The Philippine Revolutionary
Army (Filipino: Panghimagsikang Hukbo ng
Pilipinas/Hukbong Pilipinong Mapaghimagsik; Spanish: Ejército
Revolucionario Filipino), later renamed Philippine Republican Army
(Filipino: Hukbong Katihan ng Republika ng Pilipinas; Spanish:
Ejército en la República de la Filipina) was founded on March 22,
1897 in Cavite.
Artemio Ricarte was designated as its first
General during the Tejeros Convention. This armed force of
General Emilio Aguinaldo's central revolutionary government replaced
the Katipunan's military force.
4 Branch colors
5 Recruitment and conscription
6 Flags and early banners of the revolution
8 Other notable officers
9 Foreign officers and servicemen
10 See also
12 In popular media
13 External links
The Army's uniforms were patterned after the Norfolk jacket.
Regular soldiers of the Philippine Revolutionary
Army stand at
attention for an inspection.
See also: Military history of the Philippines, History of the
Philippine Revolutionary Army, and List of weapons of the Philippine
The revolutionary army used the 1896 edition of the Spanish regular
army's Ordenanza del Ejército to organize its forces and establish
its character as a modern army. Rules and regulations
were laid down for the reorganization of the army, along with the
regulation of ranks and the adoption of new fighting methods, new rank
insignias, and a new standard uniform known as the
rayadillo. Filipino artist
Juan Luna is credited with this
design. His brother,
Antonio Luna commissioned him with
the task and personally paid for the new uniforms.
Juan Luna also
designed the collar insignia for the uniforms, distinguishing between
the services: infantry, cavalry, artillery, sappers, and medics. At
least one researcher has postulated that
Juan Luna may have patterned
the tunic after the English Norfolk jacket, since the Filipino version
is not a copy of any Spanish-pattern uniform.
wore blue pants with a black stripe down the side, while Cavalry
officers wore red trousers with black stripes.
Orders and circulars were issued covering matters such as building
trenches and fortifications, equipping every male aged 15 to 50 with
bows and arrows (as well as bolo knives, though officers wielded
European swords), enticing Filipino soldiers in the Spanish army to
defect, collecting empty cartridges for refilling, prohibiting
unplanned sorties, inventories of captured arms and ammunition,
fundraising, purchasing of arms and supplies abroad, unification of
military commands, and exhorting the rich to give aid to the
Aguinaldo, a month after he declared Philippine independence, created
a pay scale for officers in the army: Following the board, a brigadier
general would receive 600 pesos annually, and a sergeant 72 pesos.
Philippine–American War erupted on February 4, 1899, the
Filipino army suffered heavy losses on every sector. Even Antonio Luna
urged Apolinario Mabini, Aguinaldo's chief adviser, to convince the
President that guerrilla warfare must be announced as early as April
1899. Aguinaldo adopted guerilla tactics on November 13, 1899,
dissolving what remained of the regular army and after many of his
crack units were decimated in set-piece battles.
The main weapon of the new Filipino army was the Spanish M93, also the
standard infantry arm of the Spanish, and the Remington Spanish
rifle. Crew-served weapons of the Philippine military included
lantakas, Krupp guns, Hontoria guns, an Ordóñez gun, Hotchkiss guns,
Nordenfelt guns, Maxim guns, and Colt guns. Also, there were
improvised artillery weapons made of water pipes reinforced with
bamboo or timber, which can only fire once or twice.
Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo, the Supreme Commander of the Philippine
Manuel Tinio (seated, center),
Natividad (seated, 2nd from right), Lt. Col. Jose Alejandrino (seated,
2nd from left), and their aides-de-camp.
Murata rifle one of the first rifles used by the Filipinos during
Remington Rolling Block rifle
Remington Rolling Block rifle one of the first rifles used by the
Filipinos during the Revolution
A Mauser rifle issued to the regular soldiers of the army.
A revolver used by officers in the Philippine army.
A Colt gun used during the Philippine Revolution.
Maxim gun used in some operations.
A Nordenfelt machine gun used by the army.
Hotchkiss gun used by the army.
Krupp gun used by the artillery regiments.
An Ordóñez gun used by the Coast Guard.
Rifles used by Filipino infantry during the
Philippine Revolution and
Philippine–American War on display at Clark Museum
Two type of
Lantaka a bronze type cannon use by the army.
Bolo knife was used by a regular and high ranked soldier of the
Antonio Luna, notable Chief Commander of the Philippine Revolutionary
Artemio Ricarte, the Commander of the Philippine Revolutionary Army.
General Gregorio del Pilar, and his troops around 1898.
Soldiers of the army stationed near the Barasoain church during a
session of the congress.
Officers' uniforms, 1899-1902.
The evolution of Philippine revolutionary insignia can be divided into
three basic periods; early Katipunan, late
Katipunan and the
Rank/Insignia (Tagalog and Spanish
Equivalent Rank(s) in English
Equivalent Rank(s) in English
In 1898, the Philippine government prescribed branch colors twice:
30 July 1898
25 November 1898
Military Juridical Corps
Commissary and Quartermaster Corps
Recruitment and conscription
During the revolution against Spain, the
Katipunan gave leaflets to
the people to encourage them to join the revolution. Since the
revolutionaries had become regular soldiers at the time of Emilio
Aguinaldo, they started to recruit males and some females aged 15 and
above as a form of national service. A few Spanish and Filipino
enlisted personnel and officers of the Spanish
Army and Spanish Navy
defected to the Revolutionary Army, as well as a number of foreign
individuals and American defectors who volunteered to join during the
course of the revolution.
Conscription in the revolutionary army was in effect in the
Philippines and military service was mandatory at that time by the
order of Gen. Antonio Luna, the Chief Commander of the
Army during the
Flags and early banners of the revolution
Official Flag of the First Philippine Republic.
Flag of the Republic of Biak-na-Bato.
Flag used during the Cry of Pugadlawin.
Flag of Magdiwang faction led by Mariano Álvarez
([disputed – discuss][clarification needed]) Flag of the Magdalo
faction led by Baldomero Aguinaldo
The KKK flag of the
Katipunan was also used in many campaigns.
The Skull Banner by
Mariano Llanera of the republican army.
Banner of Pio del Pilar, called the Bandila ng Matagumpay (Flag Of the
General Gregorio del Pilar, which he used during his
Flag of "Republic of Katagalugan" established by Macario Sakay
The supposed flag adopted by the Kakarong Republic was either the
Katipunan banner or a plain red banner shown above.
Flag of the Katipuneros of the Bicol region.
Flag of the Revolutionary Government in Bacolod (1899), Republic of
Flag of the Negros Revolution.
During the existence of the Revolutionary Army, over 100 individuals
were appointed to
General Officer grades. For details, see the List of
Filipino generals in the
Philippine Revolution and the
Philippine–American War article.
Other notable officers
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Manuel L. Quezon, a former president of the Philippines, rose to the
Major in the Army.
Francisco "Paco" Román – Aide to
General Antonio Luna.
Colonel Agapito Bonzón
Felipe Salvador – Commander of the Santa Iglesia faction.
Colonel Apolinar Vélez
Colonel Alejandro Avecilla
Colonel Francisco "Paco" Román – Aide to
Colonel Manuel Bernal – Aide to
General Antonio Luna.
Colonel Pablo Tecson – Leader, Battle of Quingua.
Colonel Alipio Tecson – Supreme Military Commander of
Tarlac in 1900
and exiled to Guam.
Colonel Simón Tecson – Leader of Siege of Baler; signatory of the
Colonel Simeón Villa
Colonel Luciano San Miguel
Colonel José Tagle – Known for his role in the Battle of Imus.
Lieutenant Colonel Lázaro Macapagal – Commanding officer in-charge
at the execution of Andrés and Procopio Bonifacio brothers.
José Torres Bugallón
José Torres Bugallón – Hero of the Battle of La
Lieutenant Colonel Regino Díaz Relova – Fought as one of the heads
of columns under
Juan Cailles in the Laguna province.
Captain José Bernal – Aide to
General Antonio Luna.
Captain Eduardo Rusca – Aide to
General Antonio Luna.
Captain Pedro Janolino – Commanding Officer of the Kawit Battalion.
Captain Vicente Roa
Captain Serapio Narváez – Officer of the 4th Company, Morong
Manuel Quezon – Aide to President Emilio Aguinaldo. Eventually
succeeded him as the second
President of the Philippines
President of the Philippines under the
United States-sponsored Commonwealth.
Major Juan Arce
Lieutenant García (given name not specified) – one of Gen. Luna's
favorite sharpshooters of the Black Guard units.
Corporal Anastacio Félix – 4th Company, Morong Battalion the first
Filipino casualty of the Philippine–American War.
Foreign officers and servicemen
José Ignacio Paua, a Pure-blooded Chinese general.
Juan Cailles – Franco-Indian mestizo who led Filipino forces
General José Valesy Nazaraire – Spanish.
General José Ignacio Paua – Full-blooded Chinese general
in the Army.
General B. Natividad – Brigade Acting Commander in Vigan
Colonel Manuel Sityar – Half-Spanish Director of Academía Militar
de Malolos. A former captain in the Spanish colonial army who defected
to the Filipino side.
Colonel Sebastian de Castro – Spanish director of the military
hospital at Malasiqui, Pangasinan.
Colonel Dámaso Ybarra y Thomas – Spanish.
Lieutenant Colonel Potenciano Andrade – Spanish.
Estaquio Castellor – French mestizo who led a battalion of
Major Candido Reyes – Instructor at the Academía Militar de
Malolos. Former sergeant in the Spanish Army.
Major José Reyes – Instructor at the Academía Militar de Malolos.
Former sergeant in the Spanish Army.
José Torres Bugallón
José Torres Bugallón – Spanish officer who served under
Captain Antonio Costosa – Former officer in the Spanish Army.
Captain Chizuno Iwamoto - Japanese officer who served on Emilio
Aguinaldo's staff. Returned to Japan after Aguinaldo's
David Fagen – An
African-American Captain who served under
General Urbano Lacuna. A former
Corporal in United States
Army 24th Colored Regiment.
Captain Francisco Espina – Spanish.
Captain Estanislao de los Reyes – Spanish aide-de-camp to General
Captain Feliciano Ramoso – Spanish aide-de-camp to General
Captain Mariano Queri – Spanish officer who served under General
Luna as an instructor in the Academía Militar de Malolos and later as
the director-general of the staff of the war department.
Captain Camillo Richairdi – Italian.
Captain Telesforo Centeno – Spanish.
Captain Arthur Howard – American deserter from the 1st California
Captain Glen Morgan – American who organized insurgent forces in
Captain John Miller – American who organized insurgent forces in
Captain Russel – American deserter from the 10th Infantry.
Lieutenant Danfort – American deserter from the 10th Infantry.
Lieutenant Maximino Lazo – Spanish.
Lieutenant Gabriel Badelly Méndez – Cuban.
Lieutenant Segundo Paz – Spanish.
Lieutenant Alejandro Quirulgico – Spanish.
Lieutenant Rafael Madina – Spanish.
Lieutenant Arsenio Romero – Spanish.
Private John Allane – United States Army.
Private Harry Dennis – United States Army.
Private William Hyer – United States Army.
Private Meeks (given name not specified) – United States Army.
Private George Raymond – 41st Infantry, United States Army.[citation
Private Maurice Sibley – 16th Infantry, United States Army.
Private John Wagner – United States Army.
Private Edward Walpole – United States Army.
Henry Richter – American deserter from the 9th Cavalry.
Gorth Shores – American deserter from the 9th Cavalry.
Fred Hunter – American deserter from the 9th Cavalry.
William Denten – American deserter who joined
General Lukban in
Enrique Warren – American deserter who served under Francisco
Makabulos in Tarlac.
Antonio Prisco – Spanish.
Manuel Alberto – Spanish.
Eugenia Plona – Spanish aide-de-camp to Baldermo Aguinaldo.
Alexander MacIntosh – English.
William McAllister – English.
Charles MacKinley – Englishman who served in Laoag.
James O'Brian – English.
Captain Vicente Catalán – Flag officer in-Command of the Philippine
Navy. A former member of the Royal Spanish Navy.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Philippine Revolutionary Army.
Armed Forces of the Philippines
Military History of the Philippines
Philippine Commonwealth Army
^ Deady 2005, p. 55 (page 3 of the PDF)
^ "The Philippine
Army History". Archived from the original on
December 25, 2013. Retrieved 2014-01-09.
^ a b c d "Philippine-American War, 1899-1902".
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^ Alejandrino, Jose (1949). The Price of Freedom.
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^ Combs, William K. "Filipino
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^ a b Halili 2004, p. 169.
^ a b Ambeth R. Ocampo. "Japanese with a different face".
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Counterinsurgency: The Philippines, 1899–1902" (PDF). Parameters. US
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University of the
In popular media
The Philippine revolutionary army has been mentioned in several Books
Tiniente Rosario - A 1937 Biopic Movie
Dugo sa Kapirasong Lupa
Jose Rizal Biopic movie about the National hero of the Philippines
Ganito Kami Noon, Paano Kayo Ngayon?
Amigo (friend) - The story about the decline of the Philippine
Tirad pass:The story of Gen.
Gregorio Del Pilar
Gregorio Del Pilar - 1993 Biopic film
Bonifacio:Ang Unang Pangulo
Philippines Independence Armies: Insignia 1896 - 1902
"Artemio Ricarte". Archived from the original on 2011-08-09. Retrieved
Images of Filipino Republican
Army rayadillo tunics
Cry of Pugad Lawin
Republic of Biak-na-Bato
Declaration of Independence
Republic of Negros
Republic of Zamboanga
Treaty of Paris
Philippine Autonomy Act of 1916
Commonwealth of the Philippines
Treaty of Manila
American Anti-Imperialist League
La Liga Filipina
Philippine Revolutionary Army
Kartilya ng Katipunan
Mi último adiós
Noli Me Tángere
Flags of the Philippine Revolution
Flag of the Philippines