PHNOM PENH (/pəˈnɔːm ˈpɛn/ or /ˈnɒm ˈpɛn/ ; Khmer :
ភ្នំពេញ, Khmer pronunciation: ), formerly known as
KRONG CHAKTOMUK (Khmer : ក្រុងចតុមុខ), is the
capital and most populous city of the Southeastern Asian country of
Once known as the "Pearl of Asia," it was considered one of the
loveliest French-built cities in
* 1 Etymology * 2 History
* 3 Geography
* 3.1 Climate
* 4 Administration * 5 Demographics
* 6 Politics
* 6.1 Parliament
* 7 Economy
* 8 Education
* 8.1 Universities and colleges * 8.2 Primary and secondary schools * 8.3 International schools
* 9 Culture
* 10 Cityscape and architecture
* 10.1 Hotel "> Phnom Penh from east drawn in 1887.
Penh (literally, "Penh's Hill") takes its name from the present
Wat Phnom ("Hill Temple"). Legend has it that in 1372, a wealthy widow
Penh found a Koki tree floating down the
Tonle Sap river
after a storm. Inside the tree were four bronze
Phnom Penh's official name, in its short form, is Krong Chaktomok
(Khmer : ក្រុងចតុមុខ) meaning "City of Four
Faces". Krong Chaktomuk is an abbreviation of the full name which was
given by King
Ponhea Yat , KRONG CHAKTOMUK MONGKOL SAKAL KAMPUCHEA
THIPADEI SEREY THEREAK BORVOR INTHABOT BOREI ROTH REACH SEIMA MAHA
NOKOR (Khmer :
រដ្ឋរាជសីមាមហានគរ). This loosely
translates as "The place of four rivers that gives the happiness and
success of Khmer Kingdom , the highest leader as well as impregnable
city of the God
First recorded a century after it is said to have taken place, the
legend of the founding of Phnom
Penh tells of a local woman, Penh
(commonly referred to as Daun
Penh ("Grandmother Penh" or "Old Lady
Penh") in Khmer ), living at Chaktomuk, the future Phnom Penh. It was
the late 14th century, and the Khmer capital was still at
The discovery was taken as a divine blessing, and to some a sign that the Khmer capital was to be brought to Phnom Penh from Angkor. To house the new-found sacred objects, Penh raised a small hill on the west bank of the Tonle Sap River and crowned it with a shrine, now known as Wat Phnom at the north end of central Phnom Penh. "Phnom" is Khmer for "hill" and Penh's hill took on the name of the founder, and the area around it became known after the hill.
Penh first became the capital of
Penh remained the royal capital for 73 years, from 1432 to
1505. It was abandoned for 360 years (from 1505 to 1865) by subsequent
kings due to internal fighting between the royal pretenders . Later
kings moved the capital several times and established their royal
capitals at various locations in Tuol Basan (Srey Santhor ),
Longvek , Lavear Em and
It was not until 1866, under the reign of King Norodom I (1860–1904), the eldest son of King Ang Duong , who ruled on behalf of Siam, that Phnom Penh became the permanent seat of government and capital of Cambodia, and also where the current Royal Palace was built. Beginning in 1870, the French colonial authorities turned a riverside village into a city where they built hotels, schools, prisons, barracks, banks, public works offices, telegraph offices, law courts, and health services buildings. In 1872, the first glimpse of a modern city took shape when the colonial administration employed the services of French contractor Le Faucheur to construct the first 300 concrete houses for sale and rental to Chinese traders .
By the 1920s, Phnom Penh was known as the "Pearl of Asia", and over the next four decades, Phnom Penh continued to experience rapid growth with the building of railways to Sihanoukville and Pochentong International Airport (now Phnom Penh International Airport ). Phnom Penh's infrastructure saw major modernisation under the rule of Sihanouk .
Vietnam War ,
Khmer Rouge were driven out of Phnom
Penh by the Vietnamese in
1979, and people began to return to the city.
Phnom Penh cityscape
Penh is located in the south-central region of Cambodia, and is
fully surrounded by the
Kandal Province . The municipality is situated
on the banks of the
The city, located at 11°33′00″N 104°55′00″E / 11.55°N 104.91667°E / 11.55; 104.91667 (11°33' North, 104°55' East), covers an area of 678.46 square kilometres (262 sq mi), with some 11,401 hectares (28,172 acres) in the municipality and 26,106 ha (64,509 acres) of roads. The agricultural land in the municipality amounts to 34.685 km2 (13 sq mi) with some 1.476 km2 (365 acres) under irrigation .
Penh has a tropical wet and dry climate (Köppen climate
classification Aw). The climate is hot year-round with only minor
variations. Temperatures typically range from 22 to 35 °C (72 to 95
°F) and weather is subject to the tropical monsoons . The southwest
monsoon blows inland bringing moisture-laden winds from the Gulf of
The city has two distinct seasons. The rainy season, which runs from May to October, sees high temperatures accompanied by high humidity. The dry season lasts from November to April when temperatures can drop to 22 °C (72 °F). But temperatures can approach 40 °C (104 °F) in April.
CLIMATE DATA FOR PHNOM PENH (TEMPERATURE: 1988–2013, EXTREMES: 1906–2013)
MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR
RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 36.1 (97) 38.1 (100.6) 40.0 (104) 40.5 (104.9) 40.0 (104) 39.2 (102.6) 37.2 (99) 37.8 (100) 35.5 (95.9) 36.1 (97) 34.4 (93.9) 37.2 (99) 40.5 (104.9)
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 31.6 (88.9) 33.2 (91.8) 34.6 (94.3) 35.3 (95.5) 34.8 (94.6) 33.8 (92.8) 32.9 (91.2) 32.7 (90.9) 32.2 (90) 31.4 (88.5) 31.1 (88) 30.8 (87.4) 32.9 (91.2)
DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 26.6 (79.9) 28.0 (82.4) 29.4 (84.9) 30.2 (86.4) 30.0 (86) 29.2 (84.6) 28.7 (83.7) 28.5 (83.3) 28.2 (82.8) 27.2 (81) 27.1 (80.8) 26.3 (79.3) 28.3 (82.9)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 21.8 (71.2) 22.8 (73) 24.3 (75.7) 25.5 (77.9) 25.6 (78.1) 24.9 (76.8) 24.8 (76.6) 24.6 (76.3) 24.4 (75.9) 24.2 (75.6) 23.2 (73.8) 21.9 (71.4) 24.0 (75.2)
RECORD LOW °C (°F) 12.8 (55) 15.2 (59.4) 19.0 (66.2) 17.8 (64) 20.6 (69.1) 21.2 (70.2) 20.1 (68.2) 20.0 (68) 21.1 (70) 17.2 (63) 16.7 (62.1) 14.4 (57.9) 12.8 (55)
AVERAGE RAINFALL MM (INCHES) 12.1 (0.476) 6.6 (0.26) 34.8 (1.37) 78.8 (3.102) 118.2 (4.654) 145.0 (5.709) 162.1 (6.382) 182.7 (7.193) 270.9 (10.665) 248.1 (9.768) 120.5 (4.744) 32.1 (1.264) 1,411.9 (55.587)
AVERAGE RAINY DAYS (≥ 0.1 MM) 1.2 1.1 3.4 6.8 15.9 17.0 18.1 18.3 21.5 19.3 10.2 4.5 137.3
AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 73 71 71 73 77 78 80 81 84 84 78 73 77
MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 260 226 267 240 202 192 143 174 129 202 213 242 2,490
Source #1: Deutscher Wetterdienst
Source #2: Danish Meteorological Institute (sun, 1931–1960)
The National Assembly building of
Phnom Penh is a municipality of area 678.46 square kilometres (261.95 sq mi) with a government status equal to that of Cambodian provinces. The municipality is subdivided into twelve administrative divisions called Khans (districts) and of these twelve Khans, Dangkao , Meanchey , Porsenchey , Sen Sok and Russei Keo are considered the outskirts of the city. All Khans are under the governance of the Phnom Penh Municipality. The Khans are further subdivided into 76 Sangkats (communes), and 637 Kroms .
The municipality is governed by the Governor who acts as the top executive of the city as well as overseeing the Municipal Military Police, Municipal Police and Bureau of Urban Affairs. Below the Governor is the First Vice Governor and 5 Vice Governors. The Chief of Cabinet, who holds the same status as the Vice Governors, heads the Cabinet consisting of 8 Deputy Chiefs of Cabinet who in turn are in charge of the 27 Administrative Departments. Every khan (district) also has a head Chief.
LIST OF PHNOM PENH ADMINISTRATIVE DISTRICTS
NAME OF DISTRICT (KHAN ) NUMBER OF COMMUNES (SANGKAT ) NUMBER OF VILLAGES (KROM ) POPULATION AS OF 2008
Chamkar Mon 12 sangkats 95 kroms 182,004
Doun Penh 11 sangkats 134 kroms 126,550
Prampir Meakkakra 8 sangkats 33 kroms 91,895
Tuol Kouk 10 sangkats 143 kroms 171,200
Dangkao 13 sangkats 143 kroms 257,724
Mean Chey 4 sangkats 16 kroms 327,801
Ruessei Kaev 6 sangkats 21 kroms 196,684
Sen Sok 3 sangkats 32 kroms 147,967
Pou Senchey 13 sangkats 158 kroms 183 826
Chrouy Changvar 5 sangkats 22 kroms new district
Preaek Pnov 5 sangkats 59 kroms new district
Chbar Ampov 8 sangkats 30 kroms new district
YEAR POP. ±% P.A.
1950 334,000 —
1960 398,000 +1.77%
1970 457,000 +1.39%
1975 370,000 −4.14%
1978 32,000 −55.78%
1980 189,000 +143.03%
1985 351,000 +13.18%
1990 634,000 +12.55%
1995 925,000 +7.85%
2000 1,284,000 +6.78%
2005 1,677,000 +5.49%
2010 2,101,725 +4.62%
As of 2008 , Phnom Penh had a population of 2,009,264 people, with a total population density of 5,358 inhabitants per square kilometre (13,877/sq mi) in a 678.46 square kilometres (262 sq mi) city area. The population growth rate of the city is 3.92%. The city area has grown fourfold since 1979, and the metro area will continue to expand in order to support the city's growing population and economy. Phnom Penh's population is expected to increase to 3 million at the end of 2016.
Phnom Penh is mostly inhabited by Cambodians (or Khmers) – they represent 90% of the population of the city. There are large minorities of Chinese, Vietnamese, and other small ethnic groups who are Thai , Budong, Mnong Preh , Kuy , Chong, and Chams . The state religion is Theravada Buddhism . More than 90% of the people in Phnom Penh are Buddhists. Chams have been practicing Islam for hundreds of years. Since 1993, there has also been an increase in the practice of Christianity which was practically wiped out after 1975 when the Khmer Rouge took over. The official language is Khmer , but English and French are widely used in the city.
The city has the highest Human development index in the country, with a HDI of 0.936 compared to the worst HDI indicator of 0.220 in Mondulkiri —a rural area inhabited largely by hill tribes and aborigines. The number of slum -inhabitants at the end of 2012 was 105,771, compared with 85,807 at the start of 2012.
Note: As stated in the "History" paragraph (The 1998 Census put Phnom Penh's population at 862,000; and the 2008 census was 1.3 million. ) the information collides with the information provided in the "Historical population" table. Needs editing.
See also: Phnom Penh (National Assembly constituency)
NAME POLITICAL PARTY
1 Tioulong Saumura CNRP
2 Yim Sovann CNRP
3 Son Chhay CNRP
4 Ho Vann CNRP
5 Keo Sambath CNRP
6 Ly Srey Vina CNRP
7 Dam Sethy CNRP
9 Kep Chuktema CPP
10 Hou Sry CPP
11 Krouch Sam An CPP
12 Lauk Kheng CPP
Phnom Penh's is Cambodia's economic centre as it accounts for a large portion of the Cambodian economy. Double-digit economic growth rates in recent years have triggered an economic boom in Phnom Penh, with new hotels, restaurants, bars, high rises and residential buildings springing up around the city.
The main economy is based on commercial interests such as garments,
trading, and small and medium enterprises. In the past few years the
property business has been booming, with rapidly increasing real
estate prices. Tourism is also a major contributor in the capital as
more shopping and commercial centres open, making Phnom
Penh one of
the major tourist destinations in the country along with
Siem Reap and
Sihanoukville . According to the World Travel and Tourism Council,
tourism made up 17.5 percent (US$2,053 million) of Cambodia's GDP in
2009 and accounts for 13.7 percent of total employment. One of the
most popular areas in Phnom
Penh for tourists is
Sisowath Quay ,
Tonle Sap River.
Sisowath Quay is a 3-mile strip of road
that includes restaurants, bars, and hotels. The US$2.6 billion new
Camko City , is meant to bolster the city
landscape. The Bureau of Urban Affairs of Phnom
* Grand Phnom Penh International City (under construction) * De Castle Royal Condominium (Completed) * International Finance Complex (Under construction) * Gold Tower 42 (On hold 32 floors) * OCIC Tower (Completed) * Kokling super second floor house * River Palace (Under construction) * Vattanac Capital Tower (completed) * The Peak (under construction
Aeon Mall Phnom Penh
With booming economic growth seen since the 1990s, new shopping
retails have opened as well as western-style such as Sorya Shopping
Center , City Mall, Aeon Mall and Parkson Mall. Many international
brands had opened such as
Mango (clothing) ,
Salvatore Ferragamo ,
Montagut (clothing) ,
The tallest skyscraper in Phnom Penh is Vattanac Capital Tower at a height of 9,800 metres (32,152 ft), dominating Phnom Penh's skyline with its neighbour skyscraper Canadia Tower (OCIC Tower). The tower was topped out in May 2012 and scheduled for completion in late 2012. Modern high rises have been constructed all around the city, not concentrated in any one particular area. Outside view of Central market
The Central market Phsar Thmei is a tourist attraction. The four wings of the yellow colored market are teeming with numerous stalls selling gold and silver jewellery, antique coins, clothing, clocks, flowers, food, fabrics and shoes. Phsar Thmei is undergoing under a major renovation, along with the creation of newer stalls.
UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES
* The University of
PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS
* Lycee Sisowath Khmer : វិទ្យាល័យស៊ីសុវត្ថិ * Chaktomuk Secondary School Khmer : អនុវិទ្យាល័យចតុមុខ * Bak Touk High School Khmer : វិទ្យាល័យបាក់ទូក * Chea Sim Samaky High School Khmer : វិទ្យាល័យជាស៊ីមសាមគ្គី * Indradevi High School Khmer : វិទ្យាល័យឥន្ទ្រទេវី * Chea Sim Santhormok High School Khmer : វិទ្យាល័យជាស៊ីមសន្ធរម៉ុក * Chea Sim Chrouy Changvar High School Khmer : វិទ្យាល័យជាស៊ីមជ្រោយចង្វារ * Chbar Ampov High School Khmer : វិទ្យាល័យច្បារអំពៅ
Lim Kim Noy Tower (American intercon school) is the tallest school in Phnom Penh City
Zaman International School
* Lycée français René Descartes de Phnom
Statue of Lady Penh , the city's founder.
Phnom Penh also has its own dialect of Khmer . Speakers of the Phnom Penh dialect often elide syllables, which has earned it the reputation for being lazy speech. Phnom Penh is also known for its influence on New Khmer Architecture . Phnom Penh is notable for Ka tieu Phnom Penh, its variation on rice-noodle soup, a dish available in sit-down cafes as well as 'street' cafes. The city is both the economic and cultural center of Cambodia. "Dried" version of Phnom Penh noodles with soup broth on the side
Music and the arts are making a revival throughout Cambodia, especially in Phnom Penh. Phnom Penh currently hosts a number of music events throughout the city. 'Indie' bands (those without corporate sponsors) have grown in number.
The two most visited museums in the city are the National Museum ,
which is the country's leading historical and archaeological museum,
Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum
CHAUL CHNAM THMEY April 13–15 Main article: Chaul Chnam Thmey
At this time, Phnom
Cambodian New Year , an occasion
increasingly popular with tourists. During this typically hottest part
of the year, water gets thrown around adding to the party atmosphere
along with dancing and music. The precise date changes year-by-year
but this holiday lasts, at least, three days. This festival marks the
turn of the year based on the ancient Khmer calendar and also marks
the end of the prior year harvest. The Silver Pagoda houses the
WATER FESTIVAL November Main article: Bon Om Thook
The largest annual festival in Phnom Penh, this lively gathering
celebrates the reversing of the flow of the
On November 22, 2010 at least 348 people were crushed to death in a bridge stampede at the festival.
PCHUM BEN October 11–15 (2012)
Pchum Ben is a very important aspect of Cambodian culture. It may be translated as "gathering together" to make offerings and is a time of reunion, commemoration, express love and appreciation for one's ancestors. By offering food and good karma to those possibly trapped in the spirit world, living relatives help assuage their misery and guide them back into the cycle of reincarnation.
VISAK BOCHEA May Main article: Vesākha
Vesākha is an annual holiday observed traditionally by Buddhists in Cambodia. Sometimes informally called "Buddha's Birthday", it actually encompasses the birth, enlightenment (nirvāṇa), and passing away (Parinirvāna) of Gautama Buddha.
CITYSCAPE AND ARCHITECTURE
Statue of Decho Yod and Decho Meas in Phnom Penh. Main temple in Wat Langka
The oldest structure is Wat Phnom from the founding days of the city, constructed in 1373. The main tourist attractions are the Royal Palace with the Silver Pagoda , and the National Museum , constructed during the French colonial era in the late 19th century in the classical Khmer style and hosting a vast collection of Khmer antiquities. The Independence Monument (Khmer: Vimean Akareach), although from the 1950s, is also constructed in the ancient Khmer style. Veal Maen
The French, who were the colonial masters from the 19th century to the 1940s, also left their mark, with various colonial villas, French churches, boulevards , and the Art Deco market Phsar Thom Thmei . A notable landmark of the colonial era is the Hotel Le Royal .
Starting with independence from the French in the 1950s and lasting
until the era of the
Khmer Rouge in the 1970s, Phnom
tremendous growth as the capital city of a newly independent country.
Sihanouk was eager to present a new style of architecture and
thus invigorate the process of nation building. A new golden era of
architecture took off, with various projects and young Khmer
architects, often educated in France, given opportunities to design
and construct. This new movement was called "
New Khmer Architecture "
and was often characterised by a fusion of
Monuments and memorials to the genocide during the
Khmer Rouge era in
the 1970s are the
Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum
The population, foreign investment, and urban development in Phnom Penh grew dramatically during the 1990s and early 2000s. The rapid growth resulted in the city's infrastructure distinctly lacking (the drainage system is particularly notorious, and Phnom Penh frequently floods during the wet season), and a need for both residential and commercial spaces. The simultaneous demand for residential and commercial housing and the increase of international investment has led to the planning, if not construction, of several satellite cities. The largest of these cities are: Grand Phnom Penh International City, CamKo City, Diamond Island City, Boeung Kak Town, and Chruy Cangva City.
On the outskirts of the city, farmland has been developed into garment factories and housing for lower economic classes and those displaced by the new development in the city center.
View of the National Museum , designed in the early 1920s by George
View of the Royal Throne Hall , constructed in the 1860s under King
Norodom I .
Façade of the
Hotel Le Royal , first established in 1929 under the
reign of King
HOTEL "> Top hotels in Phnom Penh
* Raffle Hotel Le Royal Phnom Penh * InterContinental Hotel Phnom Penh * Sunway Hotel Phnom Penh * Rosewood Phnom Penh Hotel * Hôtel Sofitel Phnom Penh Phooketra * NagaWorld Hotel Phnom Penh * Sokha Phnom Penh Hotel and Residence * Garden City Hotel Phnom Penh * Phnom Penh Hotel * Cambodiana Phnom Penh Hotel * Himawari Hotel Phnom Penh
2035 MASTER PLAN
Originally intended to be completed by 2020, the 2035 master plan is
a French-funded project for the development of Phnom Penh. Although
the plan was approved by the Ministry of Land Management, Urban
Planning and Construction in 2005, it has yet to be ratified by
NEWSPAPERS AND MAGAZINES
Aerial view of the city Choun Nat Statue
* Sralagn\' Khmer (Love Khmer)
Chakraval Daily (Universe)
Kampuchea Thmei Daily (New Cambodia)
* Kampuchea Tgnai Nis (
* 《柬華日報》(Jianhua Daily), a daily Chinese-language
newspaper published in Phnom Penh.
Sin Chew Daily
AsiaLIFE Guide Phnom Penh, a monthly English-language lifestyle
magazine published in Phnom Penh.
* Pocket Guide
* Thmey Thmey Online News Phnom Penh. * Sabay News Phnom Penh.
Main articles: Sport in
The martial arts of
Pradal Serey (Khmer kick boxing) and
Khmer traditional wrestling
The most prominent sporting venue in the city is the Phnom Penh
National Olympic Stadium with a capacity of 80,000 —although the
country never hosted the Olympic Games due to disruption by the civil
war and the
Khmer Rouge in the 1970s. Built in 1964, it is home to
Cambodian national football team . On completion the stadium was
one of the largest in Asia. Today it is the 6th largest stadium in
The National Sports Centre of
Phnom Penh International Airport is the largest and busiest airport in Cambodia. It is located 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) west of central Phnom Penh.
Cambodia's national flag carrier ,
Air France used to serve Phnom Penh from Paris-Charles de Gaulle but this service has since stopped. Qatar Airways now flies to and from Phnom Penh, via Ho Chi Minh.
Taxis, pick-ups, and minibuses leave the city for destinations all over the country, but are fast losing ground to cheaper and more comfortable buses. Phnom Penh also has a rail service.
There are numerous bus companies, including Phnom
Transport and GST Express , running services to most provincial
capitals, including Sihanoukville, Kampong Chhnang ,
Although the city is 290 kilometres (180 mi) from the sea, it is home
to Cambodia's main freshwater port, a major port on the
Phnom Penh is served by three air conditioned bus lines. Initial attempts by the Japanese government to develop a Phnom Penh bus service began in 2001. An update of the JICA urban transport master plan for Phnom Penh was completed and implemented in 2014. The city is now served by three bus lines, operated by the Phnom Penh municipal government . Private transportation within the city include the cycle rickshaw , known in Khmer as "cyclo", the motorcycle taxi known in Khmer as "moto", the auto rickshaw known locally as "tuk-tuk", the trailer attached to a motorcycle taxi known in Khmer as "remorque", and the standard automobile taxicab known in Khmer as "taxi". Private forms of transportation used by locals include bicycles, motorbikes and cars.
LINE TERMINUS OPENED ROUTE STATIONS Frequency (mins)
Ta Khmao ↔ Night Market 2014 Mao Tse Tung Boulevard 69 15
Chom Chay Roundabout ↔ Night Market 2014 Russian Confederation Boulevard 49 15
Common motorcycle traffic in Phnom Penh
As the capital of Cambodia, a number of National Highways connect the city with various parts of the country:
NATIONAL HIGHWAY CODE LENGTH ORIGIN TERMINAL
National Highway 1 10001 167.10 km 103.83 mi Phnom Penh Vietnamese Border
National Highway 2 10002 120.60 km 74.94 mi Phnom Penh Vietnamese Border
National Highway 3 10003 202.00 km 125.52 mi Phnom Penh Veal Renh
National Highway 4 10004 226.00 km 140.43 mi Phnom Penh Sihanoukville
National Highway 5 10005 407.45 km 253.18 mi Phnom Penh Thai Border
National Highway 6 10006 416.00 km 258.49 mi Phnom Penh Banteay Meanchey
National Highway 7 10007 509.17 km 316.38 mi Skun (Cheung Prey District) Lao Border
Main article: Water supply in Phnom Penh
Water supply in Phnom
Penh has improved dramatically in terms of
access, service quality, efficiency, cost recovery and governance
between 1993 and 2006. The number of customers has increased ninefold,
service quality has improved from intermittent to continuous supply,
water losses have been cut dramatically and the city's water utility
went from being bankrupt to making a modest profit. These
achievements were recognized through international awards such as the
Ramon Magsaysay Award and the 2010
TWIN TOWNS AND SISTER CITIES
Phnom Penh is twinned with:
* ^ A B "Facts Phnom
Penh City". Phnompenh.gov.kh. Retrieved 29
* ^ DICTIONARY REFERENCE Phnom Penh
* ^ THE FREE DICTIONARY : Phnom Penh
* ^ Knox, Thomas Wallace (1881). The Boy Travellers in the Far
East. Harper. p. 61. access-date= requires url= (help )
* ^ Peace of
* Groslier, B.P. (2006).
Wikimedia Commons has media related to PHNOM PENH .
* Official city website * Phnom Penh travel guide from Wikivoyage
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ADJACENT PLACES OF PHNOM PENH
Ponhea Leu , Kandal Mukh Kampol , Kandal Khsach Kandal , Kandal
Ang Snoul , Kandal
Lavear Em , Kandal
Ang Snuol , Kandal Kandal Stung , Kandal Ta Khmao , Kandal
* v * t * e
* Phnom Penh
* v * t * e
* Phnom Penh
* v * t * e
Capitals of Asia
Dependent territories and states with limited recognition are in italics
North and Central Asia South Asia Southeast Asia West and Southwest Asia