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The PHILIPPINE REVOLUTIONARY ARMY (Filipino : PANGHIMAGSIKANG HUKBO NG PILIPINAS/HUKBONG PILIPINONG MAPAGHIMAGSIK; Spanish : EJéRCITO REVOLUCIONARIO FILIPINO), later renamed PHILIPPINE REPUBLICAN ARMY (Filipino : Hukbong Katihan ng Republika ng Pilipinas; Spanish : Ejército en la República de la Filipina) was founded on March 22, 1897 in Cavite
Cavite
. General
General
Artemio Ricarte was designated as its first Captain General
General
during the Tejeros Convention . This armed force of General
General
Emilio Aguinaldo
Emilio Aguinaldo
's central revolutionary government replaced the Katipunan
Katipunan
's military force .

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Arsenal * 3 Ranks/hierarchy * 4 Recruitment and conscription * 5 Flags and early banners of the revolution * 6 General
General
officers * 7 Other notable officers * 8 Foreign officers and servicemen * 9 See also

* 10 References

* 10.1 Bibliography

* 11 In popular media

* 11.1 books * 11.2 Films

* 12 External links

HISTORY

The Army's uniforms were patterned after the Norfolk jacket . Regular soldiers of the Philippine Revolutionary Army
Army
stand at attention for an inspection. See also: Military history of the Philippines
Philippines
, History of the Philippine Revolutionary Army
Army
, and List of weapons of the Philippine revolution

The revolutionary army used the 1896 edition of the Spanish regular army's Ordenanza del Ejército to organize its forces and establish its character as a modern army. Rules and regulations were laid down for the reorganization of the army, along with the regulation of ranks and the adoption of new fighting methods, new rank insignias, and a new standard uniform known as the rayadillo . Filipino artist Juan Luna is credited with this design. His brother, General
General
Antonio Luna commissioned him with the task and personally paid for the new uniforms. Juan Luna
Juan Luna
also designed the collar insignia for the uniforms, distinguishing between the services: infantry , cavalry , artillery , sappers , and medics . At least one researcher has postulated that Juan Luna
Juan Luna
may have patterned the tunic after the English Norfolk jacket , since the Filipino version is not a copy of any Spanish-pattern uniform. Infantry
Infantry
officers wore blue pants with a black stripe down the side, while Cavalry officers wore red trousers with black stripes.

Orders and circulars were issued covering matters such as building trenches and fortifications, equipping every male aged 15 to 50 with bows and arrows (as well as bolo knives , though officers wielded European swords), enticing Filipino soldiers in the Spanish army to defect, collecting empty cartridges for refilling, prohibiting unplanned sorties, inventories of captured arms and ammunition, fundraising, purchasing of arms and supplies abroad, unification of military commands, and exhorting the rich to give aid to the soldiers.

Aguinaldo, a month after he declared Philippine independence, created a pay scale for officers in the army: Following the board, a brigadier general would receive 600 pesos annually, and a sergeant 72 pesos.

When the Philippine–American War
Philippine–American War
erupted on February 4, 1899, the Filipino army suffered heavy losses on every sector. Even Antonio Luna urged Apolinario Mabini
Apolinario Mabini
, Aguinaldo's chief adviser, to convince the President that guerrilla warfare must be announced as early as April 1899. Aguinaldo adopted guerilla tactics on November 13, 1899, dissolving what remained of the regular army and after many of his crack units were decimated in set-piece battles.

ARSENAL

The main weapon of the new Filipino army was the Spanish M93 , also the standard infantry arm of the Spanish, and the Remington Spanish rifle . Crew-served weapons of the Philippine military included lantakas , Krupp guns , Hontoria guns , an Ordóñez gun , Hotchkiss guns , Nordenfelt guns , Maxim guns , and Colt guns . Also, there were improvised artillery weapons made of water pipes reinforced with bamboo or timber, which can only fire once or twice. Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo , the Supreme Commander of the Philippine Revolutionary Army. Group showing General
General
Manuel Tinio (seated, center), General
General
Benito Natividad (seated, 2nd from right), Lt. Col. Jose Alejandrino (seated, 2nd from left), and their aides-de-camp.

*

the Remington Rolling Block rifle one of the first rifles used by the Filipinos during the Revolution *

A Mauser rifle issued to the regular soldiers of the army. *

A revolver used by officers in the Philippine army. *

A Colt gun used during the Philippine Revolution
Philippine Revolution
. *

A Maxim gun used in some operations. *

A Nordenfelt machine gun used by the army. *

A Hotchkiss gun
Hotchkiss gun
used by the army. *

A Krupp gun
Krupp gun
used by the artillery regiments. *

An Ordóñez gun used by the Coast Guard. *

Rifles used by Filipino infantry during the Philippine Revolution
Philippine Revolution
and Philippine–American War
Philippine–American War
on display at Clark Museum *

Two type of Lantaka
Lantaka
a bronze type cannon use by the army. *

A Bolo knife was used by a regular and high ranked soldier of the army.

RANKS/HIERARCHY

Antonio Luna , notable Chief Commander of the Philippine Revolutionary Army. Artemio Ricarte , the Commander of the Philippine Revolutionary Army. General
General
Gregorio del Pilar
Gregorio del Pilar
, and his troops around 1898. Soldiers of the army stationed near the Barasoain church during a session of the congress.

The evolution of Philippine revolutionary insignia can be divided into three basic periods; early Katipunan, late Katipunan
Katipunan
and the Republican army.

IMAGE RANK/INSIGNIA (TAGALOG AND SPANISH EQUIVALENT RANK(S) IN ENGLISH

IMAGE RANK/INSIGNIA EQUIVALENT RANK(S) IN ENGLISH

Ministrong Mariskal Ministro Mariscal Minister Marshal
Marshal
Marshal
Marshal

Tenyente Koronel Teniente Coronel Lieutenant Colonel

Kapitán Heneral Capitán General
General
Captain General
General
Admiral
Admiral

Komandante Comandante Major
Major

Tenyente Heneral Teniente General
General
Lieutenant
Lieutenant
General
General

Kapitán Capitán Captain

Magat Heneral Mayor General
General
Major
Major
General
General

Tenyente Teniente Lieutenant
Lieutenant

Brigadyer Heneral Brigadier General
General
Brigadier General
General

Sarhento Sargento Sergeant
Sergeant

Koronel Coronel Colonel
Colonel

Kabo Cabo Corporal

RECRUITMENT AND CONSCRIPTION

During the revolution against Spain
Spain
, the Katipunan
Katipunan
gave leaflets to the people to encourage them to join the revolution. Since the revolutionaries had become regular soldiers at the time of Emilio Aguinaldo , they started to recruit males and some females aged 15 and above as a form of national service. A few Spanish and Filipino enlisted personnel and officers of the Spanish Army
Army
and Spanish Navy defected to the Revolutionary Army, as well as a number of foreign individuals and American defectors who volunteered to join during the course of the revolution.

Conscription in the revolutionary army was in effect in the Philippines
Philippines
and military service was mandatory at that time by the order of Gen. Antonio Luna , the Chief Commander of the Army
Army
during the Philippine–American War
Philippine–American War
.

FLAGS AND EARLY BANNERS OF THE REVOLUTION

*

Official Flag of the First Philippine Republic
First Philippine Republic
. *

Flag of the Republic of Biak-na-Bato
Republic of Biak-na-Bato
. *

Flag used during the Cry of Pugadlawin . *

Flag of Magdiwang faction led by Mariano Álvarez
Mariano Álvarez
*

() Flag of the Magdalo faction led by Baldomero Aguinaldo
Baldomero Aguinaldo
*

The KKK flag of the Katipunan
Katipunan
was also used in many campaigns. *

The Skull Banner by General
General
Mariano Llanera of the republican army. *

Banner of Pio del Pilar , called the Bandila ng Matagumpay (Flag Of the Triumphants). *

Banner of General
General
Gregorio del Pilar
Gregorio del Pilar
, which he used during his campaigns. *

Flag of "Republic of Katagalugan" established by Macario Sakay *

The supposed flag adopted by the Kakarong Republic was either the Katipunan
Katipunan
banner or a plain red banner shown above. *

Flag of the Katipuneros of the Bicol region
Bicol region
. *

Flag of the Revolutionary Government in Bacolod (1899), Republic of Negros . *

Flag of the Negros Revolution .

GENERAL OFFICERS

During the existence of the Revolutionary Army, over 100 individuals were appointed to General
General
Officer grades. For details, see the List of Filipino generals in the Philippine Revolution
Philippine Revolution
and the Philippine–American War
Philippine–American War
article.

OTHER NOTABLE OFFICERS

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Manuel L. Quezon
Manuel L. Quezon
, a former president of the Philippines, rose to the rank of Major
Major
in the Army. Francisco "Paco" Román – Aide to Lieutenant
Lieutenant
General
General
Antonio Luna.

* Colonel
Colonel
Agapito Bonzón * Colonel
Colonel
Felipe Salvador – Commander of the Santa Iglesia faction. * Colonel
Colonel
Apolinar Vélez * Colonel
Colonel
Alejandro Avecilla * Colonel
Colonel
Francisco "Paco" Román – Aide to Lieutenant
Lieutenant
General Antonio Luna. * Colonel
Colonel
Manuel Bernal – Aide to Lieutenant
Lieutenant
General
General
Antonio Luna. * Colonel
Colonel
Pablo Tecson – Leader, Battle of Quingua
Battle of Quingua
. * Colonel
Colonel
Alipio Tecson – Supreme Military Commander of Tarlac in 1900 and exiled to Guam
Guam
. * Colonel
Colonel
Simón Tecson – Leader of Siege of Baler ; signatory of the Biak-na-Bato Constitution. * Colonel
Colonel
Simeón Villa * Colonel
Colonel
Luciano San Miguel * Colonel
Colonel
José Tagle – Known for his role in the Battle of Imus
Battle of Imus
. * Lieutenant Colonel Lázaro Macapagal – Commanding officer in-charge at the execution of Andrés and Procopio Bonifacio brothers. * Lieutenant Colonel José Torres Bugallón – Hero of the Battle of La Loma . * Lieutenant Colonel Regino Díaz Relova – Fought as one of the heads of columns under General
General
Juan Cailles in the Laguna province. * Captain José Bernal – Aide to Lieutenant
Lieutenant
General
General
Antonio Luna. * Captain Eduardo Rusca – Aide to Lieutenant
Lieutenant
General
General
Antonio Luna. * Captain Pedro Janolino – Commanding Officer of the Kawit Battalion. * Captain Vicente Roa * Captain Serapio Narváez – Officer of the 4th Company, Morong Battalion. * Major
Major
Manuel Quezon
Manuel Quezon
– Aide to President Emilio Aguinaldo. Eventually succeeded him as the second President of the Philippines under the United States-sponsored Commonwealth . * Major
Major
Juan Arce * Lieutenant
Lieutenant
García (given name not specified) – one of Gen. Luna's favorite sharpshooters of the Black Guard units. * Corporal Anastacio Félix – 4th Company, Morong Battalion the first Filipino casualty of the Philippine–American War.

FOREIGN OFFICERS AND SERVICEMEN

Juan Cailles . José Ignacio Paua , a Pure-blooded Chinese general. ARMY

* General
General
Juan Cailles – Franco-Indian mestizo who led Filipino forces in Laguna * General
General
José Valesy Nazaraire – Spanish. * Brigadier General
General
José Ignacio Paua – Full-blooded Chinese general in the Army. * Brigadier General
General
B. Natividad – Brigade Acting Commander in Vigan under General
General
Tinio. * Colonel
Colonel
Manuel Sityar – Half-Spanish Director of Academía Militar de Malolos. A former captain in the Spanish colonial army who defected to the Filipino side. * Colonel
Colonel
Sebastian de Castro – Spanish director of the military hospital at Malasiqui, Pangasinan . * Colonel
Colonel
Dámaso Ybarra y Thomas – Spanish. * Lieutenant Colonel Potenciano Andrade – Spanish. * Estaquio Castellor – French mestizo who led a battalion of sharpshooters. * Major
Major
Candido Reyes – Instructor at the Academía Militar de Malolos. Former sergeant in the Spanish Army. * Major
Major
José Reyes – Instructor at the Academía Militar de Malolos. Former sergeant in the Spanish Army. * Major
Major
José Torres Bugallón – Spanish officer who served under General
General
Luna. * Captain Antonio Costosa – Former officer in the Spanish Army. * Captain Chizuno Iwamoto - Japanese officer who served on Emilio Aguinaldo's staff. Returned to Japan after Aguinaldo's capture. * Captain David Fagen – An African-American
African-American
Captain who served under Brigadier General
General
Urbano Lacuna. A former Corporal in United States Army
Army
24th Colored Regiment . * Captain Francisco Espina – Spanish. * Captain Estanislao de los Reyes – Spanish aide-de-camp to General
General
Tinio. * Captain Feliciano Ramoso – Spanish aide-de-camp to General Tinio. * Captain Mariano Queri – Spanish officer who served under General Luna as an instructor in the Academía Militar de Malolos and later as the director-general of the staff of the war department. * Captain Camillo Richairdi – Italian. * Captain Telesforo Centeno – Spanish. * Captain Arthur Howard – American deserter from the 1st California Volunteers. * Captain Glen Morgan – American who organized insurgent forces in central Mindanao. * Captain John Miller – American who organized insurgent forces in central Mindanao. * Captain Russel – American deserter from the 10th Infantry. * Lieutenant
Lieutenant
Danfort – American deserter from the 10th Infantry. * Lieutenant
Lieutenant
Maximino Lazo – Spanish. * Lieutenant
Lieutenant
Gabriel Badelly Méndez – Cuban. * 2nd Lieutenant
Lieutenant
Segundo Paz – Spanish. * Lieutenant
Lieutenant
Alejandro Quirulgico – Spanish. * Lieutenant
Lieutenant
Rafael Madina – Spanish. * Lieutenant
Lieutenant
Arsenio Romero – Spanish. * Private John Allane – United States Army. * Private Harry Dennis – United States Army. * Private William Hyer – United States Army. * Private Meeks (given name not specified) – United States Army. * Private George Raymond – 41st Infantry, United States Army. * Private Maurice Sibley – 16th Infantry, United States Army. * Private John Wagner – United States Army. * Private Edward Walpole – United States Army. * Henry Richter – American deserter from the 9th Cavalry. * Gorth Shores – American deserter from the 9th Cavalry. * Fred Hunter – American deserter from the 9th Cavalry. * William Denten – American deserter who joined General
General
Lukban in Samar. * Enrique Warren – American deserter who served under Francisco Makabulos in Tarlac. * Antonio Prisco – Spanish. * Manuel Alberto – Spanish. * Eugenia Plona – Spanish aide-de-camp to Baldermo Aguinaldo. * Alexander MacIntosh – English. * William McAllister – English. * Charles MacKinley – Englishman who served in Laoag. * James O'Brian – English.

NAVY

* Captain Vicente Catalán – Flag officer in-Command of the Philippine Navy
Philippine Navy
. A former member of the Royal Spanish Navy .

SEE ALSO

Wikimedia Commons has media related to PHILIPPINE REVOLUTIONARY ARMY .

* Armed Forces of the Philippines
Philippines
* Military History of the Philippines
Philippines
* Philippine Army
Army
* Katipunan
Katipunan
* Philippine Commonwealth Army
Army
* Luna sharpshooters

REFERENCES

* ^ Deady 2005 , p. 55 (page 3 of the PDF) * ^ "The Philippine Army
Army
History". Archived from the original on December 25, 2013. Retrieved 2014-01-09. * ^ A B C D "Philippine-American War, 1899-1902". http://philippineamericanwar.webs.com. Retrieved 2012-01-28. External link in publisher= (help ) * ^ Alejandrino, Jose (1949). The Price of Freedom. * ^ Opiña, Rimaliza (2004-11-14). "Military academy sheds West Point look". Sun.Star Baguio. Retrieved 2008-05-19. * ^ Jose, Vivencio R. (1986). The Rise and Fall of Antonio Luna. Solar Publishing. p. 106. * ^ "Uniformology II". Retrieved 2008-05-20. * ^ Combs, William K. "Filipino Rayadillo Norfolk-pattern Tunic". Retrieved 2008-05-18. * ^ "Filipino Rayadillo Norfolk Pattern Tunic". Retrieved 18 October 2015. * ^ "Uniformology I". Retrieved 2008-05-20. * ^ Linn 2000a , pp. 186–187 * ^ Gregorio F. Zaide (1968). The Philippine Revolution. Modern Book Company. p. 279. * ^ "FIL-AM WAR BREAKS OUT". http://philippineamericanwar.webs.com. External link in publisher= (help ) * ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Tan 2002 , p. 249. * ^ Linn 2000b , p. 97. * ^ A B C D E F G Tan 2002 , p. 108. * ^ Tan 2002 , pp. 108, 249. * ^ A B Halili 2004 , p. 169. * ^ A B Ambeth R. Ocampo. "Japanese with a different face". inquirer.net. * ^ Bowers, Hammond & MacGarrigle 1997 , p. 12. * ^ Fantina 2006 , p. 88. * ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O Tan 2002 , p. 250. * ^ A B C D E Scott 1986 , pp. 36–37 * ^ Scott 1986 , pp. 36–37, 195 * ^ Hurley, Vic (2011-06-14). Jungle Patrol, the Story of the Philippine Constabulary (1901-1936). Cerberus Books. p. 169. ISBN 978-0-9834756-2-0 .

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Bowers, William T.; Hammond, William M.; MacGarrigle, George L. (1997). Black Soldier, White
White
Army: The 24th Infantry
Infantry
Regiment in Korea. DIANE Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7881-3990-1 . * Deady, Timothy K. (Spring 2005). "Lessons from a Successful Counterinsurgency: The Philippines, 1899–1902" (PDF). Parameters. US Army
Army
War College. 35 (1): 53–68. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-03-26. * Fantina, Robert (2006). Desertion and the American Soldier, 1776-2006. Algora Publishing. ISBN 978-0-87586-453-2 . * Halili, Christine N. (2004). Philippine History. Rex Bookstore, Inc. ISBN 978-971-23-3934-9 . * Linn, Brian McAllister (2000a), The Philippine War, 1899–1902, University Press of Kansas, ISBN 978-0-7006-1225-3 * Linn, Brian McAllister (2000b). The U.S. Army
Army
and Counterinsurgency in the Philippine War, 1899-1902. UNC Press Books. ISBN 978-0-8078-4948-4 . * Scott, William Henry (1986). Ilocano responses to American aggression, 1900-1901. New Day Publishers. ISBN 978-971-10-0336-4 . * Tan, Samuel K. (2002). The Filipino-American War, 1899-1913. University of the Philippines
Philippines
Press. ISBN 978-971-542-339-7 .

IN POPULAR MEDIA

The Philippine revolutionary army has been mentioned in several Books and movies.

BOOKS

FILMS

* Tiniente Rosario - A 1937 Biopic Movie * Dugo sa Kapirasong Lupa * Jose Rizal Biopic movie about the National hero of the Philippines

* Ganito Kami Noon, Paano Kayo Ngayon? * El Presidente * Heneral Luna * Aguila (1980) * Baler * Amigo (friend) - The story about the decline of the Philippine revolutionary forces * Tirad pass:The story of Gen. Gregorio Del Pilar
Gregorio Del Pilar
- 1993 Biopic film * Bonifacio:Ang Unang Pangulo

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Philippines
Philippines
Independence Armies: Insignia 1896 - 1902 * "Artemio Ricarte". Archived from the original on 2011-08-09. Retrieved 2012-01-28. * Images of Filipino Republican Army

.