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In linguistics, the Philippine languages
Philippine languages
are a proposal by Zorc (1986) and Robert Blust
Robert Blust
(1991) that all the languages of the Philippines
Philippines
and northern Sulawesi—except Sama–Bajaw (languages of the "Sea Gypsies") and a few languages of Palawan—form a subfamily of Austronesian languages.[2][3] Although the Philippines
Philippines
is near the center of Austronesian expansion from Formosa, there is little linguistic diversity among the approximately 150 Philippine languages, suggesting that earlier diversity has been erased by the spread of the ancestor of the modern Philippine languages.[4][5]

Contents

1 Classification 2 Vocabulary comparison 3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External links

Classification[edit] From approximately north to south, the Philippine languages
Philippine languages
are divided into the following subgroups:

Batanic languages (4 languages between Batanes
Batanes
and Formosa) Northern Luzon languages
Northern Luzon languages
(40 languages, including Ilocano and Pangasinan) Central Luzon languages
Central Luzon languages
(5 languages, including Sambal and Kapampangan) Northern Mindoro languages (or North Mangyan; 3 languages) Greater Central Philippine languages

Southern Mindoro languages (or South Mangyan; 3 languages) Central Philippine languages (40 languages, including Tagalog, Bikol languages and Visayan languages) Palawan
Palawan
languages (3 languages) Subanen languages (6 languages) Danao languages (3 languages, including Maguindanao and Maranao) Manobo languages
Manobo languages
(15 languages) Gorontalo–Mongondow languages (9 languages of Gorontalo
Gorontalo
and North Sulawesi)

Kalamian languages (2 languages of northern Palawan) South Mindanao languages
South Mindanao languages
(5 languages) Sangiric languages (4 languages of Sangir and Talaud Islands) Minahasan languages (5 languages of North Sulawesi)

In addition, the Ati, Umiray Dumaget, Manide and Inagta Alabat languages are unclassified within the Philippine family. Vocabulary comparison[edit] Comparison chart between several selected Philippine languages
Philippine languages
spoken from north to south with Proto-Austronesian first for comparison.

English 0 1 2 3 4 5 person house dog coconut day new we (incl.) what fire

Proto-Austronesian

*əsa *isa *duSa *təlu *Səpat *lima *Cau *Rumaq *asu *niuR *qalejaw *baqeRu *i-kita *n-anu *apuy

Batanic (Bashiic) 0 1 2 3 4 5 person house dog coconut day new we (incl.) what fire

Yami (Tao)

ása dóa (raroa) tílo (tatlo) apat (ápat) lima tao vahay chito niyoy araw vayo yaten ango apoy

Ivatan

asa dadowa tatdo apat lima tao vahay chito niyoy araw va-yo yaten ango apoy

Northern Luzon 0 1 2 3 4 5 person house dog coconut day new we (incl.) what fire

Ilokano ibbong awan maysa dua tallo uppat lima tao balay aso niog aldaw baro sitayo ania apoy

Ibanag awan tadday dua tallu appa' lima tolay balay kitu niuk aggaw bagu sittam anni afi

Gaddang

antet addwa tallo appat lima tolay balay atu ayog aw bawu ikkanetam sanenay afuy

Pangasinan

sakey dua duara talo talora apat apatira lima too abong aso niyog ageo balo sikatayo anto pool

Central Luzon 0 1 2 3 4 5 person house dog coconut day new we (incl.) what fire

Kapampangan ala métung isâ adwâ atlû ápat lima táu balé ásu ngúngut aldô báyu íkatamu nánu api

Central Philippine 0 1 2 3 4 5 person house dog coconut day new we (incl.) what fire

Filipino sero isa dalawa tatlo apat lima tao bahay aso niyog araw bago tayo ano apoy

Tagalog wala isa dalawa tatlo apat lima tao bahay aso niyog araw bago tayo ano apoy

Bikol 0 1 2 3 4 5 person house dog coconut day new we (incl.) what fire

Central Bikol wara saro duwa tulo upat lima tawo harong ayam niyog adlaw ba-go kita ano kalayo

Rinconada Bikol

əsad darwā tolō əpat lima tawō baləy ayam noyog aldəw bāgo kitā onō kalayō

Visayan 0 1 2 3 4 5 person house dog coconut day new we (incl.) what fire

Waray waray usa sayo duha tulo upat lima tawo balay ayam ido lubi adlaw bag-o kita ano kalayo

Hiligaynon walay isa duwa tatlo apat lima tawo balay ido lubi adlaw bag-o kita ano kalayo

Asi

usa ruha tuyo upat lima tawo bayay iro nidog adlaw bag-o kita ni-o kayado

Romblomanon

isa duha tuyo upat lima tawo bayay ayam niyog adlaw bag-o kita ano kalayo

Onhan

isya darwa tatlo ap-at lima tawo balay ayam niyog adlaw bag-o kita ano kalayo

Kinaray-a wara sara darwa tatlo apat lima taho balay ayam niyog adlaw bag-o kita tatən ano kalayo

Aklanon uwa isaea sambilog daywa tatlo ap-at lima tawo baeay ayam niyog adlaw bag-o kita ano kaeayo

Cebuano wala usa duha tulo upat lima tawo balay iro lubi adlaw bag-o kita unsa kalayo

Tausug

isa hambuuk duwa tu upat lima tau bay iru' niyug adlaw ba-gu kitaniyu unu kayu

Mindanao 0 1 2 3 4 5 person house dog coconut day new we (incl.) what fire

Mëranaw

isa dowa t'lo phat lima taw walay aso neyog gawi'e bago tano tonaa apoy

South Mindanao
Mindanao
(Bilic) 0 1 2 3 4 5 person house dog coconut day new we (incl.) what fire

Tboli

sotu lewu tlu fat lima tau gunu ohu lefo kdaw lomi tekuy tedu ofih

Minahasan 0 1 2 3 4 5 person house dog coconut day new we (incl.) what fire

Tombulu (Minahasa)

esa zua rua telu epat lima tou walé asu po'po' endo weru kai kita apa api

Sangiric 0 1 2 3 4 5 person house dog coconut day new we (incl.) what fire

Sangirese

sembau esa' darua tatelu epa' lima tau balé kapuna' bango' elo wuhu kité tawé putung

Gorontalo-Mongondow 0 1 2 3 4 5 person house dog coconut day new we (incl.) what fire

Gorontalo

tuwewu duluwo totolu opato limo tawu bele 'apula sekat dulahu bohu 'ito wolo tulu

Mongondow

inta' dua tolu opat lima intau baloi ungku' cekut singgai mobagu kita onda tulu'

See also[edit]

Ancient Philippine scripts Abakada alphabet Filipino alphabet Filipino orthography Languages of the Philippines Philippine Negrito languages Philippine literature Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino Visayan Academy of Arts and Letters

Defunct language regulators

Academia Bicolana Sanghiran san Binisaya

References[edit]

^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Greater Central Philippine". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ Zorc, R.D. The genetic relationships of Philippine languages. 1986. In Geraghty, P., Carrington, L. and Wurm, S.A. editors, FOCAL II: Papers from the Fourth International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics. C-94:147-173. Pacific Linguistics, The Australian National University, 1986. ^ Blust, Robert (1991). "The Greater Central Philippines
Philippines
hypothesis". Oceanic Linguistics. 30 (2): 73–129. doi:10.2307/3623084.  ^ Adelaar & Himmelmann (2005) ^ More diverse Philippine-type are found in Borneo.

K. Alexander Adelaar and Nikolaus Himmelmann, The Austronesian languages of Asia and Madagascar. Routledge, 2005.

Further reading[edit]

Fay Wouk and Malcolm Ross (ed.), The history and typology of western Austronesian voice systems. Australian National University, 2002. Austronesian Basic Vocabulary Database, 2008. Reid, Lawrence A. (2013) "Who Are the Philippine Negritos? Evidence from Language." Human Biology: Vol. 85: Iss. 1, Article 15.

External links[edit]

Comparative vocabularies of Philippine and other Austronesian languages Cognate sets for Austronesian languages

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Borneo–Philippine languages

Philippine

Northern Philippine

Batanic (Bashiic) ?

Itbayat Ivatan Yami

Northern Luzon

Ilocano Pangasinan Ibanag Arta Isnag Atta Itawis Yogad Cagayan Aeta Gaddang Ga'dang Northern Alta Southern Alta Isinai Itneg Kalinga Ifugao Tuwali ? Balangao Bontok-Finallig Kankanaey Ilongot Ibaloi Iwaak Kallahan Karao Dicamay Agta †

Central Luzon

Kapampangan Abellen Ambala Bolinao Botolan Mag-antsi Mag-indi Mariveleño Sambal Remontado Agta (Sinauna)

Northern Mindoro

Alangan Iraya Tadyawan

Greater Central Philippine ?

Southern Mindoro

Buhid Hanuno'o Tawbuid

Central Philippine

Tagalog Cebuano Hiligaynon Waray Central Bikol Tausug Kinaray-a Sulodnon Aklanon Capiznon Masbatenyo Albay Bikol Asi Bantayanon Baybayanon Boholano Butuanon Caluyanon Cuyunon South Sorsogon (Gubat) Central Sorsogon (Masbate) Isarog Agta Kabalian Mount Iraya Agta Mount Iriga Agta Onhan Pandan Bikol Porohanon Ratagnon Rinconada Romblomanon Surigaonon

Unclassified

Sulod

Mansakan

Davawenyo Kalagan Kamayo Mamanwa Mandaya Mansaka

Palawan

Aborlan Tagbanwa Central Tagbanwa Palawan
Palawan
Batak Palawano

Mindanao

Maguindanao Maranao Agusan Ata Manobo Binukid Cotabato Manobo Higaonon Ilianen Iranun Kagayanen Kamigin Matigsalug Obo Sarangani Subanen Tagabawa Western Bukidnon

Gorontalo-Mongondow

Bolango Buol Bintauna Gorontalo Kaidipang Lolak Suwawa Mongondow Ponosakan

Kalamian

Agutaynen Calamian Tagbanwa

Bilic

Bagobo B'laan T'boli Tiruray

Sangiric

Sangirese Talaud Bantik Ratahan

Minahasan

Tonsawang Tontemboan Tombulu Tondano Tonsea

Unclassified

Umiray Dumaget Ati

Manide-Inagta

Inagta Alabat Manide

Bornean

North Bornean

Sabahan

Ida'an Bonggi Molbog Brunei Bisaya Tatana ( Sabah
Sabah
Bisaya) Lotud Dusun Kuijau Eastern Kadazan Gana' Kota Marudu Talantang Kamaragang (Momogun) Klias River Kadazan Coastal Kadazan Yakan Tombonuwo Kinabatangan Sungai Keningau Murut Okolod Tagol Paluan Selungai Murut Timugon Bookan Abai Papar Kalabakan Sembakung Serudung Nonukan Tidong

Unclassified

Dumpas

North Sarawakan

Kenyah (Bakung) Sebob Tutoh Uma' Lasan Wahau Kenyah Penan ? Kelabit Lengilu Lundayeh Sa'ban Tring Berawan Belait Kiput Narom Tutong

Unclassified

Bintulu

Melanau-Kajang

Kajaman Lahanan Sekapan Daro-Matu Kanowit-Tanjong Melanau Bukitan Punan Batu Sian Ukit Basap Burusu Bah-Biau Punan Sajau Punan Merap Bukat Seru † Lelak †

Kayan-Murik

Kayan Bahau Modang Segai Hovongan Aoheng Aput Punan Krio Dayak Murik

Land Dayak

Bekati' Sara Lara' Bukar Sadong Rejang Biatah Tringgus Jagoi Jangkang Kembayan Semandang Ribun Benyadu' Sanggau

Barito

Malagasy Deyah Malang Witu Ma'anyan Paku Lawangan Kohin Dihoi Siang Bakumpai Ngaju Ampanang Tunjung

Sama-Bajaw ?

Abaknon Bajaw Sinama Pangutaran Sama

Bold indicates languages with more than 1 million speakers ? indicates classification dispute † indicates extinct status

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Languages of Indonesia

Sunda- Sulawesi
Sulawesi
languages

Malayo-Sumbawan

Indonesian

Bahasa Binan Slang

Malay

Anambas/Natuna Bangka Bengkulu Berau Jambi Jaring Halus Kutai Larantuka Palembang Pontianak

Acehnese Balinese Bamayo Banjarese Col Duano' Haji Iban Kangean Kaur Kendayan Keninjal Kerinci Kubu Lubu Loncong Madurese Minangkabau Mualang Pekal Sasak Seberuang Sumbawan Sundanese

Baduy Bantenese

Javanese

Javanese

Banyumasan Osing Tenggerese

Celebic

Andio Badaic Bahonsuai Balaesang Balantak Banggai Batui Boano Bobongko Bonerate Bungku Busoa Cia-Cia Dampelas Dondo Kalao Kaili Kaimbulawa Kamaru Kodeoha Kulisusu Kumbewaha Lasalimu Laiyolo Lauje Liabuku Mbelala Moronene Mori Bawah Mori Atas Moma Muna Padoe Pancana Pendau Rahambuu Rampi Saluan Sarudu Sedoa Pamona Taje Tajio Tukang Besi Tolaki Tomadino Topoiyo Tomini Totoli Uma Waru Wawonii Wolio Wotu

Lampungic

Komering Lampung

Northwest Sumatran

Batak

Alas Batak Angkola Batak Dairi Batak Karo Batak Mandailing Batak Simalungun Batak Toba

Enggano Gayo Mentawai Nias Simeulue Sikule

South Sulawesi

Aralle-Tabulahan Bambam Bentong Budong-Budong Buginese Campalagian Dakka Duri Embaloh Enrekang Kalumpang Konjo Lemolang Maiwa Makassarese Malimpung Mamasa Mamuju Mandar Panasuan Pannei Selayar Seko Tae’ Talondo’ Taman Toraja-Sa’dan Ulumanda’

Bornean languages

Barito

Ampanang Bajaw Bakumpai Deyah Kohin Lawangan Ma'anyan Malang Ngaju Ot Danum Ot Siang Tunjung Witu Pakau

Kayan–Murik

Aoheng Aput Bahau Hovongan Kayan Krio Modang Punan Merah Segai

Land Dayak

Bakati’ Biatah Bukar Sadong Jangkang Kembayan Laraʼ Nyadu’ Rejangese Ribun Sanggau Sara Semandang Tringgus

North Bornean

Bah-Biau Basap Bukat Bukitan Kelabit Kenyah

Mainstream

Lengilu Lun Bawang Murut

Okolod Selungai Sembakung Tagol

Punan Merap Punan Tubu Sa'ban Sajau Tidung

Burusu Kalabakan Nonukan

Philippine languages

Central Philippine

Tausug

Gorontalo-Mongondow

Bintauna Bolango Buol Gorontaloan Kaidipang Lolak Mongondow Ponosakan Suwawa

Minahasan

Tombulu Tondano Tonsawang Tonsea Tontemboan

Sangiric

Bantik Ratahan Sangirese Talaud

Central-Eastern languages

Aru

Barakai Batuley Dobel Karey Koba Kola-Kompane Lola Lorang Manombai Mariri Tarangan Ujir

Central Maluku

Alune Amahai Ambelau Asilulu Banda Bati Benggoi Boano Bobot Buru Geser Haruku Hitu Hoti Huaulu Hulung Kaibobo Kamarian Laha Larike-Wakasihu Latu Liana-Seti Lisabata-Nuniali Lisela Loun Luhu Mangole Manipa Manusela Masiwang Naka'ela Nuaulu Nusa Laut Paulohi Salas Saleman Saparua Seit-Kaitetu Sepa-Teluti Sula Taliabo Teor-Kur Tulehu Watubela Wemale Yalahatan

Flores–Lembata

Adonara Alorese Ile Ape Kedang Lamaholot Lamalera Lamatuka Levuka Lewo Eleng Lewotobi Sika South Lembata West Lembata

Halmahera- Cenderawasih

Ambai Ansus Arguni Bedoanas Biak Busami Dusner Erokwanas Irarutu Iresim Kuri Kurudu Munggui Marau Meoswar Mor Pom Papuma Roon Serui-Laut Tandia Wabo Waropen Wandamen Woi Yaur Yeretuar

Kei-Tanimbar

Fordata Kei Onin Sekar Uruangnirin Yamdena

Selaru

Selaru Seluwasan

Sumba–Flores

Anakalangu Baliledo Bima Dhao Ende-Li'o-Ke'o-Nage Gaura Hawu Kambera Kodi Komodo Lamboya Mamboru Manggarai Ngadha Palu'e Pondok Rajong Rembong Riung Rongga So'a Kepo' Wae Rana Wanukaka Wejewa

Timor–Babar

Tetum Uab Meto Amarasi Baikeno Bekais Bilba Dai Dawera-Daweloor Dela-Oenale Dengka East Damar Emplawas Helong Imroing Kisar Leti Lole Luang Masela Nila North Babar Ringgou Romang Serili Serua Southeast Babar Tela'a Termanu Te'un Tii West Damar Wetar

Western Oceanic

Anus Bonggo Kayupulau Liki Masimasi Ormu Podena Kaptiau Sobei Tarpia Tobati Wakde Yamna

Other

Kowiai

Papuan languages

Abui Abun Adang Aghu Airoran Asmat Auye Ayamaru Bagusa Baham Baropasi Bauzi Bayono-Awbono Berik Betaf Bimin Blagar Bonerif Bunak Burate Burmeso Burumakok Buruwai Citak Dabe Dao Demisa Demta Dineor Ekari Faiwol Galela Gamkonora Grand Valley Dani Hattam Hupla Iha Isirawa Itik Iwur Jofotek-Bromnya Kaera Kafoa Kalabra Kamang Kamberau Kamoro Kanum Karas Karon Dori Kauwera Kehu Keijar Klon Kofei Kombai Kombai–Wanggom Komyandaret Koneraw Kopka Kopkaka Korowai Kui Kula Kuwani Kwerba Mamberamo Kwerba Kwesten Kwinsu Loloda Maklew Mander Mandobo Mantion Mawes Meax Meninggo Mian Modole Moi Mombum Momina Momuna Moni Moraid Mpur Muyu Nafri Nakai Nduga Nedebang Ngalum Nggem Ninggerum Nisa-Anasi Oksapmin Orya Pagu Pisa Retta Sahu Samarokena Saponi Sauri Sause Saweru Sawi Sawila Seget Sempan Sentani Setaman Shiaxa Silimo Skou Suganga Tabaru Tabla Tangko Tause Tefaro Tehit Teiwa Telefol Ternate Tidore Tifal Tobelo Trimuris Tsaukambo Tunggare Urapmin Vitou Waioli Walak Wambon Wano Wares Wersing West Makian Western Dani Western Pantar Wolani Woria Yali Yawa Yelmek Yonggom

Other languages

Creoles and Pidgins

Malay-based creoles

Ambonese Malay Baba Malay Bandanese Malay Bacanese Malay Balinese Malay Betawi Gorap Kupang Malay Manado Malay Makassar Malay North Moluccan Malay Papuan Malay

Other creoles and pidgins

Javindo Petjo Mardijker Pidgin Iha Pidgin Onin Portugis Bidau Creole Portuguese

Sinitic languages

Cantonese Fuzhounese Hainanese Hakka Hokkien

Medan Riau

Mandarin Pu-Xian Min Teochew

Afro-Asiatic languages

Modern Standard Arabic

Dravidian languages

Tamil

Germanic languages

English Dutch (historical)

Sign languages

Indonesian Sign Language Kata Kolok

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Languages of Malaysia

Main

Official

Malaysian

Recognised

English (comparison with British English)

Significant minority

Chinese

Sino-Tibetan

Cantonese Eastern Min Fuqing Fuzhou Hokkien Mandarin Chinese Malaysian Mandarin Pu-Xian Min Penang Hokkien Southern Peninsular Malaysian Hokkien Yue Chinese

Indian

Dravidian

Malayalam Tamil

Malaysian Tamil

Telugu

Indo-European

Gujarati Hindi Punjabi Urdu

Families

Austroasiatic

Aslian

Austronesian

Bornean Land Dayak Malayic Philippine Sama–Bajaw

Tai-Kadai

Tai

Creoles

Chavacano Kristang Manglish Other Malay trade and creole languages

Natives & Indigenous

Nationwide

Banjar Buginese Javanese Malay (Malayan)

Peninsular Malaysia

Baba Malay Batek Baweanese Cheq Wong Chetty Malay Duano’ Jah Hut Jahai Jakun Jedek Kedah Malay Kelantan-Pattani Malay Kenaboi1 Kensiu Kintaq Kristang Lanoh Mah Meri Minriq Mintil Mos Negeri Sembilan Malay Orang Kanaq Orang Seletar Pahang Malay Perak Malay Rawa Malay Sabüm1 Semai Semaq Beri Semelai Semnam Southern Thai Temiar Temoq2 Temuan Terengganu Malay Wila'1

East Malaysia

Abai Bahau Bajaw Balau Belait Berawan Biatah Bintulu Bonggi Bookan Bruneian/Kedayan Malay Brunei Bisaya Bukar Sadong Bukitan Coastal Kadazan Cocos Malay Daro-Matu Dumpas Dusun Eastern Kadazan Gana’ Iban Ida'an Iranun Jagoi Jangkang Kajaman Kalabakan Kanowit Kayan Kelabit Kendayan Keningau Murut Kinabatangan Kiput Klias River Kadazan Kota Marudu Talantang Kuijau Lahanan Lelak1 Lengilu1 Lotud Lun Bawang Mainstream Kenyah Maranao Melanau Molbog Momogun Murik Kayan Narom Nonukan Tidong Okolod Paluan Papar Punan Batu2 Penan Remun Sa'ban Sabah
Sabah
Bisaya Sabah
Sabah
Malay Sama Sarawak Malay Sebop Sebuyau Sekapan Selungai Murut Sembakung Seru1 Serudung Sian Suluk Sungai Tagol Timugon Tombonuwo Tring Tringgus Tutoh Ukit2 Uma’ Lasan

Mixed & Others

Rojak Tanglish Esperanto

Immigrants

African Arab Bangladeshi Burmese Cambodian East Timorese Filipino Indonesian

comparison with Malaysian

Iranian Japanese Korean Laotian Nepalese Pakistani Sri Lankan Thai Vietnamese

Signs

Main

Malaysian Sign Language (Manually Coded Malay)

By states

Penang Sign Language Selangor Sign Language

1 Extinct languages. 2 Nearly extinct languages.

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Languages of the Philippines

Official languages

Filipino English

Regional languages

Aklanon Bikol Cebuano Chavacano Hiligaynon Ibanag Ilocano Ivatan Kapampangan Karay-a Maguindanao Maranao Pangasinan Sambal Surigaonon Tagalog Tausug Waray Yakan

Indigenous languages (by region)

Luzon

Ilocos

Bolinao

Cordillera

Atta Balangao Bontoc Ga'dang Kalinga Kallahan Kankanaey Ibaloi Ifugao Isnag Itneg Itawis Iwaak Malaweg Tuwali

Cagayan Valley

Arta Atta Central Cagayan Agta Dinapigue Agta Dupaningan Agta Gaddang Ilongot Isinai Itbayat Itawis Kallahan Karao Malaweg Nagtipunan Agta Paranan Agta Paranan Yogad

Central Luzon

Abellen Ambala Antsi Botolan Casiguran Dumagat Agta Indi Kasiguranin Mariveleño Northern Alta Southern Alta Umiray Dumaget

Calabarzon

Inagta Alabat Manide Remontado Agta Southern Alta Umiray Dumaget

Metro Manila

Hokaglish Taglish

Mimaropa

Agutaynen Alangan Asi Calamian Tagbanwa Central Tagbanwa Cuyonon Iraya Kagayanen Molbog Onhan Palawan
Palawan
Batak Palawano Ratagnon Romblomanon Tadyawan

Bicol

Albay Bikol Inagta Partido Manide Masbateño Mount Iraya Agta Pandan Bikol Rinconada Bikol Sorsoganon Southern Catanduanes Bikol

Visayas

Western Visayas

Ati Caluyanon Capiznon Sulod

Negros Island

Ata Karolanos Magahat

Central Visayas

Bantayanon Eskayan Porohanon

Eastern Visayas

Abaknon Baybay Kabalian

Mindanao

Zamboanga Peninsula

Subanon

Northern Mindanao

Bukid Higaonon Ilianen Iranun Kamigin Matigsalug Subanon Western Bukidnon

Caraga

Agusan Ata Manobo Butuanon Higaonon Kamayo Mamanwa

Davao

Bagobo B'laan Davawenyo Kalagan Mandaya Mansaka Obo Sangirese Sarangani Tagabawa

Soccsksargen

B'laan Cotabato Manobo Ilianen Iranun Obo Tboli Tiruray

Muslim Mindanao

Iranun Pangutaran Sama Sama

Immigrant languages

Arabic Basque Chinese

Mandarin Hokkien

French German Japanese Korean Malay

Indonesian Malaysian

Sindhi Spanish

History

Vietnamese

Sign languages

American Sign Philippine Sign

Historical languages

Proto-Philippine

.