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The Philippine Dynasty, also known as the House of Habsburg
House of Habsburg
in Portugal, was the third royal house of Portugal. It was named after the three Spanish kings who ruled Portugal between 1581 and 1640 in a dynastic union of the two crowns. The three kings, all named Philip (Spanish: Felipe; Portuguese: Filipe, Portuguese pronunciation: [fɨˈlip(ɨ)]), were from the House of Habsburg. The history of Portugal from the dynastic crisis in 1580 to the House of Braganza monarchs is a period of transition. The Portuguese Empire spice trade was near its height at the start of this period. It continued to enjoy widespread influence after Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama
had finally reached the East by sailing around Africa
Africa
in 1497–1498. Vasco da Gama's achievement completed the exploratory efforts inaugurated by Henry the Navigator, and opened an oceanic route for the profitable spice trade into Europe that bypassed the Middle East. Throughout the 17th century, the increasing predations and surrounding of Portuguese trading posts in the East by the Dutch, English and French, and their rapidly growing intrusion into the Atlantic slave trade, undermined Portugal's near monopoly on the lucrative oceanic spice and slave trades. This sent the Portuguese spice trade into a long decline. To a lesser extent the diversion of wealth from Portugal by the Habsburg monarchy to help support the Catholic side of the Thirty Years' War, also created strains within the union, although Portugal did benefit from Spanish military power in helping to retain Brazil and in disrupting Dutch trade. These events, and those that occurred at the end of the House of Aviz
House of Aviz
and the period of the Iberian Union, led Portugal to a state of dependency on its colonies, first India and then Brazil.

Contents

1 The continuity in the administrative system 2 The Portuguese Empire
Portuguese Empire
challenged 3 Decline of the Habsburg Empire and revolt of Portugal 4 Restoration War 5 Origins of the House of Braganza 6 Monarchs of the House of Habsburg 7 Coats of arms of Titles held by the House of Habsburg 8 Notes 9 References 10 See also

The continuity in the administrative system[edit]

Spanish Habsburgs' family tree and connection with Portugal royal house of Aviz

Due to the complexity in the management of government, the Spanish Monarch needed some auxiliary bodies, as the Councils (Consejos), dedicated to the advice and resolution of problems, and submitted to the Monarch's knowledge and dictum. This complexity needed a permanent seat, and the king Philip II of Spain
Philip II of Spain
established in 1562 the permanent capital in Madrid, seat of the Royal Court and of the administrative staff.[1][2][3][4] although transferred-in Valladolid, with the whole administrative staff, during a brief period (1601–1606).[5] As for the functioning, the administrative correspondence came to the different Councils, to Madrid, then the secretary of every Council arranged the material that had to deliver for the attention of the king, and later the King assembled with the secretaries requesting the opinion of the Council. After that, the Council answered afterwards a session to treat the issue and to raise the formal consultation to the monarch. The secretary raise the consultation to the king, and was returned to the Council with his response to be executed. The meetings of the Councils took place in the royal palace, and they did not count on the presence of the king habitually. In this polisynodial system[6] stood out for its importance, the Consejo de Estado (Council of State). The Consejo de Estado in Madrid, entrusted to declare on the major decisions that concerned the organization and the defense of the ensamble of the Hispanic monarchy, and it had frequently that to get into Portuguese matters. Even, the Council of War (Consejo de Guerra) exercised its jurisdiction on the troops placed in the Castilian strongholds established on the Portuguese littoral. And also, there were Councils of territorial character, which functions specialized in a concrete territorial space, the Council of Castile, Council of Aragon, Council of Navarre, Council of Italy, Council of The Indies, Council of Flanders, and the Council of Portugal. The Council of Portugal, established in 1582, was integrated with a president and six (later four) counselors, and it disappeared in 1668. The function of the Council consists in representing close to the king the courts of the Crown of Portugal for the matters that depend on the justice, grace, finally, the economy of the royal Portuguese domain. Any decision of the king who concerning his Kingdom must do the object of a consultation to the Council before being transmitted to the chancellery of Lisbon
Lisbon
and to the concerned courts. The Council of Portugal
Council of Portugal
knows two eclipses: in 1619, for the presence of the King in Lisbon, and between 1639–1658, replaced with the Junta of Portugal. From the Restauração, the Council continued existing, since Philip IV had not recognized the independence of Portugal, and carried out the attending to the faithful Portuguese to the Spanish monarch, and the government of Ceuta.[7] Relating to the particular government of the kingdom of Portugal itself. During the union of the kingdom of Portugal to the Spanish monarchy, the Spanish Habsburgs on the whole respected the pledges made at Thomar in 1581 to allow considerable Portuguese autonomy and to respected the territories of its empire. Public offices were reserved for Portuguese subjects at home and overseas. The king was represented at Lisbon
Lisbon
sometimes by a governor and sometimes by a viceroy. So, Spain left the administration of Portugal and its empire largely to the Portuguese themselves, under general supervision from Madrid channeled through a viceroy in Lisbon. Important matters, however, were referred to Madrid, where they came before the Council of Portugal. In the kingdom of Portugal, the polisynodial system is reinforced:

Council of State. The Conselho de Estado of Lisbon
Lisbon
is the King's private Council, entrusted of debating major issues related to the Crown, especially as for foreign policy. The counselors could send their remarks to the king, and the King consulted them through his Viceroy. Although the Conselho de Estado of Lisbon, worked as the great adviser Council of the King's delegate, this Council of State was without clearly defined administrative powers and actually it did not perform relevant role of coordination. The Spanish kings maintained the system of two secretaries of state, one for the kingdom and the other for "India", that is to say, for the colonies, despite several conflicts over jurisdiction, until the creation of the Conselho da India in 1604. In the same way, Spanish kings retained the Mesa da Consciência e Ordens, which was both tribunal and council for religious affairs and was responsible for administering ecclesiastical appointments and for the property of the military orders in the colonies as well as in the home country. Portuguese Inquisition remained independent from the Mesa da Consciência e Ordens. There were three major courts in Lisbon, Coimbra
Coimbra
and Évora. Also preserved was the Desembargo do Paço. The pinnacle of the entire Portuguese judicial system was the Desembargo do Paço or Royal Board of Justice in Lisbon. This board, the highest court in the kingdom, controlled the appointment of all magistrates and judges and oversaw the Casa de Supplicação or Court of Appeals in Lisbon, as well as the high courts in the Portuguese overseas territories. The first function of the Desembargo do Paço was to control the recruitment of the magistrates (leitura de bachareis) and to monitor them in the exercise of their charge, its control spreads to the whole of the juridical professions. The Desembargo do Paço had to arbitrate conflicts between other courts of the kingdom. This court granted dispensations, acts of legitimization and another relevant issues about the justice and the grace, and which on occasions advised the king on political and economic as well as judicial matters. Moreover, a commission of jurists set up to reform the legal system produced a new code for Portugal, the Ordenações filipinas, promulgated in 1603. The Casa de Supplicação and the Casa do Civel, both are two royal courts of appeal for civil cases as criminal cases. The Casa do Civel exercised jurisdiction over the northern part of the kingdom, and the Casa de Supplicação over the rest on the realm including the islands and overseas. In 1591, the four Vedores da Fazenda (overseers of the Treasury) were replaced by a Conselho da Fazenda composed of one Vedor da Fazenda presiding over four counsillors (two of them lawyers) and four secretaries. The Conselho da Fazenda exercised a control over the officials of finance, administered the particular king's goods and exercised its jurisdiction over the customs and the arsenals, the court of accounts and the administration of the monopolistic trade with overseas. From 1604, the newly created Conselho da India was invested with powers for all overseas affairs, apart from matters concerning Madeira, the Azores and the strongholds of Morocco, and colonial officials were appointed and their dispatches handled by it. However, it was the Conselho da Fazenda which dealt with naval expeditions, the buying and selling of pepper and the collection of the royal revenues, in fact with all economic business. The Conselho da India, therefore, exercised only limited powers. As a creation of the Spanish king, it was regarded with disfavour by the Portuguese and because of the jealousy of the Mesa da Consciencia disappeared in 1614.

Nevertheless, the political conjuncture need urgent reactions, and in this context a system of meetings appeared for specific issues, as the Junta for the reform of the Council of Portugal
Council of Portugal
(1606–1607, 1610), the Junta for the classification of the debts to the treasury (since 1627) or the Juntas for the organization of the navies of succor of Brazil (since 1637)...[8] The Portuguese Empire
Portuguese Empire
challenged[edit] Main article: Dutch–Portuguese War The joining of the two crowns deprived Portugal of a separate foreign policy, and Spain's enemies became Portugal's. England
England
had been an ally of Portugal since the Treaty of Windsor in 1386. War between Spain and England
England
led to a deterioration of the relations with Portugal's oldest ally, and the loss of Hormuz. English help provided by Elizabeth I of England
England
in a rebellion against the kings assured the survival of the alliance. War with the Dutch led to invasions of many countries in Asia, including Ceylon (today's Sri Lanka), and commercial interests in Japan, Africa
Africa
(Mina), and South America. Even though the Portuguese were unable to capture the entire island of Ceylon, they were able to keep the coastal regions of Ceylon under their control for a considerable time. Brazil was partially conquered by both France
France
and the Seventeen Provinces. In the 17th century, taking advantage of this period of Portuguese weakness, many Portuguese territories in Brazil were occupied by the Dutch who gained access to the sugarcane plantations. John Maurice, Prince of Nassau-Siegen was appointed as the governor of the Dutch possessions in Brazil in 1637 by the Dutch West India Company. He landed at Recife, the port of Pernambuco, in January 1637. By a series of successful expeditions, he gradually extended the Dutch possessions from Sergipe
Sergipe
on the south to São Luís de Maranhão in the north. He likewise conquered the Portuguese possessions of Elmina Castle, Saint Thomas, and Luanda, Angola, on the west coast of Africa. After the dissolution of the Iberian Union
Iberian Union
in 1640, Portugal would reestablish its authority over the lost territories of the Portuguese Empire. The Dutch intrusion into Brazil was long lasting and troublesome to Portugal. The Seventeen Provinces
Seventeen Provinces
captured a large portion of the Brazilian coast including Bahia
Bahia
(and its capital Salvador), Pernambuco (and its capital Recife), Paraíba, Rio Grande do Norte, Ceará, and Sergipe, while Dutch privateers sacked Portuguese ships in both the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. The large area of Bahia
Bahia
and its city, the strategically important Salvador, was recovered quickly by a powerful Iberian military expedition in 1625. This laid the foundations for the recovery of remaining Dutch controlled areas. The other smaller, less developed areas were recovered in stages and relieved of Dutch piracy in the next two decades by local resistance and Portuguese expeditions. On the other hand, the Iberian Union
Iberian Union
opened to both countries a worldwide span of control, as Portugal dominated the African and Asian coasts that surrounded the Indian Ocean, and Spain the Pacific Ocean and both sides of Central and South America, while both shared the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
space. Decline of the Habsburg Empire and revolt of Portugal[edit]

John IV of Portugal
John IV of Portugal
(João IV)

When Philip II of Portugal (Philip III of Spain) died, he was succeeded by Philip III (and IV of Spain) who had a different approach on Portuguese issues. Taxes raised affected mainly the Portuguese merchants (Carmo Reis 1987). The Portuguese nobility
Portuguese nobility
began to lose its importance at the Spanish Cortes, and government posts in Portugal were occupied by Spaniards. Ultimately, Philip III tried to make Portugal a royal province, and Portuguese nobles lost all of their power. This situation culminated in a revolution by the nobility and high bourgeoisie on December 1, 1640, 60 years after the crowning of Philip I. The plot was planned by Antão Vaz de Almada, Miguel de Almeida and João Pinto Ribeiro. They, together with several associates, killed Secretary of State Miguel de Vasconcelos and imprisoned the king's cousin, the Duchess of Mantua, who had governed Portugal in his name. The moment was well chosen, as Philip's troops were at the time fighting the Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War
and also facing a revolution in Catalonia. The support of the people became apparent almost immediately and soon John, 8th Duke of Braganza, was acclaimed King of Portugal
King of Portugal
throughout the country as John IV. By December 2, 1640, John had already sent a letter to the Municipal Chamber of Évora
Évora
as sovereign of the country. Restoration War[edit]

Afonso VI, second King of the House of Braganza.

Main article: Portuguese Restoration War The subsequent Portuguese Restoration War against Philip III (Portuguese: Guerra da Restauração) consisted mainly of small skirmishes near the border. The most significant battles being the Battle of Montijo
Battle of Montijo
on May 26, 1644, the Battle of the Lines of Elvas (1659), the Battle of Ameixial
Battle of Ameixial
(1663), the Battle of Castelo Rodrigo (1664), and the Battle of Montes Claros
Battle of Montes Claros
(1665); the Portuguese were victorious in all of these battles. Several decisions made by John IV to strengthen his forces made these victories possible. On December 11, 1640, the Council of War was created to organize all the operations.[9] Next, the king created the Junta of the Frontiers, to take care of the fortresses near the border, the hypothetical defense of Lisbon, and the garrisons and sea ports. In December 1641, a tenancy was created to assure upgrades on all fortresses that would be paid with regional taxes. John IV also organized the army, established the Military Laws of King Sebastian, and developed intense diplomatic activity focused on restoring good relations with England. After gaining several decisive victories, John quickly tried to make peace. His demand that Philip recognize the new ruling dynasty in Portugal was not fulfilled until the reign of his son Afonso VI during the regency of Afonso's brother Infante Pedro (later King Pedro II of Portugal). Origins of the House of Braganza[edit] The Portuguese Royal House of Braganza
House of Braganza
began with John IV. The Dukes of the House of Braganza
House of Braganza
were a branch of the House of Aviz
House of Aviz
created by King Afonso V for his half-uncle Afonso, 8th Count of Barcelos, illegitimate son of John I, first monarch of the House of Aviz. The Braganzas soon became one of the most powerful families of the kingdom and for the next decades would inter-marry with the main line of the Portuguese royal family. In 1565, John, 6th Duke of Braganza married Princess Catherine, granddaughter of King Manuel I. This connection with the Royal Family proved determinant in the rise of the House of Braganza to a Royal House. Catherine was one of the strongest claimants of the throne during the succession crisis of 1580 but lost the struggle to her cousin Philip II of Spain. Eventually Catherine's grandson became John IV of Portugal
John IV of Portugal
as he was held to be the legitimate heir. John IV was a beloved monarch, a patron of fine art and music, and a proficient composer and writer on musical subjects. He collected one of the largest libraries in the world.[10] Among his writings is a defense of Palestrina and a Defense of Modern Music (Lisbon, 1649). Abroad, the Dutch took Malacca
Malacca
(January 1641) and the Sultan of Oman captured Muscat (1648). By 1654, however, most of Brazil was back in Portuguese hands and had effectively ceased to be a viable Dutch colony. John died in 1656, and his widow, Luisa of Guzman, married their daughter Catherine to Charles II of England
England
in 1661 while she was regent for their son Afonso VI. Her dowry consisted of Tangier, Bombay
Bombay
and £1,000,000 sterling, making it the largest dowry ever brought by a queen consort. John IV was succeeded by his son Afonso VI. Monarchs of the House of Habsburg[edit]

Name Lifespan Reign start Reign end Notes Family Image

Philip I

the Prudent

(1527-05-21)21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598(1598-09-13) (aged 71) 25 March 1581 13 September 1598 Grandson of Manuel I Habsburg

Philip II

the Cruel

(1578-04-14)14 April 1578 – 31 March 1621(1621-03-31) (aged 42) 13 September 1598 31 March 1621 Son of Philip I Habsburg

Philip III

the Oppressor

(1605-04-08)8 April 1605 – 17 September 1665(1665-09-17) (aged 60) 31 March 1621 1 December 1640 (deposed) Son of Philip II Habsburg

Coats of arms of Titles held by the House of Habsburg[edit]

Coat of Arms Title Time Held Coat of Arms Title Time Held

King of Portugal 1581–1640

King of the Algarve 1581–1640

Notes[edit]

^ Anthony Ham. Lonely Planet Madrid. Books.google.com. p. 48. Retrieved 2016-10-26.  ^ John Horace Parry (1990). The Spanish seaborne empire. University of California Press. p. 196.  ^ Stephen J. Lee (1984). Aspects of European history, 1494-1789. Routledge.  ^ Torbjørn L. Knutsen (1999). The rise and fall of world orders. Manchester University Press. p. 138.  ^ Alastair Boyd (2002). The Companion guide to Madrid and central Spain. Companion Guides. p. 103.  ^ Stephen J. Lee (1984). Aspects of European history, 1494-1789. Routledge. p. 40.  ^ Santiago de Luxán Meléndez (1987). La pervivencia del Consejo de Portugal durante la Restauración: 1640-1668. Norba. Revista de historia. pp. 61–86. ISSN 0213-375X.  ^ Julio Valdeón Baruque (1990). Revueltas y revoluciones en la historia. Universidad de Salamanca. p. 70.  ^ (Mattoso Vol. VIII, 1993) ^ (Madeira & Aguiar, 2003)

References[edit]

Leslie Bethell, The Cambridge history of Latin America, Cambridge University Press (1984) Jean-Frédéric Schaub, Le Portugal Au Temps Du Conde-duc D'olivares , Casa de Velázquez (2001) Luis Suárez Fernández, José Andrés Gallego, La Crisis de la hegemonía española, siglo XVII, Ediciones Rialp (1986)

See also[edit]

History of Portugal List of Portuguese monarchs Timeline of Portuguese history Portuguese House of Burgundy House of Aviz House of Braganza Portuguese Succession War Struggle for the throne of Portugal 1580 Portuguese succession crisis

*Royal House* Philippine Dynasty Cadet branch of the House of Aviz

Preceded by House of Aviz

Ruling House of the Kingdom of Portugal 1580–1640 Succeeded by House of Braganza

v t e

Topics related to the Portuguese monarchy

Major events

Battle of São Mamede Battle of Ourique Treaty of Zamora Manifestis Probatum 1383–85 Crisis Battle of Aljubarrota Battle of Alfarrobeira Battle of Alcácer Quibir Portuguese succession crisis of 1580 War of the Portuguese Succession Iberian Union Forty Conspirators Portuguese Restoration War Transfer of the Portuguese Court Liberal Revolution of 1820 April Revolt Portuguese Civil War Municipal Library Elevator Coup Lisbon
Lisbon
Regicide 5 October 1910 revolution Royalist attack on Chaves Monarchy of the North

Royal houses

Portuguese House of Burgundy House of Aviz House of Habsburg House of Braganza House of Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
House of Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
(disputed)

Royal residences

Ajuda Palace São Jorge Alcáçova Belém Palace Buçaco Palace Évora
Évora
Palace Mafra Palace Necessidades Palace Pena Palace Queluz Palace Quinta da Boa Vista Rio de Janeiro Palace Ramalhão Palace Ribeira Palace São Cristóvão Palace Santa Cruz Estate Sintra Palace Vila Viçosa Palace

Miscellaneous

Kingdom of Portugal Kingdom of the Algarve Kingdom of Brazil United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves Portuguese Monarchs Line of succession to the former Portuguese throne Miguelism Sebastianism Portuguese Empire Portuguese Cortes Portuguese nobility List of titles and honours of the Portuguese Crown Council of Portugal Pantheon of the House of Braganza Most Faithful Majesty Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza
Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza
(current pretender) Genealogical tree of the monarchs of Portugal Portuguese Crown Jewels Style of the Portuguese sovereign His Most Faithful Majesty's Council

v t e

Royal houses of Europe

Nordic countries

Denmark

Knýtlinga Fairhair Estridsen Griffins Palatinate-Neumarkt Oldenburg Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg

Finland

Bjelbo Mecklenburg Griffins Palatinate-Neumarkt Bonde Oldenburg Vasa Palatinate-Zweibrücken Hesse Holstein-Gottorp Romanov

Norway

Fairhair Knýtlinga Hardrada Gille Sverre Bjelbo Estridsen Griffins Palatinate-Neumarkt Bonde Oldenburg Holstein-Gottorp Bernadotte Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg

Sweden

Munsö Stenkil Sverker Eric Bjelbo Estridsen Mecklenburg Griffins Palatinate-Neumarkt Bonde Oldenburg Vasa Palatinate-Zweibrücken Hesse-Kassel Holstein-Gottorp Bernadotte

Iceland

Fairhair Bjelbo Estridsen Griffins Palatinate-Neumarkt Bonde Oldenburg Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg

Britain and Ireland

England

Mercia Wuffing Kent Sussex Essex Bernicia Deira Northumbria Uí Ímair Wessex Knýtlinga Normandy Angevin Plantagenet Lancaster York Tudor

Scotland

Fergus Óengus Strathclyde Mann and the Isles Alpin Northumbria Bernicia Uí Ímair Galloway Dunkeld Sverre Balliol Bruce Stuart

Wales

Dinefwr Aberffraw Gwynedd Mathrafal Cunedda Tudor

Ireland

Ulaid Dál Riata Érainn Corcu Loígde Laigin Connachta Uí Néill Ó Gallchobhair Ó Domhnail Ó Néill Ó Máel Sechlainn Mac Murchada Ó Briain Mac Lochlainn Ó Conchobhair

Gaelic Ireland

Laigin Síl Conairi Ulaid Dáirine Osraige Cruthin Dál nAraidi Connachta Uí Fiachrach Uí Briúin Uí Néill Síl nÁedo Sláine Clann Cholmáin Eóganachta Chaisil Glendamnach Raithlind Uí Dúnlainge Uí Ímair
Uí Ímair
(Norse) Uí Ceinnselaig Dál gCais Ó Briain Mac Carthaig Ó Conchobhair Ó Ruairc De Burgh (Norman) FitzGerald (Norman) Ó Domhnaill Ó Néill

Great Britain

Stuart Orange-Nassau Hanover Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Windsor

Eastern Europe

Albania

Angevin Progon Arianiti Thopia Kastrioti Dukagjini Wied Zogu Ottoman Savoy

Armenia2

Orontid Artaxiad Arsacid Bagratid Artsruni Rubenids Hethumids Lusignan Savoy

Bosnia

Boričević Kulinić Kotromanić Kosača Ottoman Habsburg-Lorraine

Bulgaria

Dulo Krum Cometopuli Asen Smilets Terter Shishman Sratsimir Battenberg Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

Croatia

Trpimirović Domagojević Svačić Ottoman Luxembourg Habsburg Habsburg-Lorraine Bonaparte Savoy (disputed)

Cyprus2

Plantagenet Lusignan Ottoman Savoy

Georgia1

Pharnavazid Artaxiad Arsacid Ottoman Chosroid Bagrationi

Greece

Argead Macedonian Doukas Komnenos Angelos Laskaris Palaiologos Ottoman Wittelsbach Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg

Lithuania

Mindaugas Gediminids Jagiellon Valois Báthory Vasa Wiśniowiecki Sobieski Wettin Leszczyński Poniatowski Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov

Moldavia

Dragoș (Drăgoșești) Rossetti Bogdan-Muşat Movilești Drăculeşti Ghica Cantacuzene Cantemirești Racoviță Mavrocordato Ypsilantis Soutzos Mourousi Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen Basarab

Montenegro

Vojislavljević Balšić Ottoman Crnojević Petrović-Njegoš

Romania

House of Basarab Rossetti Bogdan-Mușat Movilești Drăculești Ghica Cantacuzene Cantemirești Romanov Racoviță Ottoman Mavrocordato Ypsilantis Soutzos Mourousi Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen Romania/Royal family

Russia1

Rurik Borjigin Godunov Shuysky Vasa Romanov

Serbia

Vlastimirović Vukanović Nemanjić Lazarević Mrnjavčević Dejanović Branković Ottoman Obrenović Karađorđević

Turkey1

Ottoman

Ukraine

Rurikids Piast Gediminids Olshanski Olelkovich Giray Romanov Habsburg-Lorraine

1 Transcontinental country. 2 Entirely in Southwest Asia
Asia
but having socio-political connections with Europe.

Western Europe

Belgium

Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

France

Merovingian Carolingian Capet Valois Bourbon Bonaparte Orléans

Italy

Aleramici Appiani Bonaparte Bourbon-Parma Bourbon-Two Sicilies Carolingian Della Rovere Este Farnese Flavian Gonzaga Grimaldi Habsburg Julio-Claudian Malatesta Malaspina Medici Montefeltro Nerva–Antonine Ordelaffi Orsini Palaiologos Pallavicini Savoy Severan Sforza Visconti

Luxembourg

Orange-Nassau Nassau-Weilburg Bourbon-Parma

Monaco

Grimaldi

Netherlands

Bonaparte Orange-Nassau (Mecklenburg) (Lippe) (Amsberg)

Portugal

Vímara Peres Burgundy Aviz Habsburg Spanish Braganza

Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

Spain

Asturias Barcelona Jiménez Burgundy Champagne Capet Évreux Trastámara Habsburg Bourbon

Bonaparte Savoy

Central Europe

Austria

Babenberg Habsburg Habsburg-Lorraine

Bohemia

Přemyslid Piast Luxembourg Jagiellon Habsburg Habsburg-Lorraine

Germany

Ascania Carolingian Conradines Ottonian Luitpolding Salian Süpplingenburg Hohenstaufen Welf Habsburg Hanover Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Nassau Luxembourg Wittelsbach Schwarzburg Brunswick-Lüneburg House of Pomerania Hohenzollern Württemberg Oldenburg Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg Orange-Nassau Nassau-Weilburg Mecklenburg Vasa Palatine Zweibrücken Hesse Holstein-Gottorp Romanov Bonaparte Wettin Lippe Zähringen

Hungary

Árpád Přemyslid Wittelsbach Angevin Luxembourg Hunyadi Jagiellon Szapolyai Ottoman Habsburg Habsburg-Lorraine

Liechtenstein

Liechtenstein

Poland

Piast Přemyslid Samborides Griffins Jagiellon Valois Báthory Vasa Wiśniowiecki Sobieski Wettin Leszczyński Poniatowski

After partitions:

Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov
Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov
Kingdom of Poland Habsburg Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria Wettin Duchy of Warsaw Lefebvre Duchy of Gdańsk Hohenzoller

.