struck a truce by that time. This Midas
Midas
appears to have had good relations and close trade ties with the Greeks, and reputedly married an Aeolian Greek princess. A system of writing in the Phrygian language
Phrygian language
developed and flourished in Gordium
Gordium
during this period, using a Phoenician-derived alphabet similar to the Greek one. A distinctive Phrygian pottery called Polished Ware appears during this period. However, the Phrygian Kingdom was then overwhelmed by Cimmerian invaders, and Gordium
Gordium
was sacked and destroyed. According to Strabo and others, Midas
Midas
committed suicide by drinking bulls' blood.

Tomb at Midas
Midas
City (6th century BC), near Eskişehir

A series of digs have opened Gordium
Gordium
as one of Turkey's most revealing archeological sites. Excavations confirm a violent destruction of Gordium
Gordium
around 675 BC. A tomb from the period, popularly identified as the "Tomb of Midas", revealed a wooden structure deeply buried under a vast tumulus, containing grave goods, a coffin, furniture, and food offerings (Archaeological Museum, Ankara). As a Lydian province[edit] After their destruction of Gordium, the Cimmerians
Cimmerians
remained in western Anatolia
Anatolia
and warred with Lydia, which eventually expelled them by around 620 BC, and then expanded to incorporate Phrygia, which became the Lydian empire's eastern frontier. The Gordium
Gordium
site reveals a considerable building program during the 6th century BC, under the domination of Lydian kings including the proverbially rich King Croesus. Meanwhile, Phrygia's former eastern subjects fell to Assyria and later to the Medes. There may be an echo of strife with Lydia
Lydia
and perhaps a veiled reference to royal hostages, in the legend of the twice-unlucky Phrygian prince Adrastus, who accidentally killed his brother and exiled himself to Lydia, where King Croesus
Croesus
welcomed him. Once again, Adrastus accidentally killed Croesus' son and then committed suicide. As Persian province(s)[edit] Some time in the 540s BC, Phrygia
Phrygia
passed to the Achaemenid (Great Persian) Empire when Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great
conquered Lydia. After Darius the Great
Darius the Great
became Persian Emperor in 521 BC, he remade the ancient trade route into the Persian "Royal Road" and instituted administrative reforms that included setting up satrapies. The Phrygian satrapy (province) lay west of the Halys River
Halys River
(now Kızıl River) and east of Mysia
Mysia
and Lydia. Its capital was established at Dascylium, modern Ergili. In the course of the 5th century, the region was divided in two administrative satrapies : Hellespontine Phrygia
Hellespontine Phrygia
and Greater Phrygia.[21] Under Alexander
Alexander
and his successors[edit] The Macedonian conqueror Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
passed through Gordium
Gordium
in 333 BC and severed the Gordian Knot
Gordian Knot
in the temple of Sabazios ("Zeus"). According to a legend, possibly promulgated by Alexander's publicists, whoever untied the knot would be master of Asia. With Gordium
Gordium
sited on the Persian Royal Road
Persian Royal Road
that led through the heart of Anatolia, the prophecy had some geographical plausibility. With Alexander, Phrygia
Phrygia
became part of the wider Hellenistic
Hellenistic
world. Upon Alexander's death in 323, the Battle of Ipsus
Battle of Ipsus
took place in 301 BC.[22] Celts
Celts
and Attalids[edit] In the chaotic period after Alexander's death, northern Phrygia
Phrygia
was overrun by Celts, eventually to become the province of Galatia. The former capital of Gordium
Gordium
was captured and destroyed by the Gauls
Gauls
soon afterwards and disappeared from history. In 188 BC, the southern remnant of Phrygia
Phrygia
came under the control of the Attalids
Attalids
of Pergamon. However, the Phrygian language
Phrygian language
survived, although now written in the Greek alphabet. Under Rome
Rome
and Byzantium[edit]

The two Phrygian provinces within the Diocese of Asia, c. 400 AD

In 133 BC, the remnants of Phrygia
Phrygia
passed to Rome. For purposes of provincial administration, the Romans maintained a divided Phrygia, attaching the northeastern part to the province of Galatia
Galatia
and the western portion to the province of Asia. During the reforms of Diocletian, Phrygia
Phrygia
was divided anew into two provinces: " Phrygia
Phrygia
I", or Phrygia
Phrygia
Salutaris, and Phrygia
Phrygia
II, or Pacatiana, both under the Diocese of Asia. Salutaris with Synnada as its capital comprised the eastern portion of the region and Pacatiana with Laodicea on the Lycus as capital the western portion. The provinces survived up to the end of the 7th century, when they were replaced by the Theme system. In the Byzantine
Byzantine
period, most of Phrygia
Phrygia
belonged to the Anatolic theme. It was overrun by the Turks in the aftermath of the Battle of Manzikert (1071).[23] The Byzantines were finally evicted from there in the 13th century, but the name of Phrygia
Phrygia
remained in use until the last remnant of the Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire was conquered by the Ottoman empire in 1453. Culture[edit]

The Flaying
Flaying
of Marsyas
Marsyas
by Titian, 1570s, with King Midas
Midas
at right, and the man with a knife in a Phrygian cap

The ruins of Gordion
Gordion
and Midas
Midas
City prove that Phrygia
Phrygia
had developed an advanced Bronze Age
Bronze Age
culture. This Phrygian culture interacted in a number of ways with Greek culture in various periods of history.[1] The "Great Mother", Cybele, as the Greeks
Greeks
and Romans knew her, was originally worshiped in the mountains of Phrygia, where she was known as " Mountain
Mountain
Mother". In her typical Phrygian form, she wears a long belted dress, a polos (a high cylindrical headdress), and a veil covering the whole body. The later version of Cybele
Cybele
was established by a pupil of Phidias, the sculptor Agoracritus, and became the image most widely adopted by Cybele's expanding following, both in the Aegean world and at Rome. It shows her humanized though still enthroned, her hand resting on an attendant lion and the other holding the tympanon, a circular frame drum, similar to a tambourine. The Phrygians
Phrygians
also venerated Sabazios, the sky and father-god depicted on horseback. Although the Greeks
Greeks
associated Sabazios
Sabazios
with Zeus, representations of him, even in Roman times, show him as a horseman god. His conflicts with the indigenous Mother Goddess, whose creature was the Lunar Bull, may be surmised in the way that Sabazios' horse places a hoof on the head of a bull, in a Roman relief at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. The earliest traditions of Greek music derived from Phrygia, transmitted through the Greek colonies in Anatolia, and included the Phrygian mode, which was considered to be the warlike mode in ancient Greek music. Phrygian Midas, the king of the "golden touch", was tutored in music by Orpheus
Orpheus
himself, according to the myth. Another musical invention that came from Phrygia
Phrygia
was the aulos, a reed instrument with two pipes. Marsyas, the satyr who first formed the instrument using the hollowed antler of a stag, was a Phrygian follower of Cybele. He unwisely competed in music with the Olympian Apollo
Apollo
and inevitably lost, whereupon Apollo
Apollo
flayed Marsyas
Marsyas
alive and provocatively hung his skin on Cybele's own sacred tree, a pine. Phrygia
Phrygia
was also the scene of another musical contest, between Apollo
Apollo
and Pan. Midas
Midas
was either a judge or spectator, and said he preferred Pan's pipes to Apollo's lyre, and was given donkey's ears as a punishment. The two stories were often confused or conflated, as by Titian. Classical Greek iconography identifies the Trojan Paris as non-Greek by his Phrygian cap, which was worn by Mithras
Mithras
and survived into modern imagery as the "Liberty cap" of the American and French revolutionaries. The Phrygians
Phrygians
spoke an Indo-European language. (See Phrygian language.) Although the Phrygians
Phrygians
adopted the alphabet originated by the Phoenicians, only a few dozen inscriptions in the Phrygian language
Phrygian language
have been found, primarily funereal, and so much of what is thought to be known of Phrygia
Phrygia
is second-hand information from Greek sources. Mythic past[edit] The name of the earliest known mythical king was Nannacus (aka Annacus).[24] This king resided at Iconium, the most eastern city of the kingdom of Phrygia
Phrygia
at that time; and after his death, at the age of 300 years, a great flood overwhelmed the country, as had been foretold by an ancient oracle. The next king mentioned in extant classical sources was called Manis or Masdes. According to Plutarch, because of his splendid exploits, great things were called "manic" in Phrygia.[25] Thereafter, the kingdom of Phrygia
Phrygia
seems to have become fragmented among various kings. One of the kings was Tantalus, who ruled over the north western region of Phrygia
Phrygia
around Mount Sipylus. Tantalus
Tantalus
was endlessly punished in Tartarus, because he allegedly killed his son Pelops
Pelops
and sacrificially offered him to the Olympians, a reference to the suppression of human sacrifice. Tantalus
Tantalus
was also falsely accused of stealing from the lotteries he had invented. In the mythic age before the Trojan war, during a time of an interregnum, Gordius (or Gordias), a Phrygian farmer, became king, fulfilling an oracular prophecy. The kingless Phrygians
Phrygians
had turned for guidance to the oracle of Sabazios
Sabazios
("Zeus" to the Greeks) at Telmissus, in the part of Phrygia
Phrygia
that later became part of Galatia. They had been instructed by the oracle to acclaim as their king the first man who rode up to the god's temple in a cart. That man was Gordias (Gordios, Gordius), a farmer, who dedicated the ox-cart in question, tied to its shaft with the "Gordian Knot". Gordias refounded a capital at Gordium in west central Anatolia, situated on the old trackway through the heart of Anatolia
Anatolia
that became Darius's Persian "Royal Road" from Pessinus
Pessinus
to Ancyra, and not far from the River Sangarius.

Man in Phrygian costume, Hellenistic
Hellenistic
period (3rd–1st century BC), Cyprus

The Phrygians
Phrygians
are associated in Greek mythology
Greek mythology
with the Dactyls, minor gods credited with the invention of iron smelting, who in most versions of the legend lived at Mount Ida
Mount Ida
in Phrygia. Gordias's son (adopted in some versions) was Midas. A large body of myths and legends surround this first king Midas.[26] connecting him with a mythological tale concerning Attis.[27] This shadowy figure resided at Pessinus
Pessinus
and attempted to marry his daughter to the young Attis
Attis
in spite of the opposition of his lover Agdestis and his mother, the goddess Cybele. When Agdestis and/or Cybele
Cybele
appear and cast madness upon the members of the wedding feast. Midas
Midas
is said to have died in the ensuing chaos. King Midas
Midas
is said to have associated himself with Silenus
Silenus
and other satyrs and with Dionysus, who granted him a "golden touch". In one version of his story, Midas
Midas
travels from Thrace
Thrace
accompanied by a band of his people to Asia
Asia
Minor to wash away the taint of his unwelcome "golden touch" in the river Pactolus. Leaving the gold in the river's sands, Midas
Midas
found himself in Phrygia, where he was adopted by the childless king Gordias and taken under the protection of Cybele. Acting as the visible representative of Cybele, and under her authority, it would seem, a Phrygian king could designate his successor. The Phrygian Sibyl
Sibyl
was the priestess presiding over the Apollonian oracle at Phrygia. According to Herodotus,[28] the Egyptian pharaoh Psammetichus II
Psammetichus II
had two children raised in isolation in order to find the original language. The children were reported to have uttered bekos, which is Phrygian for "bread", so Psammetichus admitted that the Phrygians
Phrygians
were a nation older than the Egyptians. Christian period[edit] Visitors from Phrygia
Phrygia
were reported to have been among the crowds present in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
on the occasion of Pentecost
Pentecost
as recorded in Acts 2:10. In Acts 16:6 the Apostle Paul
Apostle Paul
and his companion Silas
Silas
travelled through Phrygia
Phrygia
and the region of Galatia
Galatia
proclaiming the Christian gospel. Their plans appear to have been to go to Asia
Asia
but circumstances or guidance, "in ways which we are not told, by inner promptings, or by visions of the night, or by the inspired utterances of those among their converts who had received the gift of prophecy" [29] prevented them from doing so and instead they travelled westwards towards the coast.[30] The Christian heresy known as Montanism, and still known in Orthodoxy as "the Phrygian heresy", arose in the unidentified village of Ardabau in the 2nd century AD, and was distinguished by ecstatic spirituality and women priests. Originally described as a rural movement, it is now thought to have been of urban origin like other Christian developments. The new Jerusalem
Jerusalem
its adherents founded in the village of Pepouza has now been identified in a remote valley that later held a monastery.[1] See also[edit]

Ancient Regions of Anatolia Phrygians Bryges Paleo Balkan languages Phrygian cap Phrygian language

References and notes[edit]

^ a b c d Peter Thonemann (ed), 2013, Roman Phrygia: culture and society, Cambridge University Press ^ Claude Brixhe, Phrygian, in Roger D. Woodard (editor), The ancient Languages of Asia
Asia
Minor, Cambridge University Press, 2008, p. 72 ^ Midas
Midas
and the Phrygians, by Miltiades E. Bolaris (2010) ^ a b Homeric Hymns number 5, To Aphrodite. ^ a b Herodotus
Herodotus
VII.73. ^ Herodotus
Herodotus
VII.73, VIII.138. ^ Strabo
Strabo
7.3.3. ^ See for example Encyclopædia Britannica. ^ Phillip Clapham, " Hittites
Hittites
and Phrygians", C&AH IV:2, pp.71-121. ^ Pausanias 1.4.5. ^ CAH, Vol 2, Part 2, p. 418. ^ a b Hamp, Eric P. (August 2013). "The Expansion of the Indo-European Languages: An Indo-Europeanist's Evolving View" (PDF). Sino-Platonic Papers. 239: 8,10. Retrieved 25 July 2014.  ^ Celtic from the West, 2010 ^ Homer, Iliad
Iliad
III.216-225. ^ Homer, Iliad
Iliad
II.1055-1057; Smith, William (1878). A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: J. Murray. p. 230.  ^ Pausanias 10.27 ^ Bibliotheca 2.5.10. ^ Homer, Iliad
Iliad
XVI.873-875. ^ Strabo, I.3.21. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica. ^ Scott 1995, p. 183. ^ "Kingdoms of the Successors of Alexander: After the Battle of Ipsus, B.C. 301". World Digital Library. 1800–1884. Retrieved 2013-07-27.  ^ Swain, Simon; Adams, J. Maxwell; Janse, Mark (2002). Bilingualism in ancient society: language contact and the written word. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. pp. 246–266. ISBN 0-19-924506-1.  ^ Suidas s. v. Νάννακος; Stephanus of Byzantium
Byzantium
s.v. Ἰκόνιον; Both passages are translated in: A new system: or, An analysis of ancient mythology by Jacob Bryant (1807) Pages 12-14 ^ Plutarch, On Isis and Osiris, Chapter 24 ^ There were seven all together ^ Pausanias Description of Greece 7:17; Arnobius Against the Pagans 5.5 ^ Histories 2.9 ^ Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers, accessed 18 September 2015 ^ Acts 16:7-8

Sources and external links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Phrygia.

Phrygia
Phrygia
at Ancient History Encyclopedia Phrygian Period in Anatolia 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica King Midas
Midas
and Phrygia
Phrygia
Cultural Center

Bibliography[edit]

Scott, James M. (1995). Paul and the Nations: The Old Testament and Jewish Background of Paul's Mission to the Nations with Special Reference to the Destination of Galatians. Mohr Siebeck. ISBN 978-3161463778.  Thonemann, Peter, ed. (2013). Roman Phrygia: culture and society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-03128-9.  Tamsü, Rahşan; Polat, Yusuf (February 19–24, 2007). "The Phrygian Rock Cut Altars and Their Restoration and Conservation Proposals". International Conference on Environment: Survical and Sustainability (EES2007). Nicosia, Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
(published 2009). 3: 1005–1014. ISBN 978-975-8359-55-4.  Tamsü, Rahşan (February 24–26, 2005). "Observations on The Phrygian Rock-Cut Altars". Symposium on Mediterranean Archaeology (SOMA 2005). Chieti-Pescara, Italy: Chieti University (published 2008): 439–445. ISBN 978-1-4073-0181-5.  Tamsü, Rahşan; Polat, Yusuf (2010). "Yeni Buluntular Işığında Phryg Kaya Altarları Ve Bir Tipoloji Önerisi". Anadolu Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi (in Turkish). Eskişehir. 10 (1): 203–222. ISSN 1303-0876. 

Coordinates: 39°N 31°E / 39°N 31°E / 39; 31

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Ancient Kingdoms of Anatolia

Bronze Age

Ahhiyawa Arzawa Assuwa league Carchemish Colchis Hatti Hayasa-Azzi Hittite Empire Isuwa Kaskia Kizzuwatna Lukka Luwia Mitanni Pala Wilusa/Troy

Iron Age

Aeolia Caria Cimmerians Diauehi Doris Ionia Lycia Lydia Neo- Hittites
Hittites
(Atuna, Carchemish, Gurgum, Hilakku, Kammanu, Kummuh, Quwê, Tabal) Phrygia Urartu

Classical Age

Antigonids Armenia Bithynia Cappadocia Cilicia Commagene Galatia Paphlagonia Pergamon Pontus

v t e

Historical regions of Anatolia

Aeolis Bithynia Cappadocia Caria Cilicia Doris Galatia Ionia Lycaonia Lycia Lydia Mysia Pamphylia Paphlagonia Phrygia Pisidia Pontus Troad

v t e

History of Turkey

v t e

Late Roman provinces
Roman provinces
(4th–7th centuries AD)

History

As found in the Notitia Dignitatum. Provincial administration reformed and dioceses established by Diocletian, c. 293. Permanent praetorian prefectures established after the death of Constantine I. Empire permanently partitioned after 395. Exarchates of Ravenna and Africa established after 584. After massive territorial losses in the 7th century, the remaining provinces were superseded by the theme system in c. 640–660, although in Asia
Asia
Minor and parts of Greece they survived under the themes until the early 9th century.

Western Empire (395–476)

Praetorian Prefecture of Gaul

Diocese of Gaul

Alpes Poeninae et Graiae Belgica I Belgica II Germania I Germania II Lugdunensis I Lugdunensis II Lugdunensis III Lugdunensis IV Maxima Sequanorum

Diocese of Vienne1

Alpes Maritimae Aquitanica I Aquitanica II Narbonensis I Narbonensis II Novempopulania Viennensis

Diocese of Spain

Baetica Balearica Carthaginensis Gallaecia Lusitania Mauretania Tingitana Tarraconensis

Diocese of the Britains

Britannia I Britannia II Flavia Caesariensis Maxima Caesariensis Valentia (?)

Praetorian Prefecture of Italy

Diocese of Suburbicarian Italy

Apulia et Calabria Campania Corsica Lucania et Bruttii Picenum
Picenum
Suburbicarium Samnium Sardinia Sicilia Tuscia et Umbria Valeria

Diocese of Annonarian Italy

Alpes Cottiae Flaminia et Picenum
Picenum
Annonarium Liguria et Aemilia Raetia I Raetia II Venetia et Istria

Diocese of Africa2

Africa proconsularis (Zeugitana) Byzacena Mauretania Caesariensis Mauretania Sitifensis Numidia Cirtensis Numidia Militiana Tripolitania

Diocese of Pannonia3

Dalmatia Noricum mediterraneum Noricum ripense Pannonia I Pannonia II Savia Valeria ripensis

Eastern Empire (395–c. 640)

Praetorian prefecture of Illyricum

Diocese of Dacia

Dacia Mediterranea Dacia Ripensis Dardania Moesia I Praevalitana

Diocese of Macedonia

Achaea Creta Epirus Nova Epirus Vetus Macedonia Prima Macedonia II Salutaris Thessalia

Praetorian Prefecture of the East

Diocese of Thrace5

Europa Haemimontus Moesia II4 Rhodope Scythia4 Thracia

Diocese of Asia5

Asia Caria4 Hellespontus Insulae4 Lycaonia
Lycaonia
(370) Lycia Lydia Pamphylia Pisidia Phrygia
Phrygia
Pacatiana Phrygia
Phrygia
Salutaris

Diocese of Pontus5

Armenia
Armenia
I5 Armenia
Armenia
II5 Armenia
Armenia
Maior5 Armenian Satrapies5 Armenia
Armenia
III (536) Armenia
Armenia
IV (536) Bithynia Cappadocia
Cappadocia
I5 Cappadocia
Cappadocia
II5 Galatia
Galatia
I5 Galatia
Galatia
II Salutaris5 Helenopontus5 Honorias5 Paphlagonia5 Pontus Polemoniacus5

Diocese of the East5

Arabia Cilicia
Cilicia
I Cilicia
Cilicia
II Cyprus4 Euphratensis Isauria Mesopotamia Osroene Palaestina I Palaestina II Palaestina III Salutaris Phoenice I Phoenice II Libanensis Syria I Syria II Salutaris Theodorias (528)

Diocese of Egypt5

Aegyptus I Aegyptus II Arcadia Augustamnica I Augustamnica II Libya Superior Libya Inferior Thebais Superior Thebais Inferior

Other territories

Taurica Quaestura exercitus (536) Spania
Spania
(552)

1 Later the Septem Provinciae 2 Re-established after reconquest by the Eastern Empire in 534 as the separate Prefecture of Africa 3 Later the Diocese of Illyricum 4 Placed under the Quaestura exercitus in 536 5 Affected (i.e. boundaries modified, abolished or renamed) by Justinian I's administrative reorganization in 534–536

v t e

Second Journey of Paul the Apostle

1. Cilicia 2. Derbe 3. Lystra 4. Phrygia 5. Galatia 6. Mysia
Mysia
(Alexandria Troas) 7. Samothrace 8. Neapolis 9. Philippi 9. Amphipolis 10. Apollonia 11. Thessalonica 12. Beroea 13. Athens 14. Corinth 15. Cenchreae 16. Ephesus 17. Syria 18. Caesarea 19. Jerusalem 20. Antioch

v t e

Third Journey of Paul the Apostle

1. Galatia 2. Phrygia 3. Ephesus 4. Macedonia 5. Corinth 6. Cenchreae 7. Macedonia (again) 8. Troas 9. Assos 10. Mytilene 11. Chios 12. Samos 13. Miletus 14. Cos 15. Rhodes 16. Patara 17. Tyre 18. Ptolemais 19. Caesarea 20. Jerusalem

v t e

UNESCO
UNESCO
Tentative list of World Heritage Sites in Turkey

Aegean Region

Aizanoi
Aizanoi
antique city Birgi Mausolem and Sacred area of Hecatomnus Archaeological site of Laodikeia Medieval City of Beçin Ancient City of Sardis
Sardis
and the Lydian Tumuli of Bin Tepe Ancient City of Stratonikeia

Black Sea Region

Mount Harşena and the Rock-tombs of the Pontic Kings Mahmut Bey Mosque Sümela Monastery (The Monastery of Virgin Mary)

Central Anatolia

Archaeological site of Kültepe-Kaneş Eflatun Pınar Eşrefoğlu Mosque Gordion Haji Bektash Veli Complex Ankara
Ankara
Hacı Bayram Mosque Ince Minaret Medrese Historical Monuments of Niğde Konya-A capital of Seljuk Civilization Lake Tuz
Lake Tuz
SEPA Mountainous Phrygia Odunpazarı
Odunpazarı
historical urban site Tomb of Ahi Evren

East Anatolia

Akdamar Island Archaeological Site of Arslantepe Eshab-ı Kehf Kulliye Ishak Pasha Palace The Tombstones of Ahlat the Urartian and Ottoman citadel

Marmara

Çanakkale (Dardanelles) and Gelibolu (Gallipoli) Battles Zones in the First World War İznik Historic Guild Town of Mudurnu The Bridge of Uzunköprü Yıldız Palace
Yıldız Palace
Complex

Mediterranean Region

Alahan Monastery Alanya Ancient city of Anazarbus Ancient Cities of Lycian Civilization Ancient City of Kaunos Ancient City of Korykos Archaeological Site of Perge Güllük Dagi- Termessos
Termessos
National Park Mamure Castle Karain Cave Kekova Archaeological Site of Sagalassos St.Paul Church, St.Paul's Well and surrounding historic quarters (in Tarsus, Mersin) St. Pierre Church in Hatay St. Nicholas Church in Demre The Theatre and Aqueducts of the Ancient City of Aspendos Vespasianus Titus Tunnel

Southeastern Anatolia

Archeological Site of Zeugma Archaeological Site of Göbeklitepe Harran
Harran
and Şanlıurfa İsmail Fakirullah Tomb Mardin Cultural Landscape Yesemek Quarry and Sculpture
Sculpture
Workshop Zeynel Abidin Mosque Complex and Mor Yakup (Saint Jacob) Church

All over Turkey

Anatolian Seljuks Madrasahs Seljuk Caravanserais on the route from Denizli to Dogubeyazit Trading Posts and Fortifications on Genoese

.