Penh (/pəˈnɔːm ˈpɛn/ or /ˈnɒm ˈpɛn/; Khmer:
ភ្នំពេញ, Khmer pronunciation: [pʰnum peɲ]), formerly
known as Krong Chaktomuk or Krong Chaktomuk Serimongkul (Khmer:
the capital and most populous city of the Southeast Asian country of
Cambodia. Located on the banks of the
Tonlé Sap and
Penh has been the national capital since French colonization of
Cambodia, and has grown to become the nation's economic, industrial,
and cultural center.
Once known as the "Pearl of Asia," it was considered one of the
loveliest French-built cities in Indochina in the 1920s. Phnom
Penh, along with
Siem Reap and Sihanoukville, are significant global
and domestic tourist destinations for Cambodia. Founded in 1434, the
city is noted for its beautiful and historical architecture and
attractions. There are a number of surviving
French colonial buildings
scattered along the grand boulevards.
Situated on the banks of the Tonlé Sap,
Mekong and Bassac rivers, the
Penh metropolitan area is home to about 1.5 million of
Cambodia's population of over 14.8 million.
8.1 Universities and colleges
8.2 Primary and secondary schools
8.3 International schools
8.4 Supplementary schools
10 Cityscape and architecture
10.1 Hotels & Residences
10.2 2035 Master Plan
11 Newspapers and magazines
11.3 Online news
13.1 Public transport
14 Water supply
15 International relations
15.1 Twin towns and sister cities
16 See also
19 External links
Penh from east drawn in 1887.
Penh (literally, "Penh's Hill") takes its name from the present
Wat Phnom ("Hill Temple"). Legend has it that in 1372, a wealthy widow
Penh found a Koki tree floating down the
Tonle Sap river
after a storm. Inside the tree were four bronze
Buddha statues and
a stone statue of Vishnu. Daun
Penh ordered villagers to raise the
height of the hill northeast of her house and used the Koki wood to
build a temple on the hill to house the four
Buddha statues, and a
shrine for the
Vishnu image slightly lower down. The temple became
Wat Phnom Daun Penh, which is now known as Wat Phnom, a small
hill 27 metres (89 ft) in height.
Phnom Penh's official name, in its short form, is Krong Chaktomok
(Khmer: ក្រុងចតុមុខ) meaning "City of Four
Faces". Krong Chaktomuk is an abbreviation of the full name which was
given by King Ponhea Yat, Krong Chaktomuk Mongkol Sakal Kampuchea
Thipadei Serey Thereak Borvor Inthabot Borei Roth Reach Seima Maha
រដ្ឋរាជសីមាមហានគរ). This loosely
translates as "The place of four rivers that gives the happiness and
success of Khmer Kingdom, the highest leader as well as unimpregnable
city of the God
Indra of the great kingdom".
Wat Phnom gave the city its name
First recorded a century after it is said to have taken place, the
legend of the founding of Phnom
Penh tells of a local woman, Penh
(commonly referred to as Daun
Penh ("Grandmother Penh" or "Old Lady
Penh") in Khmer), living at Chaktomuk, the future Phnom Penh. It was
the late 14th century, and the Khmer capital was still at
Siem Reap 350 km (217 mi) to the north. Gathering firewood
along the banks of the river, Lady
Penh spied a floating koki tree in
the river and fished it from the water. Inside the tree she found four
Buddha statues and one of Vishnu.
The discovery was taken as a divine blessing, and to some a sign that
the Khmer capital was to be brought to Phnom
Angkor. To house the new-found sacred objects, Penh
raised a small hill on the west bank of the
Tonle Sap River and
crowned it with a shrine, now known as
Wat Phnom at the north end of
central Phnom Penh. "Phnom" is Khmer for "hill" and Penh's hill took
on the name of the founder, and the area around it became known after
Penh first became the capital of
Cambodia after Ponhea Yat, king
of the Khmer Empire, moved the capital from
Angkor Thom after it was
captured and destroyed by
Siam a few years earlier. There is a stupa
Wat Phnom that houses the remains of
Ponhea Yat and the royal
family as well as the remaining
Buddhist statues from the Angkorean
era. In the 17th century, Japanese immigrants also settled on the
outskirts of present-day Phnom Penh. A small Portuguese community
survived in Phnom
Penh until the 17th century, undertaking commercial
and religious activity in the country.
Stupa of King
Ponhea Yat on the top of Wat Phnom
Penh remained the royal capital for 73 years, from 1432 to 1505.
It was abandoned for 360 years (from 1505 to 1865) by subsequent kings
due to internal fighting between the royal pretenders. Later kings
moved the capital several times and established their royal capitals
at various locations in Tuol Basan (Srey Santhor), Pursat, Longvek,
Lavear Em and Oudong.
It was not until 1866, under the reign of King Norodom I
(1860–1904), the eldest son of King Ang Duong, who ruled on behalf
of Siam, that Phnom
Penh became the permanent seat of government and
capital of Cambodia, and also where the current Royal Palace was
built. Beginning in 1870, the
French colonial authorities turned a
riverside village into a city where they built hotels, schools,
prisons, barracks, banks, public works offices, telegraph offices, law
courts, and health services buildings. In 1872, the first glimpse of a
modern city took shape when the colonial administration employed the
services of French contractor Le Faucheur to construct the first 300
concrete houses for sale and rental to Chinese traders.
By the 1920s, Phnom
Penh was known as the "Pearl of Asia", and over
the next four decades, Phnom
Penh continued to experience rapid growth
with the building of railways to Sihanoukville and Pochentong
International Airport (now Phnom
Penh International Airport). Phnom
Penh's infrastructure saw major modernisation under the rule of
Cambodia was used as a base by the North
Vietnamese Army and the Viet Cong, and thousands of refugees from
across the country flooded the city to escape the fighting between
their own government troops, the NVA/NLF, the South Vietnamese and its
allies, and the Khmer Rouge. By 1975, the population was 2-3 million,
the bulk of whom were refugees from the fighting. The Khmer Rouge
cut off supplies to the city for more than a year before it fell on
April 17, 1975. Reports from journalists stated that the Khmer
Rouge shelling "tortured the capital almost continuously," inflicting
"random death and mutilation" on millions of trapped civilians.
Khmer Rouge forcibly evacuated the entire city after taking it, in
what has been described as a death march: Francois Ponchaud wrote that
"I shall never forget one cripple who had neither hands nor feet,
writhing along the ground like a severed worm, or a weeping father
carrying his ten-year old daughter wrapped in a sheet tied around his
neck like a sling, or the man with his foot dangling at the end of a
leg to which it was attached by nothing but skin"; John Swain
recalled that the
Khmer Rouge were "tipping out patients from the
hospitals like garbage into the streets....In five years of war, this
is the greatest caravan of human misery I have seen." All of its
residents, including the wealthy and educated, were evacuated from the
city and forced to do difficult labour on rural farms as "new
people". Tuol Sleng High School was taken over by Pol Pot's forces
and was turned into the S-21 prison camp, where people were detained
Pol Pot sought a return to an agrarian economy and
therefore killed many people perceived as educated, "lazy" or
political enemies. Many others starved to death as a result of failure
of the agrarian society and the sale of Cambodia's rice to
exchange for bullets and weaponry. The former high school is now the
Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum, where
Khmer Rouge torture devices and
photos of their victims are displayed.
Choeung Ek (The Killing
Fields), 15 kilometers (9 mi) away, where the
Khmer Rouge marched
prisoners from Tuol Sleng to be murdered and buried in shallow pits,
is also now a memorial to those who were killed by the regime.
Khmer Rouge were driven out of Phnom
Penh by the Vietnamese in
1979, and people began to return to the city.
historically a state with which
Cambodia has had many conflicts,
therefore this liberation was and is viewed with mixed emotions by the
Cambodians. A period of reconstruction began, spurred by the
continuing stability of government, attracting new foreign investment
and aid by countries including France, Australia, and Japan. Loans
were made from the
Asian Development Bank
Asian Development Bank and the
World Bank to
reinstate a clean water supply, roads and other infrastructure. The
1998 Census put Phnom Penh's population at 862,000; and the 2008
census was 1.3 million.
Penh is located in the south-central region of Cambodia, and is
fully surrounded by the Kandal Province. The municipality is situated
on the banks of the Tonlé Sap, Mekong, and Bassac rivers. These
rivers provide freshwater and other natural resources to the city.
Penh and the surrounding areas consist of a typical flood plain
area for Cambodia. Although Phnom
Penh is situated at 11.89 metres
(39 ft) above the river, monsoon season flooding is a problem,
and the river sometimes overflows its banks.
The city, located at 11°33′00″N 104°55′00″E / 11.55°N
104.91667°E / 11.55; 104.91667 (11°33' North, 104°55' East),
covers an area of 678.46 square kilometres (262 sq mi), with
some 11,401 hectares (28,172 acres) in the municipality and
26,106 ha (64,509 acres) of roads. The agricultural land in the
municipality amounts to 34.685 km2 (13 sq mi) with some
1.476 km2 (365 acres) under irrigation.
Penh has a tropical wet and dry climate (Köppen climate
classification Aw). The climate is hot year-round with only minor
variations. Temperatures typically range from 22 to 35 °C (72 to
95 °F) and weather is subject to the tropical monsoons. The
southwest monsoon blows inland bringing moisture-laden winds from the
Gulf of Thailand
Gulf of Thailand and
Indian Ocean from May to October. The northeast
monsoon ushers in the dry season, which lasts from November to March.
The city experiences the heaviest precipitation from September to
October with the driest period in January and February.
The city has two distinct seasons. The rainy season, which runs from
May to October, sees high temperatures accompanied by high humidity.
The dry season lasts from November to April when temperatures can drop
to 22 °C (72 °F). But temperatures can approach
40 °C (104 °F) in April.
Climate data for Phnom
Penh (temperature: 1988–2013, extremes:
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average rainfall mm (inches)
Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm)
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Source #1: Deutscher Wetterdienst
Danish Meteorological Institute (sun, 1931–1960)
The National Assembly building of Cambodia
Supreme Court Building
Penh is a municipality of area 678.46 square kilometres
(261.95 sq mi) with a government status equal to that of
Cambodian provinces. The municipality is subdivided into twelve
administrative divisions called Khans (districts) and of these twelve
Khans, Dangkao, Meanchey, Porsenchey,
Sen Sok and Russei Keo are
considered the outskirts of the city. All Khans are under the
governance of the Phnom
Penh Municipality. The Khans are further
subdivided into 76 Sangkats (communes), and 637 Kroms.
The municipality is governed by the Governor who acts as the top
executive of the city as well as overseeing the Municipal Military
Police, Municipal Police and Bureau of Urban Affairs. Below the
Governor is the First Vice Governor and 5 Vice Governors. The Chief of
Cabinet, who holds the same status as the Vice Governors, heads the
Cabinet consisting of 8 Deputy Chiefs of Cabinet who in turn are in
charge of the 27 Administrative Departments. Every khan (district)
also has a head Chief.
List of Phnom
Penh Administrative Districts
Name of district (khan)
Number of communes (sangkat)
Number of villages (krom)
Population as of 2008[update]
As of 2008[update], Phnom
Penh had a population of 2,009,264 people,
with a total population density of 5,358 inhabitants per square
kilometre (13,877/sq mi) in a 678.46 square kilometres
(262 sq mi) city area. The population growth rate of the
city is 3.92%. The city area has grown fourfold since 1979, and the
metro area will continue to expand in order to support the city's
growing population and economy. Phnom Penh's population is expected to
increase to 3 million at the end of 2016.
Penh is mostly inhabited by Cambodians (or Khmers) – they
represent 90% of the population of the city. There are large
minorities of Chinese, Vietnamese, and other small ethnic groups who
are Thai, Budong, Mnong Preh, Kuy, Chong, and Chams. The state
religion is Theravada Buddhism. More than 90% of the people in Phnom
Penh are Buddhists. Chams have been practicing
Islam for hundreds of
years. Since 1993, there has also been an increase in the practice of
Christianity which was practically wiped out after 1975 when the Khmer
Rouge took over. The official language is Khmer, but English and
French are widely used in the city.
The number of slum-inhabitants at the end of 2012 was 105,771,
compared with 85,807 at the start of 2012.
Note: As stated in the "History" paragraph (The 1998 Census put Phnom
Penh's population at 862,000; and the 2008 census was
1.3 million.) the information collides with the information
provided in the "Historical population" table. Needs editing.
See also: Phnom
Penh (National Assembly constituency)
Penh was one of five provinces which was won by the opposition
Cambodia National Rescue Party, capturing more than 57% of the vote,
and 7 of the 12 allocated seats.
Ly Srey Vina
Krouch Sam An
The Central Post Office Building
Hong Kong Center, headquarters of oil producer
Total S.A. in
Penh is Cambodia's economic centre as it accounts for a large
portion of the Cambodian economy. Double-digit economic growth rates
in recent years have triggered an economic boom in Phnom Penh, with
new hotels, restaurants, bars, high rises and residential buildings
springing up around the city.
The main economy is based on commercial interests such as garments,
trading, and small and medium enterprises. In the past few years the
property business has been booming, with rapidly increasing real
estate prices. Tourism is also a major contributor in the capital as
more shopping and commercial centres open, making Phnom
Penh one of
the major tourist destinations in the country along with
Siem Reap and
Sihanoukville. According to the World Travel and Tourism Council,
tourism made up 17.5 percent (US$2,053 million) of Cambodia's GDP
in 2009 and accounts for 13.7 percent of total employment. One of
the most popular areas in Phnom
Penh for tourists is Sisowath Quay,
Tonle Sap River.
Sisowath Quay is a 3-mile strip of road
that includes restaurants, bars, and hotels. The US$2.6 billion
new urban development, Camko City, is meant to bolster the city
landscape. The Bureau of Urban Affairs of Phnom
plans to expand and construct new infrastructure to accommodate the
growing population and economy. High rise buildings will be
constructed at the entrance of the city and near the lakes and
riverbanks. Furthermore, new roads, canals, and a railway system will
be used to connect
Camko City and Phnom Penh. Other projects
Penh International City (under construction)
De Castle Royal Condominium (Completed)
International Finance Complex (Under construction)
Gold Tower 42 (On hold 32 floors)
OCIC Tower (Completed)
Kokling super second floor house
River Palace (Under construction)
Vattanac Capital Tower (completed)
The Peak (under construction
Aeon Mall Phnom Penh
With booming economic growth seen since the 1990s, new shopping
retails have opened as well as western-style such as Sorya Shopping
Center, City Mall, Aeon Mall and Parkson Mall. Many international
brands had opened such as Mango (clothing), Salvatore Ferragamo,
Montagut (clothing), Hugo Boss,
Padini and so on. Phnom
Penh is coming
a central of many international financial banks and shopping centers
in the middle of South-east Asia lately.
The tallest skyscraper in Phnom
Vattanac Capital Tower at
a height of 188 metres (617 ft), dominating Phnom Penh's skyline
with its neighbour skyscraper Canadia Tower (OCIC Tower). The tower
was topped out in May 2012 and scheduled for completion in late 2012.
Modern high rises have been constructed all around the city, not
concentrated in any one particular area.
Outside view of Central market
The Central market Phsar Thmei is a tourist attraction. The four wings
of the yellow colored market are teeming with numerous stalls selling
gold and silver jewellery, antique coins, clothing, clocks, flowers,
food, fabrics and shoes. Phsar Thmei is undergoing under a major
renovation, along with the creation of newer stalls.
Universities and colleges
Royal University of Phnom
Penh Campus II
Institut de Technologie du Cambodge
The University of
Cambodia (UC) Khmer:
Penh International University (PPIU) Khmer:
École Royale d'Administration (ERA) or school of administration.
The Royal University of Phnom
(RUPP), is the oldest and largest institution of higher education in
Cambodia. As of 2008[update], the university has over 10,000 students
across three campuses, and offers a wide range of high-quality courses
within the Faculty of Science, the Faculty of Social Sciences and
Humanities, and the Institute of Foreign Languages (IFL). There are
about fifty higher education institutions in Cambodia, most of which
have no campuses. Several international charities, like A New Day
Cambodia, operate independent educational facilities in addition to
public schools for students.
Royal University of Law and Economics
Royal University of Law and Economics (RULE) Khmer:
Royal University of Fine Arts
Royal University of Fine Arts (RUFA) Khmer:
Royal University of Agriculture
Royal University of Agriculture (RUA) Khmer:
National University of Management
National University of Management (NUM) Khmer:
The Institute of Technology of
Cambodia (ITC) Khmer:
Buddhist Institute Khmer:
was founded on May 12, 1930 and is the principal state Buddhist
institution in Cambodia.
The Royal Academy of
The Cambodian Agricultural Research and Development Institute Khmer:
National Institute of Education (Cambodia)
National Institute of Education (Cambodia) Khmer:
The National Polytechnic Institute of
The National Technical Training Institute Khmer:
The Prek Leap National College of Agriculture Khmer:
The University of Health Sciences -
The National Institute of Business Khmer:
The PreahKossomak Polytechnic Institute Khmer:
The Industrial Technical Institute Khmer:
Zaman University The university was founded in 2010 which has four
faculties divided into eight departments.
Primary and secondary schools
Lycee Sisowath Khmer:
Chaktomuk Secondary School Khmer:
Bak Touk High School Khmer:
Chea Sim Samaky High School Khmer:
Indradevi High School Khmer:
Chea Sim Santhormok High School Khmer:
Chea Sim Chrouy Changvar High School Khmer:
Chbar Ampov High School Khmer:
CIA First International School
American Intercon School (AiS)
American Intercon Institute (AiI)
Australia Centre for Education (ACE)
Beijing International School (Chinese)
East-West International School
iCAN British International School
International School of Phnom
International School of
Northbridge International School Cambodia
Lycée français René Descartes de Phnom
Western International School
Zaman International School
Penh Japanese School (プノンペン補習授業校 Punonpen
Hoshū Jugyō Kō) - Japanese weekend school for Japanese
expatriates, operated by the Japanese Association of Cambodia
(JACAM;カンボジア日本人会 Kambojia Nihonjin-kai)
Statue of Lady Penh, the city's founder.
Penh also has its own dialect of Khmer. Speakers of the Phnom
Penh dialect often elide syllables, which has earned it the reputation
for being lazy speech. Phnom
Penh is also known for its influence on
New Khmer Architecture. Phnom
Penh is notable for
Ka tieu Phnom Penh,
its variation on rice-noodle soup, a dish available in sit-down cafes
as well as 'street' cafes. The city is both the economic and cultural
center of Cambodia.
"Dried" version of Phnom
Penh noodles with soup broth on the side
Music and the arts are making a revival throughout Cambodia,
especially in Phnom Penh. Phnom
Penh currently hosts a number of music
events throughout the city. 'Indie' bands (those without corporate
sponsors) have grown in number.
The two most visited museums in the city are the National Museum,
which is the country's leading historical and archaeological museum,
and Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum, a former
Khmer Rouge prison.
Chaul Chnam Thmey
Chaul Chnam Thmey April 13–15
Main article: Chaul Chnam Thmey
At this time, Phnom
Penh celebrates Cambodian New Year, an occasion
increasingly popular with tourists. During this typically hottest part
of the year, water gets thrown around adding to the party atmosphere
along with dancing and music. The precise date changes year-by-year
but this holiday lasts, at least, three days. This festival marks the
turn of the year based on the ancient Khmer calendar and also marks
the end of the prior year harvest.
The Silver Pagoda houses the Emerald Buddha
Water Festival November
Main article: Bon Om Thook
The largest annual festival in Phnom Penh, this lively gathering
celebrates the reversing of the flow of the
Tonlé Sap river. The
holiday lasts three days as people flood into the city to enjoy the
fireworks, colourful boat races, live concerts, eating and partying.
The boat racing dates back to ancient times marking the strengths of
the Khmer marine forces during the Khmer Empire.
On November 22, 2010 at least 348 people were crushed to death in a
bridge stampede at the festival.
Pchum Ben October 11–15 (2012)
Pchum Ben is a very important aspect of Cambodian culture. It may be
translated as "gathering together" to make offerings and is a time of
reunion, commemoration, express love and appreciation for one's
ancestors. By offering food and good karma to those possibly trapped
in the spirit world, living relatives help assuage their misery and
guide them back into the cycle of reincarnation.
Visak Bochea May
Main article: Vesākha
Vesākha is an annual holiday observed traditionally by Buddhists in
Cambodia. Sometimes informally called "Buddha's Birthday", it actually
encompasses the birth, enlightenment (nirvāṇa), and passing away
(Parinirvāna) of Gautama Buddha.
Cityscape and architecture
Monument of King Norodom Sihanouk
Statue of Decho Yod and Decho Meas in Phnom Penh.
Main temple in Wat Langka
The oldest structure is
Wat Phnom from the founding days of the city,
constructed in 1373. The main tourist attractions are the Royal Palace
with the Silver Pagoda, and the National Museum, constructed during
French colonial era in the late 19th century in the classical
Khmer style and hosting a vast collection of Khmer antiquities. The
Independence Monument (Khmer: Vimean Akareach), although from the
1950s, is also constructed in the ancient Khmer style.
The French, who were the colonial masters from the 19th century to the
1940s, also left their mark, with various colonial villas, French
churches, boulevards, and the
Art Deco market Phsar Thom Thmei. A
notable landmark of the colonial era is the Hotel Le Royal.
Starting with independence from the French in the 1950s and lasting
until the era of the
Khmer Rouge in the 1970s, Phnom
tremendous growth as the capital city of a newly independent country.
Sihanouk was eager to present a new style of architecture and
thus invigorate the process of nation building. A new golden era of
architecture took off, with various projects and young Khmer
architects, often educated in France, given opportunities to design
and construct. This new movement was called "New Khmer Architecture"
and was often characterised by a fusion of Bauhaus, European
post-modern architecture, and traditional elements from Angkor. The
most prominent architect was Vann Molyvann, who was nominated chief
national architect by the King himself in 1956. Molyvann created
landmark buildings such as the
Preah Suramarit National Theatre
Preah Suramarit National Theatre and
the Council of Ministers building. Other architects helped construct
the newly founded Royal Khmer University, the Institute of Foreign
Languages and the National Sports Centre. With the growth of the upper
and entrepreneurial middle classes, new suburbs were built in the
1950s and 60s. Although these buildings survived the
Khmer Rouge era
and the civil war, today they are under threat due to economic
development and financial speculation. Villas and
gardens from that era are being destroyed and redeveloped to make
place for bigger structures. The landmark National Theatre by Molyvann
was ripped down in 2008. A movement is rising in
preserve this modernist heritage. Old villas are sometimes being
converted into boutique hotels, such as the Knai Bang Chatt.
Monuments and memorials to the genocide during the
Khmer Rouge era in
the 1970s are the
Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum
Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum (a former high school
used as a concentration camp) and, on the outskirts of the city, the
Choeung Ek Genocide Center. The Cambodia-
Vietnam Friendship Monument
was commissioned by the Vietnamese communists as symbol of
Khmer-Vietnamese friendship during the late 1970s following the
Cambodia from the Khmer Rouge.
The population, foreign investment, and urban development in Phnom
Penh grew dramatically during the 1990s and early 2000s. The rapid
growth resulted in the city's infrastructure distinctly lacking (the
drainage system is particularly notorious, and Phnom
floods during the wet season), and a need for both residential and
commercial spaces. The simultaneous demand for residential and
commercial housing and the increase of international investment has
led to the planning, if not construction, of several satellite cities.
The largest of these cities are: Grand Phnom
Penh International City,
CamKo City, Diamond Island City, Boeung Kak Town, and Chruy Cangva
On the outskirts of the city, farmland has been developed into garment
factories and housing for lower economic classes and those displaced
by the new development in the city center.
View of the National Museum, designed in the early 1920s by George
View of the Royal Throne Hall, constructed in the 1860s under King
Façade of the Hotel Le Royal, first established in 1929 under the
reign of King Sisowath Monivong.
View of a Colonial villa in Phnom Penh.
Hotels & Residences
Hotel Le Royal
Hotel Le Royal Phnom Penh
InterContinental Hotel Phnom Penh
Sunway Hotel Phnom Penh
NagaWorld Hotel Phnom Penh
Penh Hotel and Residence
Garden City Hotel Phnom Penh
Himawari Hotel Phnom Penh
2035 Master Plan
Originally intended to be completed by 2020, the 2035 master plan
is a French-funded project for the development of Phnom Penh. Although
the plan was approved by the Ministry of Land Management, Urban
Planning and Construction in 2005, it has yet to be ratified by the
Cabinet of Cambodia. The original plan details five edge-city projects
connected to the historical city center by waterways and tree-lined
Newspapers and magazines
Aerial view of the city
Statue of Samdech Chuon Nath, the Supreme Patriarch from 1948 to 1969
Sralagn' Khmer (Love Khmer)
Chakraval Daily (Universe)
Kampuchea Thmei Daily (New Cambodia)
Kampuchea Tgnai Nis (
Kanychok Sangkhum (Social Reflection)
Koh Santepheap (Island of Peace)
Moneaksekar Khmer (Khmer Conscience) – Published by the Sam Rainsy
Rasmei Kampuchea (Light of Kampuchea) – Cambodia's largest daily, it
circulates about 18,000 copies.
Samleng Yuvachun (Voice of Khmer Youth)
Udomkate Khmer (Khmer Ideal)
Wat Phnom Daily (Mount Temple)
Penh Post, a daily English-language newspaper published in Phnom
Cambodia Daily, an English-language daily newspaper (closed in
The Khmer Times, an English-language daily newspaper.
《柬華日報》(Jianhua Daily), a daily Chinese-language newspaper
published in Phnom Penh.
《星洲日報》(Sin Chew Daily), a Chinese-language daily
newspaper, the Cambodian edition of the Malaysian Chinese daily of the
《華商日報》(Huashang Daily), a Chinese-language daily
《高棉日报》(Khmer Daily), a Chinese-language daily newspaper.
《新柬埔寨》(New Cambodia), a Chinese-language daily newspaper.
AsiaLIFE Guide Phnom Penh, a monthly English-language lifestyle
magazine published in Phnom Penh.
Cambodia publishes four separate guides aimed at
English-speaking residents and visitors.
F Magazine, the first fashion-forward magazine in Cambodia.
Bi-lingual, written in English and Khmer.
SOVRIN Magazine, is the premium fashion magazine in
written in khmer language.
Thmey Thmey Online News Phnom Penh.
Sabay News Phnom Penh.
Main articles: Sport in
Cambodia and Morodok Techo National Sports
The martial arts of Bokator,
Pradal Serey (Khmer kick boxing) and
Khmer traditional wrestling
Khmer traditional wrestling have venues in Phnom
Penh watched by
Cambodia has increasingly become involved in
modern sports over the last 30 years. As with the rest of the country,
football and the martial arts are particularly popular.
The most prominent sporting venue in the city is the Phnom Penh
National Olympic Stadium with a capacity of 80,000—although the
country never hosted the Olympic Games due to disruption by the civil
war and the
Khmer Rouge in the 1970s. Built in 1964, it is home to
the Cambodian national football team. On completion the stadium
was one of the largest in Asia. Today it is the 6th largest stadium in
Southeast Asia. Volleyball, basketball, and Tai-Kwon-Do games are
often hosted at the stadium. The stadium closed in 2000, but was
redeveloped and reopened.
The National Sports Centre of
Cambodia is famous for hosting swimming,
boxing, and volleyball competitions. Noted local football clubs
Khemara Keila FC
Khemara Keila FC and Military Police.
See also: Transport in
Cambodia and Transport in Phnom Penh
Penh International Airport
Penh International Airport is the largest and busiest airport in
Cambodia. It is located 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) west of central
Cambodia's national flag carrier,
Angkor Air, launched in
2009, is headquartered in Phnom
Penh and has its main hub there, with
an additional hub at the
Angkor International Airport. Budget
Kuala Lumpur to Phnom
Penh are operated by
AirAsia, a regional low-cost carrier. Other budget carriers include
Jetstar Asia Airways
Jetstar Asia Airways with daily flights to Singapore.
Air France used to serve Phnom
Penh from Paris-Charles de Gaulle but
this service has since stopped.
Qatar Airways now flies to and from
Phnom Penh, via Ho Chi Minh.
Taxis, pick-ups, and minibuses leave the city for destinations all
over the country, but are fast losing ground to cheaper and more
comfortable buses. Phnom
Penh also has a rail service.
There are numerous bus companies, including Phnom
Transport and GST Express, running services to most provincial
capitals, including Sihanoukville, Kampong Chhnang,
Oudong and Takéo.
Penh Sorya Transport Co. offers bus service to several
provincial destinations along the National Routes and to Ho Chi Minh
City. Giant Ibis is another bus company based in Phnom Penh, which
travels to Sihanoukville, Kampot,
Siem Reap and Ho Chi Minh, and has
free wifi, air conditioning and modest pricing.
Although the city is 290 kilometres (180 mi) from the sea, it is
home to Cambodia's main freshwater port, a major port on the Mekong
River, and it is linked to the
South China Sea
South China Sea via a channel of the
Mekong delta in Vietnam.
Penh BRT bus approaching Monivong-
See also: Phnom
Penh City Bus
Bus rapid transit network in Phnom Penh
Penh is served by three air conditioned bus lines. Initial
attempts by the Japanese government to develop a Phnom
service began in 2001. An update of the
JICA urban transport master
plan for Phnom
Penh was completed and implemented in 2014. The
city is now served by three bus lines, operated by the Phnom Penh
municipal government. Private transportation within the city include
the cycle rickshaw, known in Khmer as "cyclo", the motorcycle taxi
known in Khmer as "moto", the auto rickshaw known locally as
"tuk-tuk", the trailer attached to a motorcycle taxi known in Khmer as
"remorque", and the standard automobile taxicab known in Khmer as
"taxi". Private forms of transportation used by locals include
bicycles, motorbikes and cars.
Boulevard Kilometre 9 ↔ Okaha Suy Sophan Bus Terminal
Ta Khmao ↔ Night Market
Mao Tse Tung Boulevard
Chom Chay Roundabout ↔ Night Market
Russian Confederation Boulevard
Common motorcycle traffic in Phnom Penh
As the capital of Cambodia, a number of National Highways connect the
city with various parts of the country:
National Highway 1
National Highway 2
National Highway 3
National Highway 4
National Highway 5
National Highway 6
National Highway 7
Skun (Cheung Prey District)
Main article: Water supply in Phnom Penh
Water supply in Phnom
Penh has improved dramatically in terms of
access, service quality, efficiency, cost recovery and governance
between 1993 and 2006. The number of customers has increased ninefold,
service quality has improved from intermittent to continuous supply,
water losses have been cut dramatically and the city's water utility
went from being bankrupt to making a modest profit. These
achievements were recognized through international awards such as the
Ramon Magsaysay Award and the 2010
Stockholm Industry Water
Award. The city's water utility is the Phnom
Penh Water Supply
Authority (PPWSA). Its main water sources are the
Mekong River, the
Tonle Sap river and the
Tonle Bassac river.
Twin towns and sister cities
Penh is twinned with:
Kunming, Yunnan, China
Changsha, Hunan, China
Bristol, United Kingdom
Iloilo City, Philippines
Busan, South Korea
Incheon, South Korea
Long Beach, California, United States
Lowell, Massachusetts, United States
Providence, Rhode Island, United States
Cleveland, Tennessee, United States
Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Cần Thơ, Vietnam
Lam Dong, Vietnam
List of markets in Phnom Penh
Special Economic Zones of Cambodia
^ a b "Facts Phnom
Penh City". Phnompenh.gov.kh. Retrieved 29 June
^ Dictionary Reference Phnom Penh
^ The Free Dictionary: Phnom Penh
^ Knox, Thomas Wallace (1881). The Boy Travellers in the Far East.
Harper. p. 61. access-date= requires url= (help)
^ Peace of
Penh Archived April 16, 2007, at the Wayback
Machine.. Retrieved July 27, 2007.
^ NIS (August 2009). General Population Census of
National Institute of Statistics, Ministry of Planning.
^ a b
^ Sopheak wordpress, . Retrieved August 23, 2009.
Japan Times Online Researcher locates 17th-century Japanese village
in Cambodia. Retrieved January 20, 2009.
^ K-media, . Retrieved August 23, 2009.
^ Stuart-Fox, William, The Murderous Revolution: Life & Death in
Pol Pot's Kampuchea, Alternative Publishing Co-Operative Limited,
1985, pp. 17.
^ Barron, John and Anthony Paul (1977), Murder of a Gentle Land,
Reader's Digest Press, pp. 1–2.
^ Ponchaud, Francois (1978),
Cambodia Year Zero, Holt, Rinehart and
Winston, pp. 6–7.
^ Swain, John (1999), River of Time: A Memoir of
Vietnam and Cambodia,
^ Stuart-Fox, pp. 7.
^ Vietnamese take Phnom Penh, History Today
^ a b General Population Census of
Cambodia 1998, National Institute
of Statistics, Ministry of Planning, Phnom Penh, Cambodia
^ a b Cambodian 2008 census preliminary results, Statistics Japan
2–6, Tables 2.2–2.6
^ "GNS: Country Files". Earth-info.nga.mil. Archived from the original
on August 12, 2005. Retrieved June 27, 2010.
^ "Klimatafel von Phnom
Penh / Kambodscha" (PDF). Baseline climate
means (1961-1990) from stations all over the world (in German).
Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved January 23, 2016.
^ Cappelen, John; Jensen, Jens. "
Cambodia - Phnom Penh" (PDF). Climate
Data for Selected Stations (1931-1960) (in Danish). Danish
Meteorological Institute. p. 44. Archived from the original (PDF)
on April 27, 2013. Retrieved March 9, 2013.
^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on June 14,
2007. Retrieved March 9, 2007.
^ a b c
^ "Phnom Penh's burgeoning population could tip almost 3 million". The
Penh Post. 18 August 2016. Retrieved 25 August 2016.
^ Phnom Penh's slums swell in 2012. Retrieved 2013-07-25.
^ Tourism for Economic Development in
Cambodia – Media Global,
Claire Brown Report, April 17, 2011
^ Riverfront area, Phnom Penh, Cambodia, Candy Publications, April 17,
^ People's Daily Online
Cambodia unveils Phnom
Penh development plan.
Retrieved June 14, 2008.
^ "De Castle". De Castle. Retrieved June 27, 2010.
^ "River Palace 31". Riverpalace.net. Archived from the original on
November 2, 2010. Retrieved June 27, 2010.
^ "Vattanac Capital". Riverpalace.net. Archived from the original on
November 15, 2011. Retrieved June 27, 2010.
(). Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology.
Retrieved on February 13, 2015. "プノンペン Phnom
School No,3EO St.390 Phnom
^ "Home." Japanese Association of Cambodia
(JACAM;カンボジア日本人会). Retrieved on March 31, 2015.
^ Se, Suy (November 23, 2010). "
Cambodia festival stampede leaves
almost 350 dead". The Age. Melbourne.
^ "Khmer Architecture Tours". Ka-tours.org. May 30, 2010. Retrieved
June 27, 2010.
Penh master plan extended to 2035 CBDA". www.cbda.org.kh.
^ Paling, Willem (2012). "Planning a Future for Phnom Penh: Mega
Projects, Aid Dependence and Disjointed Governance". Urban Studies.
49: 2889–2912. doi:10.1177/0042098012452457.
^ a b c
Angkor Air. 2009. Retrieved December 28,
Penh Post:Gridlock going nowhere fast, 28 February 2012,
retrieved on March 27, 2012
^ Gnarfgnarf:Cyclos, motos, remorques, tuk tuks and other taxis in
Phnom Penh, 12 March 2012, retrieved on March 27, 2012
^ Asian Development Bank:Country Water Action:
Cambodia Phnom Penh
Water Supply Authority: An Exemplary Water Utility in Asia, August
2007, retrieved on April 10, 2011
Stockholm International Water Institute:Phnom
Penh Water Supply
Stockholm Industry Water Award 2010, retrieved on April
^ "Sister Cities". Phnompenh.gov.kh. Archived from the original on
August 23, 2013. Retrieved October 31, 2012.
^ Xinhuall. "Cambodia's Phnom Penh, Thailand's
Bangkok become "sister
cities"". Global Times. Archived from the original on January 20,
2013. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
^ Higgins, Randall. "Cleveland, Tenn., is now sister city to... Phnom
Penh?". Times Free Press.
Groslier, B.P. (2006).
Cambodia In the Sixteenth Century.
Bangkok: Orchid Press.
Igout, Michel; Dubuisson, Serge (1993). Phnom
Penh Then and Now.
Bangkok: White Lotus. ISBN 978-974-8495-84-2.
LeBoutillier, Kris; Ariff, Shahida (2004). Journey Through Phnom Penh:
A Pictorial Guide to the Jewel of Cambodia. Singapore: Times Editions.
ISBN 978-981-232-596-9. OCLC 55501046.
Leroy, Joakim; Hoskin, John (2005). AZU's Dreams of Cambodia. Phnom
Penh. Hong Kong: AZU Editions Ltd. ISBN 978-988-98140-2-1.
In Robert Ludlum's Jason Bourne novel series, David Webb is a young
officer posted in Phnom
Penh with his wife and his two children.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Official city website
Penh travel guide from Wikivoyage
Places adjacent to Phnom Penh
Ponhea Leu, Kandal
Mukh Kampol, Kandal
Khsach Kandal, Kandal
Ang Snoul, Kandal
Lavear Em, Kandal
Ang Snuol, Kandal
Kandal Stung, Kandal
Ta Khmao, Kandal
Provinces of Cambodia
Cities in Cambodia
Capitals of Asia
Dependent territories and states with limited recognition are in
North and Central Asia
West and Southwest Asia
Hong Kong (China)
Pyongyang, North Korea
Seoul, South Korea
Diego Garcia, BIOT (UK)
Kotte, Sri Lanka
New Delhi, India
Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei
Dili, East Timor
Flying Fish Cove,
Christmas Island (Australia)
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Phnom Penh, Cambodia
West Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands
West Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Australia)
Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
Jerusalem, Israel/Palestine †
Kuwait City, Kuwait
North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus*
Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Tskhinvali, South Ossetia*
† Disputed. See: Positions on Jerusalem.
Penh Bus Rapid Transit stations
Toul Kok TVK
Penh International Airport
261 Intersection (Royal University of Phnom Penh)