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Philosophy, Politics
Politics
and Economics
Economics
(PPE) is an interdisciplinary undergraduate/post-graduate degree which combines study from three disciplines. The first institution to offer degrees in PPE was the University of Oxford in the 1920s. This particular course has produced a significant number of notable graduates such as Aung San Suu Kyi, Burmese politician, State Counsellor of Myanmar, Nobel Peace Prize winner; Christopher Hitchens, the British–American author, polemicist, debater, and journalist;[1][2] Harold Wilson, Edward Heath
Edward Heath
and David Cameron, former Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom; Hugh Gaitskell and Ed Miliband, former Leaders of the Opposition; William Hague, the former Leader of the Opposition and former Foreign Secretary; Benazir Bhutto, former Prime Minister of Pakistan; and Malcolm Fraser, Bob Hawke and Tony Abbott, former Prime Ministers of Australia.[3][4] The course received fresh attention in 2017, when Nobel Peace Prize winner Malala Yousafzai
Malala Yousafzai
won a place.[5][6] In the 1980s, the University of York
University of York
went on to establish its own PPE degree based upon the Oxford model; King's College London, the University of Warwick, the University of Manchester, and other British universities later followed. According to the BBC, the Oxford PPE "dominate[s] public life" (in the UK).[7] It is now offered at several other leading colleges and universities around the world.

Contents

1 History 2 Course material 3 Academic opinions 4 List of offering universities

4.1 United Kingdom 4.2 Ireland 4.3 Canada 4.4 United States 4.5 South Africa and Nigeria 4.6 Australia and New Zealand 4.7 Continental Europe 4.8 Middle East and Asia 4.9 South America

5 See also 6 References 7 External links

History[edit] Philosophy, Politics
Politics
and Economics
Economics
was established as a degree course at the University of Oxford
University of Oxford
in the 1920s,[8] as a modern alternative to classics (known as "literae humaniores" or "greats" at Oxford) because it was thought as a more modern alternative for those entering the civil service. It was thus initially known as "modern greats".[7][9] The first PPE students commenced their course in the autumn of 1921.[4] The regulation by which it was established is Statt. Tit. VI. Sect. 1 C; "the subject of the Honour School of Philosophy, Politics, and Economics
Economics
shall be the study of the structure, and the philosophical and economic principles, of Modern Society."[10] Initially it was compulsory to study all three subjects for all three years of the course, but in 1970 this requirement was relaxed, and since then students have been able to drop one subject after the first year – most do this, but a minority continue with all three.[4] During the 1960s some students started to critique the course from a left-wing perspective, culminating in the publication of a pamphlet, The Poverty of PPE, in 1968, written by Trevor Pateman, who argued that it "gives no training in scholarship, only refining to a high degree of perfection the ability to write short dilettantish essays on the basis of very little knowledge: ideal training for the social engineer". The pamphlet advocated incorporating the study of sociology, anthropology and art, and to take on the aim of "assist(ing) the radicalisation and mobilisation of political opinion outside the university". In response, some minor changes were made, with influential leftist writers such as Frantz Fanon
Frantz Fanon
and Régis Debray being added to politics reading lists, but the core of the programme remained the same.[4] Christopher Stray has pointed to the course as one reason for the gradual decline of the study of classics, as classicists in political life began to be edged out by those who had studied the modern greats.[11] Dario Castiglione and Iain Hampsher-Monk have described the course as being fundamental to the development of political thought in the UK, since it established a connection between politics and philosophy. Previously at Oxford, and for some time subsequently at Cambridge, politics had been taught only as a branch of modern history.[12] Course material[edit] The programme is rooted in the view that to understand social phenomena one must approach them from several complementary disciplinary directions and analytical frameworks. In this regard, the study of philosophy is considered important because it both equips students with meta-tools such as the ability to reason rigorously and logically, and facilitates ethical reflection. The study of politics is considered necessary because it acquaints students with the institutions that govern society and help solve collective action problems. Finally, studying economics is seen as vital in the modern world because political decisions often concern economic matters, and government decisions are often influenced by economic events. The vast majority of students at Oxford drop one of the three subjects for the second and third years of their course. Oxford now has more than 600 undergraduates studying the subject, admitting over 200 each year.[13] Academic opinions[edit] Oxford PPE graduate Nick Cohen
Nick Cohen
and former tutor Iain McLean consider the course's breadth important to its appeal, especially "because British society values generalists over specialists". Academic and Labour peer Maurice Glasman noted that "PPE combines the status of an elite university degree – PPE is the ultimate form of being good at school – with the stamp of a vocational course. It is perfect training for cabinet membership, and it gives you a view of life". However he also noted that it had an orientation towards consensus politics and technocracy.[4] Geoffrey Evans, an Oxford fellow in politics and a senior tutor, critiques that the Oxford course's success and consequent over-demand is a self-perpetuating feature of those in front of and behind the scenes in national administration, in stating "all in all, it's how the class system works". In the current economic system he bemoans the unavoidable inequalities besetting admissions and thereby enviable recruitment prospects of successful graduates. The argument itself intended as a paternalistic ethical reflection on how governments and peoples can perpetuate social stratification.[7] Stewart Wood, a former adviser to Ed Miliband
Ed Miliband
who studied PPE at Oxford in the 1980s and taught politics there in the 1990s and 2000s, acknowledged that the programme has been slow to catch up with contemporary political developments, saying that "it does still feel like a course for people who are going to run the Raj in 1936... In the politics part of PPE, you can go three years without discussing a single contemporary public policy issue". He also stated that the structure of the course gave it a centrist bias, due to the range of material covered: "...most students think, mistakenly, that the only way to do it justice is to take a centre position".[4] List of offering universities[edit] United Kingdom[edit]

Durham University[14] Goldsmiths, University of London[15] Keele University King's College London
King's College London
[16] Kingston University[17] Lancaster University[18] London School of Economics[19] The Open University[20] Queen's University
Queen's University
Belfast[21] Royal Holloway, University of London[22] Swansea University[23] University College London[24] University of East Anglia[25] University of Essex[26] University of Exeter[27] University of the Highlands and Islands University of Hull[28] University of Leeds[29] University of Liverpool[30] University of Manchester[31] University of Nottingham University of Oxford[32] University of Reading University of Southampton University of Stirling[33] University of Sussex[34] University of Warwick[35] University of Winchester[36] University of York[37]

Ireland[edit]

National University of Ireland, Maynooth[38] University of Dublin
University of Dublin
(under the designation PPES with sociology)[39]

Canada[edit]

Mount Allison University[40] Queen's University[41] The King's University[42] University of British Columbia Okanagan[43] University of Regina[44] University of Western Ontario[45] Wilfrid Laurier University[46]

United States[edit]

Carroll University[47] Carnegie Mellon University[48] (under the designation "ethics, history, and public policy") Claremont McKenna College[49] Criswell College[50] Denison University[51] Duke University[52] (certificate) Eastern Oregon University[53][54] Emory & Henry College[55] George Mason University[56] Juniata College[57] The King's College (New York)[58] La Salle University[59] (as Political Science, Philosophy, and Economics) Mercer University[60] Minnesota State University, Mankato[61] Mount St. Mary's University[62] Murphy Institute[63] (Tulane University, under the designation "political economy") Northeastern University[64] Pomona College[65] Rutgers University–New Brunswick Suffolk University Transylvania University[66] University of Alabama at Birmingham[67] (as a concentration of an Economics
Economics
degree) [68] University of Akron[69] University of Arizona[70] (under the designation "PPEL" - with law) University of Iowa[71] (under the designation "ethics and public policy") The University of Michigan[72] (honors program) University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
(minor)[73] University of Notre Dame[74] (minor) University of Pennsylvania[75] University of Pittsburgh[76] University of Richmond[77] (under the designation "PPEL" - with law)[78] Taylor University[79] University of Virginia[80] (under the designation "PPL" - replacing economics with law) University of Washington Tacoma[81] University of Washington Bothell[82] (under the designation "Society, Ethics, & Human Behavior", abbreviated "SEB") Virginia Tech
Virginia Tech
[83] Wesleyan University[84] (under the designation "College of Social Studies") Western Washington University[85] Wheeling Jesuit University[86] (under the designation "political and economic philosophy") Xavier University
Xavier University
(under the designation "Philosophy, Politics, and the Public", abbreviated "PPP")[87] Yale University
Yale University
(under the designation "ethics, politics and economics", abbreviated "EP&E")[88]

South Africa and Nigeria[edit]

Stellenbosch University[89] Obafemi Awolowo University[90] University of Cape Town[91] University of KwaZulu-Natal[92] University of South Africa[93] University of Johannesburg[94] University of Witwatersrand[95] Afe Babalola University[96] University of Pretoria[97]

Australia and New Zealand[edit]

Australian National University[98] University of Otago[99] University of Queensland[100] University of Technology, Sydney[101] University of Wollongong La Trobe University[102] Victoria University of Wellington[103]

Continental Europe[edit]

American University of Paris Institutes for Political Studies also known as "Sciences Po" Bifröst University[104] Free University of Bolzano Ca' Foscari University of Venice
Ca' Foscari University of Venice
(under the designation of "Philosophy, International Studies and Economics" abbreviated "PISE") CEVRO Institute, Prague, Czech Republic Charles University in Prague[105] Alliance 4 Universities (Charles III University of Madrid, Autonomous University of Madrid, Autonomous University of Barcelona
Autonomous University of Barcelona
and Pompeu Fabra University) Erasmus University College[106] Istanbul Bilgi University (political economy and social philosophy) Karlshochschule International University (bachelor), Germany[107] Leiden University[108] Libera Università Internazionale degli Studi Sociali Guido Carli, Rome (Italy)[109] Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich[110] Lund University[111] Ukrainian Catholic University, Lviv, Ukraine
Ukraine
(under the designation "Ethics. Politics. Economics", abbreviated "EPE") Universitat Pompeu Fabra
Universitat Pompeu Fabra
[112] University of Navarra, Spain University of Amsterdam[113] University of Bayreuth[114] University of Bern
University of Bern
(under the designation of MA "political, legal and economic philosophy" abbreviated "PLEP")[115] University of Graz
University of Graz
(under the designation of MA "political, economic and legal philosophy" abbreviated "PELP")[116] University of Groningen University of Hamburg
University of Hamburg
(under the designation of M.Sc. "politics, economics and philosophy" abbreviated "PEP")[117] University of Lucerne[118] University of Milano, Italy (" Politics
Politics
and economics", with a base in humanities common to the Political sciences Ba programme)[119] University of Saarland, Germany University of Tromsø[120] VU University Amsterdam[121] Witten/Herdecke University
Witten/Herdecke University
(bachelor and master), Germany[122] University of Zurich
University of Zurich
(under the designation of MA "economic and political philosophy")[123]

Middle East and Asia[edit]

Sogang University, S.Korea National Research University – Higher School of Economics, (Masters in Politics, Eonomics, Philosophy), Moscow, Russia Birla Institute of Technology and Science, India Tel Aviv University
Tel Aviv University
(under the designation "PPEL" - with law), Israel Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel Peking University[124] Renmin University of China[125] Hanyang University[126] (under the designation "PPEL" - with law), South Korea Rangsit University, Thailand Thammasat University, Thailand Waseda University[127] Yale-NUS, Singapore[128] Amity University, Noida, India[129] Bangalore
Bangalore
University, Bangalore, India Asian University for Women, Bangladesh Ashoka University, India

South America[edit]

Universidad Torcuato Di Tella
Universidad Torcuato Di Tella
(under the designation "Ciencia Sociales, Orientación en Política y Economía"), Argentina

See also[edit]

List of University of Oxford
University of Oxford
people with PPE degrees Literae Humaniores Philosophy
Philosophy
and economics International PPE Conference

References[edit]

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Malala Yousafzai
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Malala Yousafzai
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External links[edit]

PPE, Oxford University – Offi

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